2010 United States Census

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Twenty-third Census
of the United States
Seal of the United States Census Bureau
Seal of the U.S. Census Bureau
Census 2010 logo
The "Census 2010" logo
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenApril 1, 2010
Total population308,745,538
Percent changeIncrease 9.7%
Most populous stateCalifornia (37,253,956)
Least populous stateWyoming (563,626)
 
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Twenty-third Census
of the United States
Seal of the United States Census Bureau
Seal of the U.S. Census Bureau
Census 2010 logo
The "Census 2010" logo
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenApril 1, 2010
Total population308,745,538
Percent changeIncrease 9.7%
Most populous stateCalifornia (37,253,956)
Least populous stateWyoming (563,626)

The 2010 United States Census, known as "Census 2010", is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010.[1] As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired.[2][3] The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538,[4] a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census.

Introduction[edit]

As required by the United States Constitution, the U.S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U.S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U.S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code.[5]

On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves personally inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.[6] Census forms were delivered by the U.S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010. The number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was approximately 134 million.[7] Although the questionnaire used April 1 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today."

The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%.[8] From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up" (NRFU).

President Obama completing his census form in the Oval Office on March 29, 2010.

In December 2010, the Census Bureau delivered population information to the president for apportionment, and in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states.[1]

Major changes[edit]

The Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census.[9] In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information. The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions:[9]

  1. How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010?
  2. Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: (checkboxes for: children; relatives; non-relatives; people staying temporarily; none)
  3. Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – [Checkboxes for owned with a mortgage, owned free and clear, rented, occupied without rent.]
  4. What is your telephone number?
  5. What is Person 1's name? (last, first)
  6. What is Person 1's sex? (male, female)
  7. What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth?
  8. Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? (checkboxes for: "No", and several for "Yes" which specify groups of countries)
  9. What is Person 1's race? (checkboxes for 14 including "other". One possibility was "Black, African Am., or Negro".)
  10. Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? (checkboxes for "No", and several locations for "Yes")

The form included space to repeat some or all of these questions for up to twelve residents total.

In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download.[9][10]

Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey.[10] The survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years. A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, and no household will receive it more than once every five years.[11]

In June 2009, the U.S. Census Bureau announced that it would count same-sex married couples. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option. When noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples (whether same-sex or opposite-sex) who were not married.[12]

Cost[edit]

The 2010 census cost $13 billion, approximately $42 per capita; by comparison, the 2010 census per-capita cost for China was about US$1 and for India was US$0.40.[13] Operational costs were $5.4 billion, significantly under the $7 billion budget.[14] In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office (GAO) noted that the cost of conducting the census has approximately doubled each decade since 1970.[13] In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, and at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion.[15]

In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in significantly under budget; of an almost $7 billion operational budget:[14]

Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency also has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be immediately reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U.S. households that did not reply by mail were based on such outside interviews, Groves said.[14]

Technology[edit]

In 2005, Lockheed Martin won a six-year, $500 million contract to capture and standardize data for the census. The contract includes systems, facilities, and staffing.[citation needed] Information technology was about a quarter of the projected $11.3 billion cost of the decennial census.[16] This was the first census to use hand-held computing devices with GPS capability, although they were only used for the address canvassing operation. The Census Bureau chose to conduct the primary operation, Non-Response Follow Up (NRFU), without using the handheld computing devices.[17][18]

Marketing and undercounts[edit]

Due to allegations surrounding previous censuses that poor people and people of color are routinely undercounted, for the 2010 census, the Census Bureau tried to avoid that bias by enlisting tens of thousands of intermediaries, such as churches, charities and firms, to explain to people the importance of being counted.[7]

In April 2009, the Census Bureau announced that it intended to work with community organizations in an effort to count all illegal immigrants in the United States for the census.[19]

The Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) was given a contract to help publicize the importance of the census count and to encourage individuals to fill out their forms. In September 2009, after controversial undercover videos showing four ACORN staffers giving tax advice to a man and a woman posing as a prostitute, the Bureau canceled ACORN's contract.[20] Various American celebrities, including Demi Lovato and Eva Longoria,[21] were used in public service announcements targeting younger people to fill out census forms. Wilmer Valderrama and Rosario Dawson have helped spread census awareness among young Hispanics, a historically low participating ethnicity in the U.S. Census.[22] Rapper Ludacris also participated in efforts to spread awareness of the 2010 Census.[23]

The Census Bureau hired about 635,000 people to find those U.S. residents who had not returned their forms by mail; as of May 28, 2010, 113 census workers had been victims of crime while conducting the census.[3][dated info] As of June 29, there were 436 incidents involving assaults or threats against enumerators, more than double the 181 incidents in 2000; one enumerator, attempting to hand-deliver the census forms to a Hawaii County police officer, was arrested for trespassing – the officer's fellow policemen made the arrest.[2]

Some political conservatives and libertarians questioned the validity of the questions and even encouraged people to refuse to answer questions for privacy and constitutional reasons.[24] Michele Bachmann, a conservative Republican Representative from Minnesota, stated that she would not fill out her census form other than to indicate the number of people living in her household because "the Constitution doesn't require any information beyond that."[25] Former Republican Representative and Libertarian presidential candidate Bob Barr stated that the census has become too intrusive, going beyond the mere enumeration (i.e., count) intended by the framers of the U.S. Constitution.[26] According to political commentator Juan Williams, "Census participation rates have been declining since 1970, and if conservatives don't participate, doubts about its accuracy and credibility may become fatal."[24]

As a result, the Census Bureau undertook an unprecedented advertising campaign targeted at encouraging white political conservatives to fill out their forms, in the hope of avoiding an undercount of this group. The 2010 U.S. Census was the primary sponsor at NASCAR races in Atlanta, Bristol, and Martinsville, and sponsored the No. 16 Ford Fusion driven by Greg Biffle for part of the season, because of a marketing survey that indicated most NASCAR fans lean politically conservative.[24] It also ran an advertisement during the 2010 Super Bowl, and hired singer Marie Osmond, who is thought to have many conservative fans, to publicize the census.[24]

2012 election[edit]

The 435 seats of the House grouped by state after adjustment for post-2010 Census apportionment

The results of the 2010 census determined the number of seats that each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 2012 elections. Consequently, this affected the number of votes each state has in the Electoral College for the 2012 presidential election.

Because of population changes, eighteen states had changes in their number of seats. Eight states gained at least one seat, and ten states lost at least one seat. The final result involved 12 seats being switched.[27]

Gained four seatsGained two seatsGained one seatLost one seatLost two seats
TexasFloridaArizona
Georgia
Nevada
South Carolina
Utah
Washington
Illinois
Iowa
Louisiana
Massachusetts
Michigan
Missouri
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
New York
Ohio

Controversies[edit]

Some objected to the counting of persons who are in the United States illegally.[28][29] Republican senators David Vitter and Bob Bennett tried unsuccessfully to add questions on immigration status to the census form.[7]

Organizations such as the Prison Policy Initiative argued that the census counts of incarcerated men and women as residents of prisons, rather than of their pre-incarceration addresses, skewed political clout and resulted in misleading demographic and population data.[30]

The term "Negro" was used in the questionnaire as one of the options for African Americans (Question 9. What is Person (number)'s race? ... Black, African Am., or Negro) as a choice to describe one's race. Census Bureau spokesman Jack Martin explained that "many older African-Americans identified themselves that way, and many still do. Those who identify themselves as Negroes need to be included."[31][32] The word was also used in the 2000 Census, with over 56,000 people identifying themselves as "Negro."[33]

The 2010 census contained ten questions about age, gender, ethnicity, home ownership, and household relationships. Six of the ten questions were to be answered for each individual in the household. Federal law has provisions for fining those who refuse to complete the census form.[34]

