USS Enterprise (CVN-65)

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Enterprise underway in the Atlantic Ocean during Summer Pulse 2004.
USS Enterprise underway in the Atlantic Ocean
Class overview
Name:Enterprise-class aircraft carrier
Builders:Newport News Shipbuilding
Operators: United States Navy
Preceded by:Kitty Hawk-class
Succeeded by:Nimitz-class
In commission:25 November 1961
Planned:6
Completed:1
Active:1
Career (United States)
Name:USS Enterprise
Ordered:15 November 1957
Builder:Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company
Cost:$451.3 million[1]
Laid down:4 February 1958
Launched:24 September 1960
Christened:24 September 1960
Acquired:29 October 1961
Commissioned:25 November 1961
Decommissioned:15 March 2013 (scheduled)
In service:12 January 1962 (maiden voyage)
Reclassified:CVN-65
Homeport:Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia
Status:Active (Inactivation ceremony scheduled for 1 December 2012)
General characteristics
Class & type:Enterprise-class aircraft carrier
Displacement:93,284 long tons (94,781 t) Full Load[2]
Length:1,123 ft (342 m)[3][4]
Beam:132.8 ft (40.5 m) (waterline)
257.2 ft (78.4 m) (extreme)
Draft:39 ft (12 m)
Propulsion:8 × Westinghouse A2W nuclear reactors
four sets Westinghouse geared steam turbines, 4 × shafts
280,000 shp (210 MW)
Speed:33.6 kn (38.7 mph; 62.2 km/h)
Range:Unlimited distance; 20-25 years
Complement:

5,828 (maximum)
Ship's company: 3,000 (2,700 Sailors, 150 Chiefs, 150 Officers)

Air wing: 1,800 (250 pilots, and 1,550 support personnel)
Sensors and
processing systems:
AN/SPS-48 3D air search radar
AN/SPS-49 2D air search radar
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
AN/SLQ-32
Mark 36 SRBOC
Armament:
Armor:8 in (20 cm) aluminum belt (equivalent to 4 in (10 cm) rolled homogeneous steel armor), armored flight deck, hangar, magazines and reactor[5][6]
Aircraft carried:Hold up to 90
60+ (normally)[7]
Aviation facilities:Flight deck: 1,123 ft (342 m)
Motto:We Are Legend;
Ready on Arrival;
The First, the Finest;
Eight Reactors, None Faster
Nickname:Big E[8]
Notes:The ship has 4 steam powered catapults.[9]
Badge:
Seal of the Enterprise
 
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Enterprise underway in the Atlantic Ocean during Summer Pulse 2004.
USS Enterprise underway in the Atlantic Ocean
Class overview
Name:Enterprise-class aircraft carrier
Builders:Newport News Shipbuilding
Operators: United States Navy
Preceded by:Kitty Hawk-class
Succeeded by:Nimitz-class
In commission:25 November 1961
Planned:6
Completed:1
Active:1
Career (United States)
Name:USS Enterprise
Ordered:15 November 1957
Builder:Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company
Cost:$451.3 million[1]
Laid down:4 February 1958
Launched:24 September 1960
Christened:24 September 1960
Acquired:29 October 1961
Commissioned:25 November 1961
Decommissioned:15 March 2013 (scheduled)
In service:12 January 1962 (maiden voyage)
Reclassified:CVN-65
Homeport:Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia
Status:Active (Inactivation ceremony scheduled for 1 December 2012)
General characteristics
Class & type:Enterprise-class aircraft carrier
Displacement:93,284 long tons (94,781 t) Full Load[2]
Length:1,123 ft (342 m)[3][4]
Beam:132.8 ft (40.5 m) (waterline)
257.2 ft (78.4 m) (extreme)
Draft:39 ft (12 m)
Propulsion:8 × Westinghouse A2W nuclear reactors
four sets Westinghouse geared steam turbines, 4 × shafts
280,000 shp (210 MW)
Speed:33.6 kn (38.7 mph; 62.2 km/h)
Range:Unlimited distance; 20-25 years
Complement:

5,828 (maximum)
Ship's company: 3,000 (2,700 Sailors, 150 Chiefs, 150 Officers)

