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Ultramarathoners compete at the Sahara Race 2011 (4 Deserts)

An ultramarathon, also called ultra distance, is any sporting event involving running and walking longer than the traditional marathon length of 42.195 kilometres (26.219 mi).

There are two types of ultramarathon events: those that cover a specified distance, and events that take place during specified time (with the winner covering the most distance in that time). The most common distances are 50 kilometres (31.069 mi), 100 kilometres (62.137 mi), 50 miles (80.4672 km), and 100 miles (160.9344 km), although many races have other distances. The 100 kilometers is recognized as an official world record event by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), the world governing body of track and field.[1]

Other distances/times include double marathons, 24-hour races, and multiday races of 1,000 miles (1,600 km) or even longer. The format of these events and the courses vary, ranging from single or multiple loops (some as short as a 400-metre (1,300 ft) track),[2] to point-to-point road or trail races, to cross-country rogaines. Many ultramarathons, especially trail challenges, have severe course obstacles, such as inclement weather, elevation change, or rugged terrain. Many of these races are run on dirt roads or mountain paths, though some are run on paved roads as well. Usually, there are aid stations every 20 to 35 kilometres (12 to 22 mi) apart, where runners can replenish food and drink supplies or take a short break.

Timed events range from 6, 12, and 24 hours to 3, 6, and 10 days (known as multi-day events). Timed events are generally run on a track or a short road course, often one mile (1.6 km) or less.

The International Association of Ultrarunners (IAU) organises the World Championships for various ultramarathon distances, including 50 kilometres (31 mi), 100 kilometres (62 mi), 24 hours, and ultra trail running, which are also recognized by the IAAF. Many countries around the world have their own ultrarunning organizations, often the national athletics federation of that country, or are sanctioned by such national athletics organizations. World records for distances, times, and ages are tracked by the IAU.

IAU World Best Performances[edit]


50 km Road2:43:38 Thompson Magawana (RSA)12 April 1988South Africa Claremont, South Africa[3]
50 km Track2:48:06 Jeff Norman (GBR)7 June 1980United Kingdom Timperley, United Kingdom[3]
100 km Road6:13:33 Takahiro Sunada (JPN)21 June 1998Japan Yubetsu-Saroma-Tokoro, Japan[3]
100 km Track6:10:20 Donald Ritchie (GBR)28 Oct 1978United Kingdom London, United Kingdom[3]
100 miles Road11.46.37 Yiannis Kouros (GRE)7/8 Nov 1984United States Queens, New York, USA[3]
100 miles Track11.28.03 Oleg Kharitonov (RUS)20 Oct 2002United Kingdom London, United Kingdom[3]
100 miles Indoor12.56.13 Donald Ritchie (GBR)3/4 Feb 1990United Kingdom Milton Keynes, United Kingdom[3]
6H Road92.188 km Tomasz Chawawko (POL)7 Mar 2004Netherlands Stein, Netherland[3]
6H Track97.200 km Donald Ritchie (GBR)28 Oct 1978United Kingdom London, United Kingdom[3]
6H Indoor93.247 km Denis Zhalybin (RUS)7/8 Feb 2003Russia Moscow, Russia[3]
12H Road162.543 km Yiannis Kouros (GRE)7 Nov 1984United States New York, USA[3]
12H Track163.600 km Zach Bitter (USA)14 Dec 2013United States Phoenix, USA[3]
12H Indoor146.296 km Ryoichi Sekiya (JPN)11 Feb 2007Finland Lohja Citymarket, Finland[3]
24H Road290.221 km Yiannis Kouros (GRE)2/3 May 1998Switzerland Basel, Switzerland[3]
24H Track303.506 km Yiannis Kouros (GRE)4/5 Oct 1997Australia Adelaide, Australia[3]
24H Indoor257.576 km Nikolai Safin (RUS)27/28 Feb 1993Russia Podolsk, Russia[3]
48H Road433.095 km Yiannis Kouros (GRE)2/3 May 1998Switzerland Basel, Switzerland[3]
48H Track473.495 km Yiannis Kouros (GRE)3–5 May 1996France Surgeres, France[3]
48H Indoor426.178 km Tony Mangan (IRL)16 Mar 2007Czech Republic Brno, Czech Republic[3]


