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UltraViolet is a cloud-based digital rights library for movies and television shows that allows consumers to stream and download licensed content to multiple platforms and devices. The UltraViolet ecosystem embraces a "pay once, play almost anywhere" approach that allows users to store proofs-of-purchase of media rights in an account to enable playback of licensed content on different devices using multiple applications, and via different streaming services. UltraViolet also allows users to share access to their library with up to 5 additional people, and 12 different devices, with up to three simultaneous streams. UltraViolet is deployed by the Digital Entertainment Content Ecosystem, an alliance of 85 companies that includes film studios, retailers, consumer electronics manufacturers, cable TV companies, ISPs, network hosting vendors, and other Internet systems and security vendors, with the notable exceptions of Disney, Google, and Apple.
Consumers can create a free UltraViolet account, either through a participating UltraViolet service provider, or through the official UltraViolet website. An UltraViolet account is a Digital Rights Locker where licenses for purchased content are stored and managed irrespective of the point of sale. The Ultraviolet account holder is allowed to share their library with 5 other users, which are called members.
Consumers can acquire UltraViolet rights by purchasing a physical disc that includes an UltraViolet activation code, by purchasing a movie directly from an electronic retailer, or by using a disc to digital service. Disc to Digital services allow consumers to insert a DVD or Blu-ray into their computer's disc drive, scan it to verify ownership, and then add it to their UltraViolet collection for a small fee. Several retailers including Vudu, CinemaNow, and Flixster now offer this service.
Consumers can then stream or download their UltraViolet content from any participating retailer. Participating retailers are listed in the table below.
The UltraViolet digital locker does not store video files, and is not a "cloud storage" platform. Only the rights for purchased content are stored on the service. UltraViolet only coordinates and manages the licenses for each account, but not the content itself. By creating a digital-rights locker rather than a digital media storage locker, UltraViolet bypasses the cost of storage and bandwidth used when the media is accessed and passes that cost on to various service providers. In addition, by only managing the rights and licensing of content, UltraViolet insulates itself from future technological advances, allowing users to keep watching content they have purchased.
Five of the "Big Six" major film studios and "mini-major" Lionsgate are members of DECE, and release their content with UltraViolet rights.  Other minor film and television studios release their programming and movies with UltraViolet rights, but are not DECE members.
Walt Disney Studios is not a member of DECE, and does not release any of its films with UltraViolet rights. On February 25, 2014 The Walt Disney Company launched its own competing digital movie locker called Disney Movies Anywhere that allows any Disney-branded movie purchased or redeemed in iTunes to be played via the web or in an iOS app. In November 2014, Disney added Google Play and Vudu as additional partners. Non-participation in the DECE consortium does not prohibit Disney from releasing films with UltraViolet rights. In 2012 Disney's CEO Bob Iger said the studio had not ruled out UltraViolet participation, but were taking a "wait-and-see approach" and that it was too early to make conclusions.
In November 2014, Disney updated Disney Movies Anywhere to allow the account to link with VUDU and Google Play. On the VUDU side, this in a way allows the Ultraviolet content to merge with the Disney content using a single streaming provider.
UltraViolet content is available from many existing movie streaming services, using their existing streaming and DRM technologies. Some services offer downloads that can be saved on notebook PC's, tablets, gaming consoles, or phones for offline viewing. Below is a table of all the streaming providers and the countries they serve.
Content can also be streamed over the Internet to an unlimited number of devices, depending on the content license rights held by the streaming provider. Up to three streams can be simultaneously transmitted.
|Resolution||Disc to Digital||Disney Movies Anywhere|
|SD (480p)||HD (720p)||HDX (1080p)|
Other less notable streaming providers include: Target Ticket, Nook Video, M-GO, Verizon FIOS On Demand, Nolim Films, and EZyFlix.
|Set-top box||Video game console||Smartphone / Tablet|
|Apple TV||Chromecast||Fire TV||Xbox 360||Xbox One||PS3||PS4||iOS||Android||Windows Phone|
The Common File Format (CFF) is not yet available from any UltraViolet Retailers, but it is expected to launch soon. UltraViolet capable streaming providers already have their own proprietary formats available for download, but they are unable to be copied from one device to another, and they are not cross-platform.
Once the UltraViolet CFF is made available by a retailer, downloaded video files will be able to be copied between devices, stored on physical media (e.g. DVDs, SD cards, flash memory) or cloud services. They will be playable on any UltraViolet device or software player registered to the household account, but they will not work with any devices which are not compatible with the UltraViolet CFF. No retailers have announced support for the CFF.
The Common File Format uses the Common Encryption (CENC) system. The format is based on the ISO Base File Format, and ensures that a consistent set of codecs, media formats, DRMs, subtitling, and metadata, are used across the whole UltraViolet ecosystem. The CFF will use the .uvu file extension. Because every UltraViolet title should arrive in this format, it will generally play on any UltraViolet registered device. The format is based on existing standards from MPEG, SMPTE, and others, and was originally derived from the Microsoft Protected Interoperable File Format (PIFF) specification. The goal was to avoid the problem of different file formats for different players and to make it possible to copy files from player to player.
There are two profiles for files and players: standard definition (SD) and high definition (HD). SD players can play only SD files. HD players can play both SD and HD files.
UltraViolet files use H.264/AVC video (ISO/IEC 14496-10). Multiple resolutions, aspect ratios, and frame rates are supported. Only progressive-scan video is allowed.