Air wing: 1,800 (250 pilots, and 1,550 support personnel)
Sensors and
processing systems:
AN/SPS-48 3D air search radar
AN/SPS-49 2D air search radar
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
AN/SLQ-32
Mark 36 SRBOC
Armament:
Armor:8 in (20 cm) aluminum belt (equivalent to 4 in (10 cm) rolled homogeneous steel armor), armored flight deck, hangar, magazines and reactor[5][6]
Aircraft carried:Hold up to 90
60+ (normally)[7]
Aviation facilities:Flight deck: 1,123 ft (342 m)
Motto:We Are Legend;
Ready on Arrival;
The First, the Finest;
Eight Reactors, None Faster
Nickname:Big E[8]
Notes:The ship has 4 steam powered catapults.[9]
Badge:
Seal of the Enterprise

USS Enterprise (CVN-65), formerly CVA(N)-65, is the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the eighth United States naval vessel to bear the name. Like her predecessor of World War II fame, she is nicknamed the "Big E". At 1,123 ft (342 m),[3][4] she is the longest naval vessel in the world. Her 93,284 long tons (94,781 t)[2] displacement ranks her as the 11th-heaviest supercarrier, after the 10 carriers of the Nimitz class. Enterprise has a crew of some 4,600 people.[7]

The only ship of her class, Enterprise is the second oldest commissioned vessel in the United States Navy, after the wooden-hulled, three-masted frigate USS Constitution. She was originally scheduled for decommissioning in 2014 or 2015, depending on the life of her reactors and completion of her replacement, USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78).[10] But the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 slated the ship's retirement for 2013, when she will have served for 51 consecutive years, longer than any other U.S. aircraft carrier.[11]

Enterprise's home port is at Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia as of September 2012.[12] Her final deployment, the last before her decommissioning, began on 11 March 2012. She is scheduled to be deactivated on 1 December 2012.[13]

Contents

Design

Enterprise (yellow) compared to large ships and buildings:
  The Pentagon, 1,414 feet, 431 m
  RMS Queen Mary 2, 1,132 feet, 345 m
  USS Enterprise, 1,123 feet, 342 m
  Hindenburg, 804 feet, 245 m
  Yamato, 863 feet, 263 m
  Empire State Building, 1,454 feet, 443 m
  Knock Nevis, ex-Seawise Giant, 1,503 feet, 458 m

Enterprise was meant to be the first of a class of six, but construction costs ballooned and the remaining vessels were never laid down. Because of the huge cost of her construction, Enterprise was launched and commissioned without the planned RIM-2 Terrier missile launchers. These were never installed and the ship's self-defense suite instead consisted of three shorter-range RIM-7 Sea Sparrow, Basic Point Defense Missile System (BPDMS) launchers.[14] Later upgrades added two NATO Sea Sparrow (NSSM) and three Mk 15 Phalanx CIWS gun mounts.[15] One CIWS mount was later removed and two 21-cell RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile launchers were added.[16]

Enterprise is also the only aircraft carrier to house more than two nuclear reactors.[3] having an eight-reactor propulsion design, with each A2W reactor taking the place of one of the conventional boilers in earlier constructions.[citation needed] She is the only carrier with four rudders, two more than other classes, and features a more cruiser-like hull.[17]

Enterprise also had a phased array radar system that was better at tracking multiple airborne targets than conventional rotating antenna radars. These early phased arrays, replaced around 1980, were responsible for the distinctive square-looking island.[9]

History

Commissioning and trials

In 1958, Enterprise's keel was laid at Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company. On 24 September 1960, the ship was launched, sponsored by Mrs. W. B. Franke, wife of the former Secretary of the Navy. On 25 November 1961, Enterprise was commissioned, with Captain Vincent P. De Poix, formerly of Fighting Squadron 6 on her predecessor,[18] in command. On 12 January 1962, the ship made her maiden voyage conducting a three-month shakedown cruise and a lengthy series of tests and training exercises designed to determine the full capabilities of the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier.

1960s

On 20 February 1962, Enterprise was a tracking and measuring station for the flight of Friendship 7, the Project Mercury space capsule in which Lieutenant Colonel John H. Glenn, Jr. made the first American orbital spaceflight. In August, the carrier joined the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, returning to Norfolk, Virginia in October.[citation needed]

1962 Cuban Missile Crisis

In October 1962, Enterprise was dispatched to her first international crisis. Following revelations that the Soviet Union was constructing nuclear missile launch sites on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy ordered the United States Department of Defense to conduct a large-scale buildup. Among the preparations, the U.S. Atlantic Fleet readied large numbers of its ships. On 24 October, President Kennedy ordered a naval and air "quarantine" (blockade) on shipment of offensive military equipment to Cuba, and demanded the Soviets dismantle the missile sites there. Four United States Second Fleet carriers participated in the blockade - Enterprise (as part of Task Force 135), Independence, Essex, and Randolph, backed by shore-based aircraft. By 28 October, the crisis was averted, after the US secretly agreed to remove nuclear missiles from Italy and Turkey.

