US Open (tennis)

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US Open
US Open.svg
Official website
Founded1881
LocationNew York City, New York,
United States
VenueUSTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center
SurfaceGrass - outdoors (1881–1974)
Clay - outdoors (1975–1977)
DecoTurf - outdoors (1978–present)
Prize money$34,252,000 (2013)
Men's
Draw128S / 128Q / 64D
Current championsRafael Nadal (singles)
Leander Paes / Radek Štěpánek (doubles)
Most singles titles7
Richard Sears
Bill Larned
Bill Tilden
Most doubles titles6
Richard Sears
James Dwight
Holcombe Ward
Women's
Draw128S / 128Q / 64D
Current championsSerena Williams (singles)
Sara Errani / Roberta Vinci (doubles)
Most singles titles8
Molla Bjurstedt Mallory
Most doubles titles13
Margaret Osborne duPont
Mixed Doubles
Draw32
Current championsEkaterina Makarova / Bruno Soares
Most titles (male)4
Bill Tilden
Bill Talbert
Bob Bryan
Most titles (female)8
Margaret Osborne duPont
Margaret Court
Grand Slam
Ongoing
2013 US Open
 
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US Open
US Open.svg
Official website
Founded1881
LocationNew York City, New York,
United States
VenueUSTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center
SurfaceGrass - outdoors (1881–1974)
Clay - outdoors (1975–1977)
DecoTurf - outdoors (1978–present)
Prize money$34,252,000 (2013)
Men's
Draw128S / 128Q / 64D
Current championsRafael Nadal (singles)
Leander Paes / Radek Štěpánek (doubles)
Most singles titles7
Richard Sears
Bill Larned
Bill Tilden
Most doubles titles6
Richard Sears
James Dwight
Holcombe Ward
Women's
Draw128S / 128Q / 64D
Current championsSerena Williams (singles)
Sara Errani / Roberta Vinci (doubles)
Most singles titles8
Molla Bjurstedt Mallory
Most doubles titles13
Margaret Osborne duPont
Mixed Doubles
Draw32
Current championsEkaterina Makarova / Bruno Soares
Most titles (male)4
Bill Tilden
Bill Talbert
Bob Bryan
Most titles (female)8
Margaret Osborne duPont
Margaret Court
Grand Slam
Ongoing
2013 US Open

The United States Open Tennis Championships is a hardcourt tennis tournament which is the modern iteration of one of the oldest tennis championships in the world, the U.S. National Championship, for which men's singles was first contested in 1881. Since 1987, the US Open has been chronologically the fourth and final tennis major comprising the Grand Slam each year; the other three are the Australian Open, French Open and Wimbledon. It is held annually in late August and early September over a two-week period. The main tournament consists of five event championships: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles, with additional tournaments for senior, junior, and wheelchair players. Since 1978, the tournament has been played on acrylic hard courts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center at New York City, New York, United States. The US Open is owned and organized by the USTA. Net proceeds from high ticket prices are used to promote the development of tennis in the United States as the USTA is a not-for-profit organization.

The US Open has tiebreaks in every set, including the last set. The other three Grand Slam tournaments have tiebreaks in every set other than the last set (i.e. the fifth set for men and third set for women), and therefore their last set continues indefinitely until a two-game lead is reached.

History[edit]

Newport Casino Tennis Court

The tournament was first held in August 1881 on the grass courts at the Newport Casino, Newport, Rhode Island and in that first year only clubs that were members of the United States National Lawn Tennis Association (USNLTA) were permitted to enter.[1] The first edition was won by Richard Sears who went on to win seven consecutive singles titles.[2] From 1884 through 1911, the tournament used a challenge system whereby the defending champion automatically qualified for the next year's final in which he would play the winner of the all-comers tournament. In 1915 the national championship was relocated from Newport, Rhode Island to the West Side Tennis Club at Forest Hills, New York. Already in 1911 an effort was made by a group of tennis players, headed by Karl H. Behr from New York, to relocate the tournament to New York but by a vote of 95 to 60 it was decided to remain in Newport.[3] In early 1915 the issue resurfaced when a group of about 100 tennis players signed a petition in favor of the move, arguing that most tennis clubs, players and fans were located in the New York area and that it would therefore be beneficial for the development of the sport to host the national championship there.[4] This view was opposed by another group of players which included eight former national singles champions.[5][6] The contentious issue was brought to a vote at the annual USNLTA meeting on Feb 5, 1915 and with 128 votes in favor and 119 against it was decided to relocate.[7][8][9] From 1921 through 1923, the tournament was played at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia and it returned to Forest Hills in 1924.[10]

Though regarded unofficially by many as a major championship beforehand, the tournament was officially designated as one of the major tournaments by the ILTF commencing in 1924.