50 km Road3:08:39 Frith Van Der Merwe (RSA)25 March 1989South Africa Claremont, South Africa[3]
50 km Track3:18:52 Carol Hunter-Rowe (GBR)3 March 1996United Kingdom Barry, Wales United Kingdom[3]
100 km Road6:33:11 Tomoe Abe (JPN)25 June 2000Japan Yubetsu-Saroma-Tokoro, Japan[3]
100 km Track7:14:06 Norimi Sakurai (JPN)27 Sept 2003Italy Lupatotissima, Italy[3]
100 miles Road13.47.41 Ann Trason (USA)4 May 1991United States Queens New York, USA[3]
100 miles Track14.25.45 Edit Berces (HUN)21/22 Sept 2002Italy Lupatoto, Italy[3]
100 miles Indoor14.43.40 Eleanor Robinson (GBR)3/4 Feb 1990United Kingdom Milton Keynes, United Kingdom[3]
6H Road82.838 km Ricarda Botzon (GER)7 July 2001Germany Kiel, Germany[3]
6H Track83.200 km Norimi Sakurai (JPN)27 Sept 2003Italy Lupatoto Verone, Italy[3]
6H Indoor80.600 km Marina Bychkova (RUS)7/8 Feb 2003Russia Moscow, Russia[3]
12H Road144.840 km Ann Trason (USA)4 May 1991United States Queens New York, USA[3]
12H Track147.600 km Ann Trason (USA)3/4 Aug 1991United States Hayward, USA[3]
12H Indoor135.799 km Sumie Inagaki (JPN)11 Feb 2007Finland Lohja Citymarket, Finland[3]
24H Road252.205 km Mami Kudo (JPN)11/12 May 2013Netherlands Steenbergen, Netherlands[3]
24H Track255.303 km Mami Kudo(Kudou, Kudoh) (JPN)9/10 Dec 2011Taiwan Soochow, Taipei[3]
24H Indoor240.631 km Sumie Inagaki (JPN)29/30 Jan 2011Finland Espoo, Finland[3]
48H Road368.687 km Mami Kudo(Kudou, Kudoh) (JPN)8-10 Apr 2011Greece Athens, Greece[3]
48H Track397.103 km Sumie Inagaki (JPN)21–23 May 2010France Surgeres, France[3]
48H Indoor390.024 km Traci Falbo (USA)04-06 Aug 2014United States Anchorage, USA[3]

IAU Race Results[edit]

IAU 24-Hour Run World Challenge[edit]

YearLocationChampion (m)Champion (f)
2003Netherlands Uden Paul Beckers (BEL)270.087 km Irina Reutovich (ru(RUS)237.052 km
2004Czech Republic Brno Ryōichi Sekiya (JPN)269.085 km Sumie Inagaki (JPN)237.154 km
2005Austria Wörschach Anatoliy Kruglikov (RUS)268.065 km Lyudmila Kalinina (RUS)242.228 km
2006Taiwan Taipei Ryōichi Sekiya (JPN)272.936 km Sumie Inagaki (JPN)237.144 km
2007Canada Drummondville Ryōichi Sekiya (JPN)263.562 km Lyudmila Kalinina (RUS)236.848 km
2008South Korea Seoul Ryōichi Sekiya (JPN)273.366 km Anne-Marie Vernet (fr(FRA)239.685 km
2009Italy Bergamo Henrik Olsson (SWE)257.042 km Anne-Cécile Fontaine (FRA)243.644 km
2010France Brive-la-Gaillarde Shingo Inoue (JPN)273.708 km Anne-Cécile Fontaine (FRA)239.797 km
2011cancelled[4] SwitzerlandBrugg, then TaiwanTaipei (commonly known as Taiwan)
2012Poland Katowice [4] Mike Morton (USA)277.543 km Michaela Dimitriadu (CZE)244.232 km
2013Netherlands Steenbergen Jon Olsen (USA)269.675 km Mami Kudo (JPN)252.205 km