Detroit Mayor Dave Bing held a press conference on March 22, 2011 to announce that the city would challenge its census results.[35] The challenge, being led by the city's planning department, cited an inconsistency as an example showing a downtown census tract which lost only 60 housing units, but 1,400 people, implying that a downtown jail or dormitory was missed in canvassing.[36]

New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg held a conference on March 27, 2011, to announce that the city would also challenge his city's census results, specifically the apparent undercounting in the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn.[37] Bloomberg said that the numbers for Queens and Brooklyn, the two most populous boroughs, are implausible.[38] According to the Census, they grew by only 0.1% and 1.6%, respectively, while the other boroughs grew by between 3% and 5%. He also stated that the census showed improbably high numbers of vacant housing in vital neighborhoods such as Jackson Heights, Queens.

The District of Columbia announced in August 2011 that it would also challenge its census results. The Mayor's Office claimed that the detailed information provided for 549 census blocks is "nonsensical", listing examples of census data that show housing units located in the middle of a street that do not actually exist. However, officials do not believe the city's total population will drastically change as a result of the challenge.[39]

Clemons v. Department of Commerce[edit]

A 2009 lawsuit, Clemons v. Department of Commerce (see also United States congressional apportionment#Controversy and history), sought a court order for Congress to reapportion the House of Representatives with a greater number of members following the census, to rectify under- and over-representation of some states under the so-called 435 rule established by the Apportionment Act of 1911, which limits the number of U.S. Representatives to that number, meaning that some states are slightly underrepresented proportionate to their true population and that others are slightly overrepresented by the same standard.[clarification needed] Had this occurred, it would have also affected Electoral College apportionment for the 2012–2020 presidential elections.[40] After the court order was not granted, the plaintiffs appealed the case to the United States Supreme Court, and on December 13, 2010, the Supreme Court vacated and remanded with instructions to dismiss the complaint for lack of jurisdiction.[41]

State rankings[edit]

The state with the highest percentage rate of growth was Nevada, while the state with the largest population increase was Texas.[42] Michigan, the 8th largest by population, was the only state to lose population (although Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, lost population as well), and the District of Columbia saw its first gain since the 1950s.[43] Note that the resident populations listed below don't include people living overseas. For Congressional apportionment, the sum of a state's resident population and overseas population is used.[44]