In the first few years of the United States National Championship only men competed and the tournament was known as the US National Singles Championships for Men. Six years after the men's nationals were first held, the first official U.S. Women's National Singles Championship was held at the Philadelphia Cricket Club in 1887, won by 17-year-old Philadelphian Ellen Hansell, accompanied by the U.S. Women's National Doubles Championship (not held for the next two years) and U.S. Mixed Doubles Championship (not held in 1899). The women's tournament used a challenge system from 1888 through 1918, except in 1917. Between 1890 and 1906 sectional tournaments were held in the east and the west of the country to determine the best two doubles teams, which competed in a play-off to see who would play the defending champions in the challenge round.[10]

The open era began in 1968 when all five events were merged into the US Open, held at the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills. The 1968 combined tournament was open to professionals for the first time. That year, 96 men and 63 women entered the event, and prize money totaled $100,000.

In 1970, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to use a tiebreak to decide a set that reached a 6–6 score in games and is the only major to use a tiebreak in the deciding set; the other three grand slams play out the deciding set until a two-game margin is achieved. From 1970 to 1974 the US Open used a best-of-nine point, sudden death tiebreaker before moving to the ITF best-of-twelve point system.[2]

In 1973 the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to award equal prize money to men and women with that year's singles champions John Newcombe and Margaret Court both receiving $25,000.[2] Another US Open innovation came in 1975 when floodlights enabled night play for the first time. In 1978 the tournament moved from the West Side Tennis Club, Forest Hills, Queens to the larger USTA National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows, Queens, in the process switching the surface from clay, used in the last three years at Forest Hills, to hard courts. Jimmy Connors is the only individual to have won US Open singles titles on all three surfaces (grass, clay, hardcourt), while Chris Evert is the only woman to win on two surfaces (clay, hardcourt).[2]

The US Open is the only Grand Slam tournament that has been played every year since its inception.[11]

It was announced in December 2012 that the Men's Singles final will be played on a Monday night in 2013 and 2014,[12] a decision which has proved unpopular with the Association of Tennis Professionals.[13] The past five Men's Singles finals had been delayed by one day due to untimely weather conditions. From 2015, the men's final will move back to its traditional Sunday night time-slot.[14]

Player challenges of line calls[edit]

In 2006, the US Open introduced instant replay reviews of calls, using the Hawk-Eye computer system sponsored by Chase. Each player is allowed three challenges per set plus one additional challenge during a tiebreak. The player keeps all existing challenges if the challenge is successful. If the challenge is unsuccessful and the original ruling is upheld, the player loses a challenge. Instant replay was initially available only on the stadium courts (Ashe and Armstrong), until 2009 when it became available on the Grandstand as well.

Once a challenge is made, the official review (a 3-D computer simulation based on multiple high-speed video cameras) is shown to the players, umpires, and audience on the stadium video boards and to the television audience at the same time. During the 2011 US Open, 29.78% of men's challenges and 30.2% of women's challenges were correct.[15]

In 2007, JP Morgan Chase renewed its sponsorship of the US Open. As part of its sponsorship arrangement, Chase renamed the tournament's replay system the "Chase Review" on in-stadium video and television.[16]

Grounds[edit]

Arthur Ashe stadium

The DecoTurf surface at the US Open is a fast surface, having slightly less friction and producing a lower bounce compared to other hard courts (most notably the Rebound Ace surface formerly used at the Australian Open). For this reason, many serve-and-volley players have found success at the US Open.

The main court is located at the 22,547-seat Arthur Ashe Stadium, opened in 1997. It is named after Arthur Ashe, the African American tennis player who won the men's final of the inaugural US Open in 1968. The next largest court is the Louis Armstrong Stadium, opened in 1978, extensively renovated from the original Singer Bowl. It was the main stadium from 1978 to 1996, and its peak capacity neared 18,000 seats, but was reduced to 10,200 after the opening of Arthur Ashe Stadium.[17] The third largest court is the 6,000-seat Grandstand Stadium, attached to the Louis Armstrong Stadium. In 2011, Court 17 was opened as a fourth show court, with large television screens and electronic line calling which allows player challenges. Sunken into the ground, it has been nicknamed "The Pit". It initially held 2,500 with temporary stands, but will allow over 3,000 fans after its completion in 2012. It is located in the southwest corner of the grounds.[18] Sidecourts 4, 7, and 11 each have a seating capacity of over 1,000.

All the courts used by the US Open are illuminated, meaning that television coverage of the tournament can extend into prime time to attract higher ratings. This has recently been used to the advantage of USA Network—and now, ESPN2—on cable and especially for CBS, the American broadcast television outlet for the tournament for many years, which used its influence to move the women's singles final to Saturday night to draw better television ratings.[citation needed]

In 2005, all US Open (and US Open Series) tennis courts were given blue inner courts to make it easier to see the ball on television; the outer courts remained green.[19]

The USTA National Tennis Center was renamed in honor of four-time tournament champion and tennis pioneer Billie Jean King during the 2006 US Open.