UltraViolet files use stereo MPEG-4 AAC LC audio (ISO/IEC 14496-3) as a required base format, with optional multi-channel AAC, HE AAC v2 (optionally with MPEG surround), Dolby Digital, Dolby Digital Plus, Dolby TrueHD (MLP), DTS, DTS HD, DTS Master Audio, and DTS Express (low bit rate).
UltraViolet has approved six DRM technologies allowing restrictions management on a broad range of devices: televisions, set-top-boxes, DVD & Blu-ray Disc players, games consoles, PCs, tablets and smartphones.
The selected DRM technologies are:
Using the Common Encryption technology, any of these DRMs can be used to play the same file. There is no need to download another version to use a different DRM. The same file works everywhere (for a given screen size).
Some popular streaming platforms, such as Amazon Instant, Google Play and iTunes currently do not support UltraViolet capabilities. UltraViolet titles can be streamed on Apple and Android devices using a third party app from many of the streaming providers.
Walt Disney Studios and some smaller independent studios have not released their films with UV rights, making it impossible for a user to have a complete collection of films in a unified digital locker. Walt Disney recently released its own digital rights locker called Disney Movies Anywhere for its films.
Redemption sheets that come with physical discs often direct consumers to studio-operated sites that may require registration, and often confuse users. This was a big problem when the service first launched, and caused a backlash among consumers. Recently the DECE has begun to rollout a common redemption website. Redemption sheet codes also have an expiry date.
It is not currently possible to download an UltraViolet file and copy it to another device, such as a smartphone or tablet. Consumers must use a third party app to watch movies on portable devices. However, that capability is promised with the upcoming launch of the Common File Format.
HD video is not yet available for mobile devices, with the exception of some Warner Bros. films when using the flixster app.
Some consumers are selling their unused UV codes to others online.
|This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (February 2014)|
Aug. 26: Movie studios quietly plan to introduce "Open Market" system to unite digital storfronts.
In November, Walt Disney's CEO Bob Iger, said that Keychest (Disney's locker system) could eventually work with UltraViolet. He said: "It's not our goal to create a format war."
In January 2011, a number of major film studios announced support for UltraViolet: Lionsgate, Paramount, Sony Pictures, Fox, Universal and Warner Bros. The notable exception was Walt Disney.
In October 2011, UltraViolet entered Phase 1 soft-launch with the Warner Bros release of Horrible Bosses, the first UV title. Flixster re-launched as the first UltraViolet streaming service. Sony subsequently released its first two UV titles in December, The Smurfs and Friends with Benefits. Universal soon followed with the release of its first UV title, Cowboys & Aliens.
Feb 7: Walt Disney's CEO Bob Iger, said the company would take a wait and see approach towards UltraViolet.
April 16: Vudu (operated by Wal-Mart) became the first major UltraViolet retailer by adding UV rights to thousands of films available in its digital store. Wal-mart also launched an In Store Disc to Digital service, with more than 4000 titles initially.
May 2: UltraViolet surpassed 2 million users.
Sept 18: 20th Century Fox released its first UV title Prometheus, with a new "Digital HD" branding, 3 weeks ahead of its DVD street date, and made an additional 600 titles available with UltraViolet rights.
Sept 20: UltraViolet surpassed 5 million users and 7,200 titles.
Nov 20: Disney announced it would shut down it's DisneyMoviesOnline service in late December. Some industry insiders predicted that Disney would abandon its competing "keychest" technology. However, the launch of DMA on February 25, 2014 confirmed that prediction was pre-mature.
Jan 7: The DEG announced that 9 million UV accounts had been created, and that 8,500 UV titles were available.
April 19: Mark Tietell revealed that UltraViolet had surpassed 12 million users.
May 9: 20th Century Fox announced it would offer Digital HD UltraViolet rights with all new films, and would stop including iTunes digital copies on a title by title basis.
May 25: Disney debuted Digital Copy Plus, which ended iTunes exclusive digital copies on all of its new releases. The new Digital Copy Plus allows the redemption of digital copies from iTunes, Amazon Instant, Vudu, Target Ticket, or Google Play.
June 3: Wal-Mart launched an In Home Disc to Digital service as a public beta.
July 9: Lionsgate joined 20th Century Fox in dropping iTunes digital copies with Tyler Perry's Temptation and offering UV exclusive digital copies with most new releases.
Aug 7: The DEG announced that 10,000 titles were available and 13 million accounts had been created.
Sept 3: CinemaNow bowed its Disc to Digital service in Canada.
Nov 20: Ultraviolet launched in France, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland with the Warner Bros film Pacific Rim.
In terms of titles available, as of January 2014, UltraViolet surpassed 12,000 available titles.
Feb 25: Disney launched Disney Movies Anywhere a streaming service powered by its own KeyChest technology to connect to iTunes, which is used to purchase or redeem content for playback via its DMA website.
Feb 26: Mitch Singer, President of DECE, stated that the new Disney Movies Anywhere service would not prohibit Disney from offering UltraViolet titles in the future.
May 14, Vudu introduced a new feature that allows UltraViolet users to share their movies with up to five friends.
Aug 11: NPD released a survey finding that more than 14% of digital content purchases are from UltraViolet Users.
Early in September, DECE launched a new common redemption site.
Oct. 1: MGM began to offer UV rights for several of its catalog titles.
Nov. 6: DEG reported that the number of UV accounts increased to 20 million. The number of titles available increased to 14,500.
Jan 6: DEG announced that UltraViolet grew 30% in 2014 to 21 million accounts. 
Jan 27: French Supermarket Chain Carrefour bows a Digital Video Store with UltraViolet functionality called Nolim Films