Population and population change in the United States by state
RankStatePopulation as of
2000 Census
Population as of
2010 Census[45]
ChangePercent
change
1 California33,871,64837,253,9563,382,308 Increase10.0% Increase
2 Texas20,851,82025,145,5614,293,741 Increase20.6% Increase
3 New York18,976,45719,378,102401,645 Increase2.1% Increase
4 Florida15,982,37818,801,3102,818,932 Increase17.6% Increase
5 Illinois12,419,29312,830,632411,339 Increase3.3% Increase
6 Pennsylvania12,281,05412,702,379421,325 Increase3.4% Increase
7 Ohio11,353,14011,536,504183,364 Increase1.6% Increase
8 Michigan9,938,4449,883,640-54,804 Decrease-0.6% Decrease
9 Georgia8,186,4539,687,6531,501,200 Increase18.3% Increase
10 North Carolina8,049,3139,535,4831,486,170 Increase18.5% Increase
11 New Jersey8,414,3508,791,894377,544 Increase4.5% Increase
12 Virginia7,078,5158,001,024922,509 Increase13.0% Increase
13 Washington5,894,1216,724,540830,419 Increase14.1% Increase
14 Massachusetts6,349,0976,547,629198,532 Increase3.1% Increase
15 Indiana6,080,4856,483,802403,317 Increase6.6% Increase
16 Arizona5,130,6326,392,0171,261,385 Increase24.6% Increase
17 Tennessee5,689,2836,346,105656,822 Increase11.5% Increase
18 Missouri5,595,2115,988,927393,716 Increase7.0% Increase
19 Maryland5,296,4865,773,552477,066 Increase9.0% Increase
20 Wisconsin5,363,6755,686,986323,311 Increase6.0% Increase
21 Minnesota4,919,4795,303,925384,446 Increase7.8% Increase
22 Colorado4,301,2615,029,196727,935 Increase16.9% Increase
23 Alabama4,447,1004,779,736332,636 Increase7.5% Increase
24 South Carolina4,012,0124,625,364613,352 Increase15.3% Increase
25 Louisiana4,468,9764,533,37264,396 Increase1.4% Increase
26 Kentucky4,041,7694,339,367297,598 Increase7.4% Increase
27 Oregon3,421,3993,831,074409,675 Increase12.0% Increase
28 Oklahoma3,450,6543,751,351300,697 Increase8.7% Increase
29 Connecticut3,405,5653,574,097168,532 Increase4.9% Increase
30 Iowa2,926,3243,046,355120,031 Increase4.1% Increase
31 Mississippi2,844,6582,967,297122,639 Increase4.3% Increase
32 Arkansas2,673,4002,915,918242,518 Increase9.1% Increase
33 Kansas2,688,4182,853,118164,700 Increase6.1% Increase
34 Utah2,233,1692,763,885530,716 Increase23.8% Increase
35 Nevada1,998,2572,700,551702,294 Increase35.1% Increase
36 New Mexico1,819,0462,059,179240,133 Increase13.2% Increase
37 West Virginia1,808,3441,852,99444,650 Increase2.5% Increase
38 Nebraska1,711,2631,826,341115,078 Increase6.7% Increase
39 Idaho1,293,9531,567,582273,629 Increase21.1% Increase
40 Hawaii1,211,5371,360,301148,764 Increase12.3% Increase
41 Maine1,274,9231,328,36153,438 Increase4.2% Increase
42 New Hampshire1,235,7861,316,47080,684 Increase6.5% Increase
43 Rhode Island1,048,3191,052,5674,248 Increase0.4% Increase
44 Montana902,195989,41587,220 Increase9.7% Increase
45 Delaware783,600897,934114,334 Increase14.6% Increase
46 South Dakota754,844814,18059,336 Increase7.9% Increase
47 Alaska626,932710,23183,299 Increase13.3% Increase
48 North Dakota642,200672,59130,391 Increase4.7% Increase
49 Vermont608,827625,74116,914 Increase2.8% Increase
 District of Columbia572,059601,72329,664 Increase5.2% Increase
50 Wyoming493,782563,62669,844 Increase14.1% Increase
  United States281,421,906308,745,53827,323,632 Increase9.7% Increase

Metropolitan rankings[edit]

These are core metropolitan rankings versus combined statistical areas. For full list with current data, go to Metropolitan Statistics.

The top 25 Metropolitan Statistical Areas of the United States of America

RankMetropolitan Statistical Area2010 CensusEncompassing Combined Statistical Area
!000001New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area19,567,410New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area
!000002Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area12,828,837Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area
!000003Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area9,461,105Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Combined Statistical Area
!000004Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area6,426,214Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK Combined Statistical Area
!000005Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area5,920,416Houston-The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area
!000006Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area5,965,343Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area
!000007Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area5,636,232Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area
!000008Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area5,564,635Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL Combined Statistical Area
!000009Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area5,286,728Atlanta–Athens-Clarke County–Sandy Springs, GA Combined Statistical Area
!000010Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metropolitan Statistical Area4,552,402Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area
!000011San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area4,335,391San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area
!000012Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area4,224,851Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area
!000013Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ Metropolitan Statistical Area4,192,887
!000014Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area4,296,250Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI Combined Statistical Area
!000015Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA Metropolitan Statistical Area3,439,809Seattle-Tacoma, WA Combined Statistical Area
!000016Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area3,348,859Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI Combined Statistical Area
!000017San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area3,095,313
!000018Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area2,783,243
!000019St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area2,787,701St. Louis-St. Charles-Farmington, MO-IL Combined Statistical Area
!000020Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD Metropolitan Statistical Area2,710,489Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area
!000021Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area2,543,482Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area
!000022Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area2,356,285Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV Combined Statistical Area
!000023Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area2,217,012Charlotte-Concord, NC-SC Combined Statistical Area
!000024Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA Metropolitan Statistical Area2,226,009Portland-Vancouver-Salem, OR-WA Combined Statistical Area
!000025San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area2,142,508

City rankings[edit]

Metro rankings are more pertinent to determine economic strength of an area. However, city rankings are also included below.