Prize money[edit]

The total prize money for the 2013 US Open championships is $34,252,000 (in US dollars) which represents an increase of about ten million dollars compared to the 2012 edition.[20] The prize money is divided as follows:[21]

EventWFSFQF4R3R2R1RQ3Q2Q1Total
Singles128 Draw$1,900,000$950,000$475,000$237,500$120,000$65,000$37,000$23,000$8,638$5,775$3,000$9,406,000
Doubles*64 Draw$420,000$210,000$105,000$50,000-$26,000$16,000$11,000---$3,712,000
Mixed Doubles*32 Draw$150,000$70,000$30,000$15,000--$10,000$5,000---$500,000

* per team

In addition to the championship prize money an amount of $410,000 was available for the Champions Invitational and $1,272,000 for player per diem bringing the total player compensation to $25,526,000.[21]

The US Open has made a five year agreement to increase the total prize money to about $50,000,000 by 2017. As a result the total base prize money for the 2013 tournament has been increased to $33.6 million which is a record $8.1 million increase from 2012.The champions of the 2013 Emirates Airline US Open Series will also have the opportunity to add $2.6 million in bonus prize money, potentially bringing the total 2013 US Open purse to more than $36 million.[22]

Ranking points[edit]

Ranking points for the ATP and WTA have varied at the US Open through the years but presently singles players receive the following points:

EventWFSFQF4R3R2R1R
SinglesMen (ATP)20001200720360180904510
Women (WTA)200014009005002801601005

Champions[edit]

Past champions[edit]

Current champions[edit]

EventChampionRunner-upScore
Men's Singles FinalSpain Rafael NadalSerbia Novak Djokovic6–2, 3–6, 6–4, 6–1
Women's Singles FinalUnited States Serena WilliamsBelarus Victoria Azarenka7–5, 6–7(6–8), 6–1
Men's Doubles FinalIndia Leander Paes
Czech Republic Radek Štěpánek
Austria Alexander Peya
Brazil Bruno Soares
6–1, 6–3
Women's Doubles FinalCzech Republic Andrea Hlaváčková
Czech Republic Lucie Hradecká
Australia Ashleigh Barty
Australia Casey Dellacqua
6–7(4–7), 6–1, 6–4
Mixed Doubles FinalCzech Republic Andrea Hlaváčková
Belarus Max Mirnyi
United States Abigail Spears
Mexico Santiago González
7–6(7–5), 6–3

Records[edit]

RecordEraPlayer(s)CountYears
Men since 1881
Winner of most
Men's Singles titles
Before 1968:United States Richard Sears
United States Bill Larned
United States Bill Tilden
71881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
1901, 1902, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911
1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1929
After 1967:United States Jimmy Connors
United States Pete Sampras
Switzerland Roger Federer
51974, 1976, 1978, 1982, 1983
1990, 1993, 1995, 1996, 2002
2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
Winner of most consecutive
Men's Singles titles
Before 1968:United States Richard Sears71881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
After 1967:Switzerland Roger Federer52004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
Winner of most
Men's Doubles titles
Before 1968:United States Richard Sears
United States James Dwight
United States Holcombe Ward
61882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
1899, 1900, 1901, 1904, 1905, 1906
After 1967:United States Bob Lutz
United States Stan Smith
United States John McEnroe
United States Bob Bryan
United States Mike Bryan
41968, 1974, 1978, 1980
1968, 1974, 1978, 1980
1979, 1981, 1983, 1989
2005, 2008, 2010, 2012
2005, 2008, 2010, 2012
Winner of most consecutive
Men's Doubles titles
Before 1968:United States Richard Sears
United States James Dwight
61882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887
After 1967:Australia Todd Woodbridge
Australia Mark Woodforde
21995, 1996
1995, 1996
Winner of most
Mixed Doubles titles - Men
Before 1968:United States Bill Tilden
United States Bill Talbert
41913, 1914, 1922, 1923
1943, 1944, 1945, 1946
After 1967:United States Bob Bryan42003, 2004, 2006, 2010
Winner of most Championships
(total: singles, men's doubles,
mixed doubles) - Men
Before 1968:United States Bill Tilden161913–1929 (7 singles, 5 men's doubles, 4 mixed doubles)
After 1967:United States John McEnroe
United States Bob Bryan
81979–1989 (4 singles, 4 men's doubles)
2003–2012 (4 men's doubles, 4 mixed doubles)
Women since 1887
Winner of most
Women's Singles titles
Before 1968:Norway/United States Molla Bjurstedt Mallory81915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1926
After 1967:United States Chris Evert61975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1982
Winner of most consecutive
Women's Singles titles
Before 1968:Norway/United States Molla Bjurstedt Mallory
United States Helen Jacobs
41915, 1916, 1917, 1918
1932, 1933, 1934, 1935
After 1967:United States Chris Evert41975, 1976, 1977, 1978
Winner of most
Women's Doubles titles
Before 1968:United States Margaret Osborne duPont131941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1955, 1956, 1957
After 1967:United States Martina Navratilova91977, 1978, 1980, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990
Winner of most consecutive
Women's Doubles titles
Before 1968:United States Margaret Osborne duPont101941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1950
After 1967:Spain Virginia Ruano Pascual
Argentina Paola Suárez
32002, 2003, 2004
2002, 2003, 2004
Winner of most
Mixed Doubles titles - Women
All-time:United States Margaret Osborne duPont
Australia Margaret Court
81943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1950, 1958, 1959, 1960
1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1969, 1970, 1972
Before 1968:United States Margaret Osborne duPont81943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1950, 1958, 1959, 1960
After 1967:Australia Margaret Court
United States Billie Jean King
United States Martina Navratilova
31969, 1970, 1972
1971, 1973, 1976
1985, 1987, 2006
Winner of most Championships
(total: singles, women's doubles,
mixed doubles) - women
All-time:United States Margaret Osborne duPont
Australia Margaret Court
25
18
1941–1960 (3 singles, 13 women's doubles, 9 mixed doubles)
1961-1975 (5 singles, 5 women's doubles, 8 mixed doubles)
Before 1968:United States Margaret Osborne duPont251941–1960 (3 singles, 13 women's doubles, 9 mixed doubles)
After 1967:United States Martina Navratilova161977–2006 (4 singles, 9 women's doubles, 3 mixed doubles)
Miscellaneous
Youngest winner(single)Men:United States Pete Sampras19 years and 1 month
Women:United States Tracy Austin16 years and 8 months