IAU 100 km World Championships[edit]

YearLocationChampion (m)Champion (f)
1987Belgium Torhout Domingo Catalán (ESP) Agnes Eberle (SWI)
1988Spain Santander Domingo Catalán (ESP) Ann Trason (USA)
1989France Rambouillet Bruno Scelsi (FRA) Katherina Janicke (West Germany)
1990United States Duluth Roland Vuillemenot (FRA) Eleanor Adams (GBR)
1991Italy Faenza Valmir Nuñes (BRA) Eleanor Adams (GBR)
1992Spain Palamós Konstantin Santalov (RUS) Nurzia Bagmanova (RUS)
1993Belgium Torhout Konstantin Santalov (RUS) Carolyn Hunter-Rowe (GBR)
1994Japan Yubetsu/Saroma/Tokoro Aleksey Volgin (RUS) Valentina Shatyeyeva (RUS)
1995Netherlands Winschoten Valmir Nuñes (BRA) Ann Trason (USA)
1996Russia Moscow Konstantin Santalov (RUS) Valentina Shatyeyeva (RUS)
1997Netherlands Winschoten Sergey Yanenko (UKR) Valentina Lyakhova (RUS)
1998Japan Shimanto Grigoriy Murzin (RUS) Carolyn Hunter-Rowe (GBR)
1999France Chavagnes-en-Paillers Simon Pride (GBR) Anna Balosáková (SVK)
2000Netherlands Winschoten Pascal Fétizon (FRA) Edit Bérces (HUN)
2001France Cléder Yasufumi Mikami (JPN) Yelvira Kolpakova (RUS)
2002Belgium Torhout Mario Fattore (ITA) Tatyana Zhyrkova (RUS)
2003Taiwan Tainan Mario Fattore (ITA) Monica Casiraghi (ITA)
2004Netherlands Winschoten Mario Ardemagni (ITA) Tatyana Zhyrkova (RUS)
2005Japan Yubetsu/Saroma/Tokoro Grigoriy Murzin (RUS) Hiroko Sho (JPN)
2006South Korea Misari Yannick Djouadi (FRA) Elizabeth Hawker (GBR)
2007Netherlands Winschoten Shinichi Watanabe (JPN) Norimi Sakurai (JPN)
2008Italy Rome Giorgio Calcaterra (ITA) Tatyana Zhirkova (RUS)
2009Belgium Torhout Yasukazu Miyazato (JPN) Kami Semick (USA)
2010Gibraltar Gibraltar Shinji Nakadai (JPN) Ellie Greenwood (GBR)
2011Netherlands Winschoten Giorgio Calcaterra (ITA) Marina Bychkova (RUS)
2012Italy Seregno Giorgio Calcaterra (ITA) Amy Sproston (USA)
2014Doha Max King (USA) Ellie Greenwood (GBR)

World or national-record holding or world-championship-winning ultramarathon runners[edit]

For reliable and updated information, see IAU(International Association of Ultrarunners) annual report of current world records on its newest "World's Best Performances" page in "statistics".

Ultra Marathons by Regions[edit]

Ultra Marathons are run around the world with more than 70,000 people completing them every year.[citation needed]


Several ultra distance events are held in Africa.


Ultrarunning has become popular in Asia recently, and countries such as Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea have hosted IAU World Championships.