Second and third deployments

Task Force 1, the world's first nuclear-powered task force. Enterprise, Long Beach and Bainbridge in formation in the Mediterranean, 18 June 1964. Enterprise has Einstein's mass-energy equivalence formula E=mc² spelled out on its flight deck. Note the distinctive phased array radars in the superstructures of Enterprise and Long Beach.

On 19 December 1962, a E-2 Hawkeye was aircraft catapulted off Enterprise in the first shipboard test of a nose-wheel launch bar designed to replace the catapult bridle.[original research?] Minutes later, a second launch with a launch bar was made by an A-6A, demonstrating one of the primary design goals of reducing launch intervals.[citation needed]

In 1963–1964, Enterprise made her second and third deployment to the Mediterranean, respectively. Also during the third Mediterranean deployment, the carrier was part of Operation Sea Orbit, the world's first nuclear-powered task force with the cruisers Long Beach and Bainbridge, which joined to sail around the world. On 25 February 1964, a crewman of the Finnish merchant ship Verna Paulin was injured in a fall whilst the ship was in the vicinity of Souda Bay, Greece. Enterprise answered her call for assistance. A surgeon was transferred to Verna Paulin by helicopter.[19] In October 1964, Enterprise returned to Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company for her first refueling and overhaul.

Vietnam deployments

In November 1965, the Big E was transferred to the Pacific Seventh Fleet, home-porting at NAS Alameda California. The following month, on 2 December, she became the first nuclear-powered ship to engage in combat when she launched aircraft against the Viet Cong near Bien Hoa. The ship led Carrier Division Three, with USS Enterprise (CVAN-65), which had Carrier Air Wing Nine aboard, USS Bainbridge (DLGN-25); USS Barry (DD-933); and USS Samuel B. Roberts (DD-823). Enterprise launched 125 sorties on the first day, unleashing 167 short tons (151 t) of bombs and rockets on the enemy's supply lines. On 3 December, she set a record of 165 strike sorties in a single day.[citation needed]

In January 1966, the carrier was continuing operations as a unit of Task Force 77 in the Gulf of Tonkin, as the flag ship of Rear Admiral Henry L. Miller, Commander Carrier Division Three.[20] Under the command of Captain James L. Holloway III, she was carrying a complement of approximately 350 officers and 4,800 men. Four West coast squadrons of Carrier Air Wing Nine, commanded by Commander F. T. Brown, were embarked; Fighter Squadron 92, under Commander E.A. Rawsthorne, and Fighter Squadron 96, under Commander R. D. Norman, flying F-4B Phantoms; Attack Squadron 93 under Commander A.J. Monger, and Attack Squadron 94, under Commander O.E. Krueger, flying A-4C Skyhawks. With these squadrons were three others based on the East Coast; Attack Squadron 36, under Commander J.E. Marshall, Attack Squadron 76, under Commander J.B. Linder, flying A-4C Skyhawks; and Reconnaissance Attack Squadron 7, under Commander K. Enny, flying RA-5C Vigilantes. Rear Admiral Miller was relieved as Commander Carrier Division Three by Rear Admiral T.J. Walker on 16 February 1966. During the change of command ceremony on the flight deck, Rear Admiral Miller praised the ship's performance in his farewell remarks, and presented air medals to more than one hundred pilots and flight officers.

The ship tied up at Leyte Pier, Subic Bay, on the evening of 8 December 1966 (Enterprise Command History 1966). Loading of supplies for the first line period was started immediately. Rear Admiral Walter L. Curtis, Jr., Commander Carrier Division Nine, broke his flag aboard. In company with USS Manley (DD-940), USS Gridley (DLG-21) and USS Bainbridge (DLGN-25), Enterprise sailed for Yankee Station on 15 December, and took up her position there three days later.

When Enterprise departed the Gulf of Tonkin on 20 June 1967, her pilots had flown more than 13,400 battle missions during 132 combat days of operations.(Enterprise Command History 1967, 29) As Vice Admiral Hyland stated in his congratulatory statement, "the entire Air Wing Nine has earned a resounding 'Well Done'." The carrier had steamed 67,630 miles in operations with the Seventh Fleet. She arrived in Subic Bay 22 June and departed the 25th for return to Alameda 6 July 1967.