Media coverage[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "National Lawn-Tennis Tournament" (PDF). The New York Times. July 14, 1881. Retrieved July 15, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d Collins, Bud (2010). The Bud Collins History of Tennis (2nd ed. ed.). [New York]: New Chapter Press. pp. 10, 452, 454. ISBN 978-0942257700. 
  3. ^ "Tennis Tournament at Newport Again" (PDF). The New York Times. February 4, 1911. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Newport May Lose Tennis Tourney" (PDF). The New York Times. January 17, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Want Newport for Tennis Tourney" (PDF). The New York Times. January 18, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  6. ^ "A Tennis "Solar Plexus`"" (PDF). The New York Times. January 23, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Tourney Goes to New York". Boston Evening Transcript. February 6, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  8. ^ "'All-Comers' Tourney to be Restricted" (PDF). The New York Times. February 7, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Newport Loses Tennis Tourney" (PDF). The New York Times. February 6, 1915. Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Shannon, Bill (1981). United States Tennis Association Official Encyclopedia of Tennis (Centennial edition). NY: Harper & Row. pp. 237–249. ISBN 0-06-014896-9. 
  11. ^ "Grand Slams – US Open". ITF. Retrieved August 23, 2012. 
  12. ^ US Open schedules Monday finish | Tennis News | ESPN.co.uk
  13. ^ ATP blasts US Open over plans to schedule the 2013 men's final on a Monday | Sports News | ESPN.co.uk
  14. ^ BBC Sport - US Open men's final will make return to Sunday from 2015
  15. ^ "Player Challenges". US Open official website. 
  16. ^ Kaplan, Daniel. "Chase signs mega renewal with Open." Sports Business Journal, August 20, 2007; retrieved November 27, 2010.
  17. ^ "Ashe & Armstrong Stadiums". USTA. May 25, 2008. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  18. ^ Robson, Douglas. "New show court draws a crowd, quietly" USA Today (August 29, 2011)
  19. ^ "Courting Victory on Any Surface". USTA. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  20. ^ "US Open Prize Money Increases Announced". ATP Tour. July 12, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2012. 
  21. ^ a b "US Open Prize Money". USTA. Retrieved August 23, 2012. 
  22. ^ "US Open makes long-term commitment to the game". US open. Retrieved June 25, 2013. 
  23. ^ "ESPN to Gain Full Rights to U.S. Open in 2015". NY Times. Retrieved May 17, 2013. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 40°44′59.26″N 73°50′45.91″W / 40.7497944°N 73.8460861°W / 40.7497944; -73.8460861

Preceded by
Wimbledon
Grand Slam Tournament
August–September
Succeeded by
Australian Open
Preceded by
New Haven
US Open Series
July–September
Succeeded by
None