Oceania, Australia, and New Zealand[edit]

Australia and New Zealand are host to some 100 organized ultramarathons each year. Additionally a handful of runners have run the entire length of New Zealand, a distance of around 2,200 kilometres (1,400 mi).[33]

In Australia, the Westfield Ultra Marathon was an annual race between Sydney and Melbourne contested between 1983 and 1991. Greek runner Yiannis Kouros won the event five times during that period. Australia is also the home of one of the oldest six-day races in the world, the Cliff Young Australian 6-day race, held in Colac, Victoria. The race is held on a 400-meter circuit at the Memorial Square in the centre of Colac, and has seen many epic battles since its inception in 1984. The 20th Cliff Young Australian six-day race was held between 20 and 26 November 2005. During that event, Kouros beat his existing world record six-day track mark and set a new mark of 1,036.851 kilometres (644.269 mi). The Coast to Kosciuszko inaugurated in 2004, is a 246-kilometre (153 mi) marathon from the coast to the top of Mount Kosciuszko, Australia's highest mountain.

New Zealand's first ultramarathon was held on a 100 km (62 mi) track. The Kepler Challenge, 60 kilometres (37 mi) through Fiordland National Park, has been running since 1988 and is one of the country's most popular races. New Zealand's Northburn 100 ultra mountain run [2] is the first 100 mile (160 km) race through the Northburn Station.

In November 2012, Kim Allan planned to run and/or walk 500 kilometres (310 mi) nonstop, without sleep, on the Sri Chinmoy Peace Mile track at the Auckland Domain. Her aim was to beat ultrarunner Pam Reed's record of 300 miles (480 km).[34] According to her Facebook page, she only managed 385.8 kilometres (239.7 mi).[35] She eventually passed the 500 kilometre mark at 86 hours, 11 minutes, and 9 seconds, breaking the 486 kilometres (302 mi) women's record.[36]

In April 2013, a Feilding man, Perry Newburn, set a new New Zealand record by running 483 kilometres (300 mi) without sleep at Feilding's Manfield Park.[37]

Papua New Guinea has the Kokoda Challenge Race, an annual 96 km endurance race held in late August that runs the length of the historic Kokoda Track.[38]

Papua New Guinea also has the The Great Kokoda Race, a multi-stage 96km (3 day) adventure race held in early July where competitors run or walk the length of the historic Kokoda Track.[39]


Ultrarunning is popular in Europe, and the sport can trace its origins here with early documentation of ultrarunners from Icelandic sagas, or even the antique Greece from where the idea of the Marathon, and the Spartathlon comes. The history of ultrarunners and walkers in the UK from the Victorian Era has also been documented. The IAU hosts annual European Championships for the 50 km, 100 km and 24 hours. There are over 300 ultramarathons held in Europe each year. Some of the largest events include:


Due to logistics and environmental concerns there are only a handful of ultramarathons held in Antarctica, and travel costs can mean entrance fees as high as $14,000.[42] Ultramarathons in Antarctica include: The Last Desert, a multi-stage footrace, and the Antarctic Ice Marathon – a marathon and 100-kilometer race.

North America[edit]

There are several hundred ultramarathons held annually in North America. One of the most popular is the Western States Endurance Run, the world's oldest 100-mile trail run. The race began unofficially in 1974, when local horseman Gordy Ainsleigh's horse for the 100-mile Tevis Cup horse race came up lame. He decided to travel the course on foot, finishing in 23 hours and 47 minutes.

One of the first documented ultramarathons in North America was held in 1926, and at the time was part of the Central American Games. Tomas Zafiro and Leoncio San Miguel, both Tarahumara Indians, ran 100 km from Pachuca to Mexico City in 9 hours and 37 minutes. At the time, the Mexican government petitioned to include a 100 km race in the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam[citation needed]; however, nothing came of these efforts.

100 Mile Footraces in the Contiguous United States, 2011

In 1928, sports agent C. C. Pyle organized the first of two editions of the 3,455-mile-long Bunion Derby (the first went along U.S. Route 66 from Los Angeles to Chicago before heading toward New York; the 1929 Derby reversed the route). Neither the race nor the accompanying vaudeville show was a financial success.