Sailors aboard Enterprise battle a massive ordnance fire triggered by a Zuni rocket. 14 January 1969

At Alameda, Enterprise began an overhaul. Captain Kent L. Lee relieved Captain James L. Holloway as commanding officer in ceremonies on 11 July 1967. Shipyard work completed, Enterprise steamed south from San Francisco Bay to San Diego to reembark Carrier Air Wing Nine and get underway for refresher training off the California coast.

In January 1968, the capture of Pueblo by a North Korean patrol boat led to a diplomatic crisis. Enterprise was ordered to operate near South Korean waters for almost a month.

During the morning of 14 January 1969, while being escorted by the destroyers USS Benjamin Stoddert (DDG-22) and USS Rogers (DD-876), a MK-32 Zuni rocket loaded on a parked F-4 Phantom exploded due to ordnance cook off after being overheated by an aircraft start unit mounted to a tow tractor.[21] The explosion set off fires and additional explosions across the flight deck. The fires were brought under control relatively quickly (when compared with previous carrier flight deck fires), but 27 lives were lost and an additional 314 men were injured. The fire destroyed 15 aircraft, and the resulting damage forced Enterprise to put in for repairs at Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard, primarily to repair the flight deck's armored plating.[22] On March 1, 1969, repairs to the ship were completed at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and the ship proceeded on her scheduled 'WestPac' deployment to Vietnam and the Tonkin Gulf. These destinations would be delayed by events unfolding in the East Japan Sea.

View of Enterprise's stern during the fire, January 1969

On 14 April 1969, tensions with North Korea flared again as a North Korean aircraft shot down an EC-121 Warning Star that was on a reconnaissance patrol over the East Japan Sea from its base at Atsugi, Japan. The entire 31-man crew was killed. The U.S. responded by activating Task Force 71 (TF 71) to protect future such flights over those international waters. Initially, the Task Force was to comprise Enterprise, Ticonderoga, Ranger, and Hornet with a screen of cruisers and destroyers. The Enterprise arrived on station with TF 71 in late April after completion of repairs. The ships for TF 71 came mostly from Southeast Asia duty. This deployment became one of the largest shows of force in the area since the Korean War.[citation needed]

In all, Enterprise made six combat deployments to Southeast Asia from 1965 to 1975.

1970s

In 1969–1970, Enterprise returned to Newport News Shipbuilding and went through an overhaul and her second refitting. In January 1971, she completed sea trials with newly designed nuclear reactor cores that contained enough energy for 10 years. Enterprise then left for Vietnam, again to provide air support for American and South Vietnamese units.

Southeast Asia

In Vietnam, Enterprise, Oriskany and Midway launched a total of 2,001 strike sorties by 30 July 1971. Strike operations in July were disrupted when the carriers on station evaded three typhoons: Harriet, Kim and Jean. A slight increase in South Vietnam strike sorties occurred during the month. These were mainly visual strikes against enemy troop positions and in support of U.S. helicopter operations. From August–November 1971, Enterprise was in operations on Yankee Station.

In December 1971 during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Enterprise was deployed to the Bay of Bengal as a show of strength against India's naval blockade by INS Vikrant. A Soviet Navy submarine was also trailing the US task force. A confrontation was averted when the Americans moved towards South East Asia, away from the Indian Ocean.[23]

In October 1972, the U.S. ended tactical air sorties into North Vietnam above the 20th parallel and brought Linebacker I operations to a close, a gesture designed to promote peace negotiations being held in Paris. Enterprise and the other carriers had flown a total of 23,652 tactical air attack sorties into North Vietnam from May–October and U.S. tactical air sorties during Linebacker I operations helped to stem the flow of supplies into North Vietnam, thereby limiting the operating capabilities of the North Vietnamese Army.[citation needed]

From October to December, Enterprise alternated with other carriers on Yankee Station during the bombing halt and remained on station. As a result of the bombing halt above the 20th parallel in North Vietnam, no MiG kills or U.S. aircraft losses were recorded during this time.[citation needed]

On 18 December 1972, the U.S. resumed bombing campaigns above the 20th parallel under the name Linebacker II. During Linebacker II operations, Enterprise and other carriers on station reseeded the mine fields in Haiphong harbor and conducted concentrated strikes against surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery sites, enemy army barracks, petroleum storage areas, Haiphong naval and shipyard areas, and railroad and truck stations. Navy tactical air attack sorties under Linebacker II were centered in the coastal areas around Hanoi and Haiphong. There were 705 Navy sorties in this area during Linebacker II. Between 18 and 22 December the Navy conducted 119 Linebacker II strikes in North Vietnam, with the main limiting factor on airstrikes being bad weather.