2010 U.S. city population rankings[46]
RankCityStatePopulation
1New YorkNew York8,175,133
2Los AngelesCalifornia3,792,621
3ChicagoIllinois2,695,598
4HoustonTexas2,099,451
5PhiladelphiaPennsylvania1,526,006
6PhoenixArizona1,445,632
7San AntonioTexas1,327,407
8San DiegoCalifornia1,307,402
9DallasTexas1,197,816
10San JoseCalifornia945,942
11JacksonvilleFlorida821,784
12IndianapolisIndiana820,445
13San FranciscoCalifornia805,235
14AustinTexas790,390
15ColumbusOhio787,033
16Fort WorthTexas741,206
17CharlotteNorth Carolina731,424
18DetroitMichigan713,777
19El PasoTexas649,121
20MemphisTennessee646,889
21BaltimoreMaryland620,961
22BostonMassachusetts617,594
23SeattleWashington608,660
24WashingtonDistrict of Columbia601,723
25NashvilleTennessee601,222

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Interactive Timeline". About the 2010 Census. U.S. Census Bureau. 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Niesse, Mark (July 5, 2010). "Census worker taken to court for trespassing". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Retrieved July 6, 2010. "The resident continued to refuse to take the Census, and [census worker Russell] Haas said he waited outside a chain-link fence while the resident called his co-workers at the Hawai‘i County Police Department. When police arrived, instead of asking the resident to accept the forms as required by federal law, the officers crumpled the papers into Haas' chest and handcuffed him, Haas said....Haas said he told officers that it was his duty to leave the Census forms with the resident, and that he would leave as soon as he did it. The officers were enforcing state law and had not been trained on the federal Census law, Hawaii County Police Maj. Sam Thomas said." 
  3. ^ a b "US Census Takers Attacked on the Job". National Ledger. May 28, 2010. Archived from the original on May 31, 2010. Retrieved May 30, 2010. 
  4. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau Announces 2010 Census Population Counts – Apportionment Counts Delivered to President" (Press release). United States Census Bureau. December 21, 2010. Archived from the original on December 24, 2010. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  5. ^ Must I answer the census? from the United States Census website
  6. ^ D'oro, Rachel (January 2010). "Remote Alaska village is first eyed in census". The Seattle Times (Noorvik, Alaska). Associated Press. Retrieved March 29, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c Census Day: Stand up and be counted. The Economist. April 3–9, 2010. p. 40
  8. ^ "Take 10 Map 2010 Census Participation Census Bureau". Archived from the original on August 20, 2010. Retrieved August 10, 2010. 
  9. ^ a b c "Frequently Asked Questions". 2010 Census. U.S. Census Bureau. May 10, 2010. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  10. ^ a b Castro, Daniel (February 2008). "e-Census Unplugged: Why Americans Should Be Able to Complete the Census Online". Washington, D.C.: Information Technology & Innovation Foundation. Retrieved March 29, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Chapter 4: Sample Design and Selection". ACS Design and Methodology. U.S. Census Bureau. December 2010. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  12. ^ LGBT Fact Sheet
  13. ^ a b "Censuses: Costing the count". The Economist. June 2, 2011. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  14. ^ a b c "Census Bureau comes in under budget for 2010 operational costs". CNN. August 10, 2010. Retrieved August 10, 2010. 
  15. ^ "2010 Census: Cost and Design Issues Need to Be Addressed Soon (GAO-04-37)" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office. January 15, 2004. OCLC 54778614. Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved December 27, 2009. 
  16. ^ Sternstein, Aliya (June 13, 2005). "Preparing for a decennial task". Federal Computer Week (Falls Church, Virginia: 1105 Media). Retrieved December 27, 2009. 