Since 1997, runners have been competing in the Self-Transcendence 3100 Mile Race, which is billed as the longest official footrace in the world. They run 100 laps a day for up to 50 days around a single block in Queens, NY, for a total distance of 3,100 miles (5,000 km).[10]

In April 2006, the American Ultrarunning Hall of Fame was established by the American Ultrarunning Association (AUA). Candidates for the Hall of Fame are chosen from the 'modern era' of American ultras, beginning with the New York Road Runners Club 30 Mile race held in 1958. The Inaugural inductees were Ted Corbitt, a former US Olympian, winner of the aforementioned race in 3:04:13, and co-founder of the Road Runners Club of America, and Sandra Kiddy, who kicked off her ultra career at age 42 with a world record at 50 kilometers, 3:36:56, and who went on to set a string of US and world ultra records.

South America[edit]

There are few ultramarathons in South America, but the sport is getting more popular every day. The Brazil 135 Ultramarathon is a single stage race of 135 miles ( 217 km) with a 60 hour cutoff, held in Brazil. This is a Badwater "sister race".[43] Several ultramarathons are held in Chile and the activity is becoming more popular among Chileans.[44] Ultramarathons held in Chile include:

There are six stages in seven days, with almost four marathons run in the first four days, then a 74 km stretch,then a rest day and a final stage of 11 km. It is part of the 4 Deserts Series, which, as the name suggests, is a desert race series.[46] The Atacama Crossing take place in terrain that is rarely flat underfoot, with a harsh climate and an altitude that averages 2500 m (8000 ft). The race uses the town of San Pedro de Atacama as its host town, and in 2012 the race began at its highest point of over 3,000m in the Arcoiris Valley.

View from the Atacama Crossing 2011.

The event, organized by NIGSA, aims to promote the conservation of Chilean Patagonia and contribute to the sustainable development of the region. For each runner, a tree will be planted in the Torres del Paine National Park through the “Corre y Reforesta” (Run and Reforest) campaign[48] run by the organization “Reforestemos Patagonia” (Let’s Reforest Patagonia)[49] which aims to raise awareness of the importance of preserving these areas and contribute to the reforestation of native trees in Chilean Patagonia.

List of ultramarathons[edit]

This is only a partial list of events. For a full list, see Ultramarathon Running's Calendar and local countries' ultrarunning websites.

Road and dirt paths[edit]

 CanadaDeer Lake 67
 PhilippinesAll Women Ultra Marathon
 PhilippinesBataan Death March Ultra marathon
 GermanyBerlin 100 Miles
 SwitzerlandBiel/Bienne 100 km
 South AfricaWashie 100
 South AfricaComrades Marathon
 SingaporeCraze Ultra (100 Mile/50 Mile/25 Mile) - Are You Nuts Enough?
 United KingdomDartmoor Discovery
 United StatesFANS 6, 12, 24 Hour Races Fort Snelling State Park / Minneapolis / St. Paul, MN
 United KingdomGrand Union Canal 145 mile Race
 United StatesGraveyard 100
 CanadaWhistler 50 Relay and Ultra
 United StatesJFK 50 Mile
 United StatesKeys 100
 JapanLake Saroma Ultramarathon 100 km / 50 km [51]
 United KingdomLondon to Brighton
 United KingdomMarlborough Downs Challenge
 JapanMiyakojima Ultra Marathon 100 km etc.
 Italy100km del Passatore
 JapanRiver Shimanto Ultramarathon 100 km / 60 km[52]
 NetherlandsRUN Winschoten, Netherlands
 SingaporeSundown Ultra Marathon Singapore 100 km
 IndiaThe Taj Mahal Marathon 222k Ultra
 South AfricaTwo Oceans Marathon
 United StatesTW 50k Ultra
 JapanTrans Okinawa Foot Race 353 km/292 km
 Brazil100km Volta ao Lago Caixa (website in Portuguese)
 LithuaniaUltramarathon Baltic cup 100 km
 United StatesWay Too Cool 50 Kilometer
 IndiaBangalore Ultra
 MalaysiaPutrajaya 100 Miles, Watergate 16 Hours

Track Ultramarathons[edit]

 United KingdomBarry 40
 CanadaSelf-Transcendence 24 Hour Race Ottawa

Mountain and trails[edit]

 Turkey|| TNF Cappadocia Ultramarathon

 South AfricaAddo Elephant Trail Run
   NepalAnnapurna 100
 United StatesAmerican River 50 Mile Endurance Run
 United StatesAngeles Crest 100 Mile Endurance Run
 CanadaArc'teryx Squamish 50
 United StatesBarkley Marathons
 United StatesBear 100 Mile Endurance Run
 United StatesBighorn Trail Run
 United StatesBull Run Run 50 Mile
 United StatesBurning River 100 Mile Endurance Run
 CanadaCanadian Death Race
 United StatesCascade Crest 100 Mile Endurance Run
 United StatesChimera 100 Mile
 United StatesElizabeth's Furnace Fat Ass 50K
 United StatesEvergreen Trail Runs
 NicaraguaFuego y Agua 25k,50k,100K & Survival Run
 United StatesGrand Canyon Ultra Marathon
 RéunionGrand Raid de la Réunion
 United StatesGrindstone 100 Miler
 United StatesHardrock Hundred Mile Endurance Run
 JapanHasetsune Cup 71.5 km
 United StatesHAT Run
 JapanHida Takayama Ultra Marathon
 United StatesHUFF 50K Trail Run
 United StatesHunter Gatherer Ultras & Survival Run
 United StatesJackson County 50-50
 United StatesJavelina Jundred[dead link]
 United StatesKesugi Ridge Traverse
 United StatesKettle Moraine 100 Endurance Runs
 Papua New GuineaKokoda Challenge Race
 CanadaKnee Knackering North Shore Trail Run
 IcelandLaugavegur Ultramarathon
 United StatesLeadville Trail 100
 United StatesLean Horse Ultramarathon
 United StatesMassanutten Mountain Trails 100
 United KingdomMourneway Ultra Marathon
 United StatesMcNaughton Park Trail Runs
 United StatesMiwok 100K Trail Race
 United StatesThe Mountain Ultra[dead link]
 United StatesMountain Masochist Trail Run
 JapanMuraoka Ultra Marathon 100 km/88 km/44 km
 United KingdomNorth Downs way 50,100
 AustraliaNorth Face 100
 United StatesOil Creek 100 Trail Runs - 50K, 50 & 100 miles
 United StatesOld Dominion 100 Miler
 United StatesOld Pueblo 50 Mile Endurance Run
 Hong KongOxfam Trailwalker
 United StatesPillar Mountain Run, Kodiak, AK
 United StatesPinhoti 100 Mile Endurance Run Alabama
 United StatesQuad Dipsea
 United StatesResurrection Pass Ultra Trail Races
 United StatesRio Del Lago
 JapanShin'etsu Five Mountains Trail 110km
 United KingdomSouth Downs way 100
 CanadaScorched Sole
 CanadaSinister 7 100 mile
 United StatesStumpJump 50k
 SwitzerlandSwiss Alpine Marathon
 United KingdomThames Path 100km
 JapanTrans Japan Alps Race (TJAR) 415 km
 United StatesTransRockies Run, 6 stages, 125m
 JapanUltra-Trail Mt. Fuji 168 km / 88 km
 FranceUltra-Trail du Mont-Blanc
 United StatesVermont 100 Mile Endurance Run
 United StatesWasatch Front 100 Mile Endurance Run
 United KingdomWest Highland Way Race
 United StatesWestern States Endurance Run
 United StatesWickham Park Marathon, 50M, 100M, 200M
 MalaysiaBorneo TMBT Ultra Trail Marathon 50K, 100K
 Turkeyİznik Ultramarathon
 TurkeyLycian Way Ultramarathon
 JapanYatsugatake (Mount Yatsuga) Nobeyama Highland 100km Ultra Marathon