  17. ^ Harris Corporation Selected for $600 Million U.S. Census Bureau Field Data Collection Automation Program
  18. ^ U.S. Census Bureau – Use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
  19. ^ Ballasy, Nicholas (April 2, 2009). "Census Bureau: We’ll Work with ‘Community Organizations’ to Count All Illegal Aliens in 2010". Cybercast News Service. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  20. ^ Sherman, Jake (September 12, 2009). "Census Bureau Cuts Its Ties With Acorn". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 17, 2011. 
  21. ^ Demi Lovato And Eva Longoria Urge Census Participation
  22. ^ Rosario Dawson, Wilmer Valderrama Encourage Latinos To Complete 2010 Census In New PSA's
  23. ^ Ludacris 2010 Census Campaign In New York: KillerHipHop.com
  24. ^ a b c d Williams, Juan (March 1, 2010). "Marketing the 2010 census with a conservative-friendly face". Washington Post. Retrieved March 25, 2011. 
  25. ^ Swami, Perana (June 18, 2009). "Rep. Bachmann Refuses To Fill Out 2010 Census". Political Hotsheet (CBS News). Retrieved April 15, 2010. 
  26. ^ "Census goes too far with children". Atlanta Journal Constitution. Retrieved September 8, 2009. 
  27. ^ "APPORTIONMENT POPULATION AND NUMBER OF REPRESENTATIVES, BY STATE: 2010 CENSUS". US Census. December 21, 2010. Retrieved December 21, 2010. 
  28. ^ Baker, John S.; Stonecipher, Elliott (August 9, 2009). "Our Unconstitutional Census". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 9, 2009. 
  29. ^ "Census 2010: Latino Pastors Urge Census Boycott". Washington Post. Retrieved April 22, 2009. 
  30. ^ Lotke, Eric; Wagner, Peter (Spring 2004). "Prisoners of the Census: Electoral and Financial Consequences of Counting Prisoners Where They Go, Not Where They Come From" (PDF). Pace Law Review (White Plains, New York: Pace Law School) 24 (2): 587–607. ISSN 0272-2410.  Originally presented at Prison Reform Revisited: a symposium held at Pace University School of Law and the New York State Judicial Institute, Oct. 16–18, 2003. Research supported by grants from the Soros Justice Fellowship Program of the Open Society Institute. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
  31. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau interactive form, Question 9". Archived from the original on January 8, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2010. 
  32. ^ McFadden, Katie; McShane, Larry (January 6, 2010). "Use of word Negro on 2010 census forms raises memories of Jim Crow". NYDailyNews.com. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2010. 
  33. ^ Kiviat, Barbara (January 23, 2010). "Should the Census Be Asking People if They Are Negro?". Time. Archived from the original on January 26, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010. 
  34. ^ Frequently Asked Questions on the National Census from the ACLU website
  35. ^ Cwiek, Sarah (March 22, 2011). "Bing plans to challenge Detroit census numbers". MichiganRadio.com. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  36. ^ Davidson, Kate (May 2, 2011). "Detroit census challenge". MichiganRadio.com. Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  37. ^ NYC To File Formal Challenge to 2010 Census under Count Question Resolution Process [1]
  38. ^ On the 2010 Census Results
  39. ^ DeBonis, Mike (August 10, 2011). "District challenges its 2010 Census count". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 14, 2011. 
  40. ^ http://apportionment.us/Complaint.pdf; http://apportionment.us/case.html
  41. ^ Supreme Court orders for December 13, 2010
  42. ^ Texas Adds Four Congressional Seats as State's Hispanic Population Grows
  43. ^ USA Today 2010 Census
  44. ^ Congressional Apportionment
  45. ^ "Resident Population Data: Population Change". United States Census Bureau. December 23, 2010. Archived from the original on December 25, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2010. 
  46. ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved July 10, 2013. 

External links[edit]