Extreme conditions[edit]

 ItalyTor des Geants
 MoroccoMarathon des Sables
 BrazilJungle Marathon
 Canada6633 Ultra: The Arctic, Canada
 United StatesBadwater Ultramarathon
 South AfricaKalahari Augrabies Extreme Marathon
 United StatesArrowhead Winter Ultramarathon
 SpainAl Andalus Ultimate Trail
 United StatesBeast of Burden Winter and Summer 100 Miler "DoubleBuckle"
 New ZealandNorthburn100
 FinlandRovaniemi 150 Arctic Winter Race
 FinlandThe Lapland Extreme Challenge Race, 900 kilometers (15 days)
 TurkeyRunfire Cappadocia Ultramarathon
 AntarcticaThe Last Desert
 China4 Deserts

Very long events and multidays[edit]

 CanadaBruce TrailOntario, Canada 800 kilometers in (10–15 days).
 United StatesThe Bunion DerbyLos Angeles to New York 3,455 miles (3 months).
 HungaryLake Balaton Supermarathon [dead link](4 days)
 United StatesSelf-Transcendence 3100 Mile Race
 United StatesSelf-Transcendence 6- & 10-day Race
 JapanTrans Japan Alps Race (TJAR)415 km/7–8 days
 EuropeTrans Europe Foot Race
 FranceParis-Colmar450 km march (Racewalking).
 ChileAtacama Crossing
 ChinaGobi March
 EgyptSahara Race

Born to Run[edit]

In 2009, Christopher McDougall's book Born to Run was released. Written from both anthropological and scientific angles, this book is a story of an entire people of ultramarathoners. While other books had previously been written specifically about ultramarathons, McDougall made conclusions about humanity's roots in long distance running that were just controversial enough to excite the masses who had never heard of the sport. It quickly became a national bestseller and a Forbes and Washington Post book of the year, helping spread the idea of ultramarathons.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "– 100 Kilometres Records". Iaaf.org. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  2. ^ If the loop is less than 1 kilometre (0.62 mi), run direction changes every 2–4 (sometimes 6) hours
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al "IAU World Best Performances" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  4. ^ a b Final Update on the 24 Hour World Championships 2011
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h http://www.iau-ultramarathon.org/images/file/World_Best_Performances_FEB_13_.pdf
  6. ^ a b http://www.spartathlon.gr/en/results/finishers.html
  7. ^ http://24hourrace.com/kudo-sekiya-return-soochow-international-24-hour-race-2013/
  8. ^ http://www.iau-ultramarathon.org/images/file/World_Best_Performances_FEB_13_.pdf 2013
  9. ^ a b http://www.iau-ultramarathon.org/index.asp?menucode=h06-03&tmp=tmp3&taal=nl&submenux=Statistics&foto=photo7
  10. ^ a b "srichinmoyraces.org / About the 3100 Mile Race". Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  11. ^ "Shaul Ladany Bio, Stats, and Results | Olympics at". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Shaul Ladany". Jewishsports.net. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  13. ^ Guinness press release, as linked from Garside's website: "Although Robert’s record attempt finished in 2003, it has taken 5 years to collate and confirm the record evidence [...] We are very cautious to accept records like this because they are difficult to certify, however Robert has provided us with full evidence which enabled us to authenticate his amazing achievement. We initially evaluated 15 boxes full of credit card statements, receipts in Robert’s name and other useful evidence, which supported Robert’s presence in all of the 29 countries within the time specified. We then moved on to establish whether Robert had actually been running and started to look through an astronomical number of pictures and newspaper cuttings from different parts of Robert’s route. We also reviewed over 300 time-coded tapes featuring Robert running at different locations during his journey. We could finally double check the route followed through statements from several witnesses, and passports stamps and visas..."
  14. ^ "The first fully authenticated run around the world record has just been accepted". Guinness World records. Retrieved 29 September 2009. 
  15. ^ http://raceday.comrades.com/home-about/history-of-comrades
  16. ^ http://www.iau-ultramarathon.org/images/file/IAU%20100km%20World%20Cup%20Results%201987%20to%202008.pdf
  17. ^ http://marathons.ahotu.com/calendar/ultramarathon/japan
  18. ^ NHK team, 激走! 日本アルプス大縦断 密着、トランスジャパンアルプスレース富山~静岡415km, 26 Apr 2013, ISBN 978-4087815276
  19. ^ http://www.dreamnews.jp/press/0000072853/
  20. ^ RUNTRAIL editors, RUN+TRAIL vol.2 トレイルランレースをはじめよう ハセツネ/UTMF完走法 (SAN-EI MOOK),22 Aug 2012, ISBN 978-4779615627
  21. ^ http://www.irunfar.com/2013/04/2013-ultra-trail-mount-fuji-preview.html
  22. ^ http://info.japantimes.co.jp/works/ultra-trail-mount-fuji.html#.UxBgnfKYbIU
  23. ^ "The Bangalore Ultra". The Bangalore Ultra. Retrieved April 28, 2013. 
  24. ^ "Big response for the Bangalore Marathon". The Hindu. December 14, 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2013. 
  25. ^ "Why La Ultra The High is the Cruelest Marathon". Forbes India. February 18, 2013. 
  26. ^ "The Gobi March". 4 Deserts Official Website. 
  27. ^ "Sundown Marathon". HiVelocity. Retrieved April 28, 2013. 
  28. ^ "Nepal events". Trail Running Nepal. 
  29. ^ "Everest Ultra". Everest Ultra. 2013-03-30. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  30. ^ "Mongolia Sunrise to Sunset". Ms2s.org. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  31. ^ "Sabah Adventure Races". Sabahadventurechallenge.com. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  32. ^ "All Womens Ultra Marathon". 
  33. ^ http://www.endurancesport.co.nz/feature.cfm?id=104 The most recent runner's being Lisa Tamati and Andrew Hedgman who both completed the challenge separately in 2009 and 2010
  34. ^ Satherley, Dan (7 November 2012). "Two feet, 500km and no sleep for charity". 3 News NZ. 
  35. ^ [1][dead link]
  36. ^ Ultra-distance runner breaks record
  37. ^ "Feilding father breaks NZ running record". 3 News NZ. April 5, 2013. 
  38. ^ "Kokoda Challenge". Kokoda Trekking. Retrieved 24 June 2011. 
  39. ^ "The Great Kokoda Race". Twisted Explorer. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  40. ^ Official Ultra-Trail du Mont-Blanc Web Site: UTMB – Profile and details
  41. ^ London to Brighton 2008 Results – available as a Google cache
  42. ^ "Antarctic Ice Marathon 2013". Icemarathon.com. 2013-03-07. Retrieved 2013-10-05. 
  43. ^ The official web site retrieved January 13, 2014
  44. ^ Ultramarathoner In Living Atlas Chile livingatlaschile.com January 3, 2014, retrieved January 13, 2014
  45. ^ The Atacama Crossing Race 29 januari 2013, Pieter at www.extrememarathonguide.com/ retrieved January 13, 2014
  46. ^ The Atacama Crossing Official web site retrieved January 2014
  47. ^ Patagonian International Marathon Official website {en} patagonianinternationalmarathon.com retrieved January 13, 2014
  48. ^ Corre y reforesta la Patagonia chilena con la maratón de Torres del Paine Magdalena Araus Eldefinido.cl August 28, 2013
  49. ^ {en} Reforestemos Patagonia Tree Count reforestemospatagonia.clretrieved January 13, 2014
  50. ^ The Rapa Nui GrandTrail www.active.com retrieved January 13, 2014
  51. ^ http://saromanblue.jp/
  52. ^ http://www.city.shimanto.lg.jp/kyouiku/sport/marathon.html

External links[edit]

Archives ultamarathon : http://www.ultramarathon.fr/