In December 1972, the North Vietnamese returned to the peace table and Linebacker II ended. In January 1973, the Vietnam cease fire was announced and American carriers ceased all combat sorties into North and South Vietnam.

From 28 January 1973, aircraft from Enterprise and Ranger flew 81 combat sorties against lines-of-communication targets in Laos. The corridor for overflights was between Huế and Da Nang in South Vietnam. These combat support sorties were flown in support of the Laotian government, which had requested this assistance. Laos had no relationship with the cease-fire in Vietnam.

Post-Vietnam

After the cease-fire in Vietnam in 1973, Enterprise proceeded to the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, Washington, where the carrier was altered and refitted to support the Navy's newest fighter aircraft – the F-14 Tomcat. Two of four jet blast deflectors were enlarged to accommodate the Tomcat. The No. 4 propulsion shaft was replaced; it had been bent when its screw became fouled in a discarded arresting gear cable.

In the 1970s, Enterprise was refitted to handle F-14 Tomcats, which operated from the ship from 1974 to 2001.

On 18 March 1974, the first operational Tomcats of VF-1 Wolfpack and VF-2 Bounty Hunters made their maiden takeoffs and landings from the carrier. In September 1974, Enterprise became the first carrier to deploy with the new fighter plane when she made her seventh western Pacific (WESTPAC) deployment.

In February 1975, Typhoon Gervaise struck the island nation of Mauritius, and Enterprise was ordered to provide disaster relief. Arriving at Port Louis, carrier personnel spent more than 10,000 man-hours rendering such assistance as restoring water, power and telephone systems, clearing roads and debris, and providing helicopter, medical, food and drinkable water support to the stricken area.

Operation Frequent Wind

In April 1975, Enterprise, Midway, Coral Sea, Hancock, and Okinawa were deployed to waters off Vietnam for possible evacuation contingencies as North Vietnam, in violation of the Paris Peace Accords, launched a conventional invasion of South Vietnam. On 29 April, Operation Frequent Wind was carried out by U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps helicopters from the 7th Fleet. The Operation involved the evacuation of American citizens and "at-risk' Vietnamese from Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam under heavy attack from the invading forces of North Vietnam.

President Gerald Ford ordered helicopter evacuation when PAVN shelling forced the cessation of fixed-wing evacuation from Tan Son Nhut airport. With fighter cover provided by carrier aircraft, the helicopters landed at the US Embassy, Saigon and the DAO Compound to pick up evacuees. The last helicopter lifted off the roof of the US Embassy at 07:53 on 30 April 1975 carrying the last 11 Marine Security Guards. During Operation Frequent Wind, aircraft from Enterprise flew 95 sorties.

Eighth and ninth deployments

In July 1976 Enterprise began her eighth Western Pacific deployment.

In February 1977, Idi Amin, the President of Uganda, made derogatory remarks against the United States in public and Americans in Uganda were taken hostage. This was several months after the Israeli raid at Entebbe airport. Enterprise and her escort ships, having just left Mombasa after a port call, were directed to remain in the area and operated off the east African coast for about one week. At that point the ships were scheduled to transit home after a seven-month deployment. The ship's Marine detachment and air wing prepared for a possible mission to rescue and evacuate the Americans, but Amin eventually released all the hostages. The ships then steamed across the Indian Ocean at high speed to make a previously scheduled final port call at NAS Cubi Point in the Philippines before returning to NAS Alameda.

In 1978, Enterprise underwent her ninth Western Pacific deployment, including port calls in Hong Kong, Perth, Australia, and Singapore. In January 1979, the carrier sailed into Puget Sound Naval Shipyard for a comprehensive 36-month overhaul. This overhaul modified the ship's superstructure—removing the SCANFAR radars and the unique inverted cone-shaped top section, which was three stories high. During the lengthy overhaul, Navy and shipyard personnel referred to the Enterprise as Building 65.

1980s

In 1982, the carrier made her 10th WESTPAC deployment. In April 1983, Enterprise ran aground on a sandbar in San Francisco Bay while returning from deployment and remained stuck there for several hours.[24] Coincidentally, George Takei, who played Mr. Sulu, helmsman of the fictional starship Enterprise was aboard at the time as a Distinguished Visitor of the Navy.[25] Even though groundings and collisions are usually career-enders for U.S. warship captains, the captain at the time, Robert J. Kelly, who had already been selected for promotion to commodore, eventually became a four-star admiral and commander in chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet.[26]

In 1984, the carrier underwent her 11th WESTPAC deployment. On 2 November 1985, she struck Bishops Rock on the Cortes Bank during exercises, damaging the outer hull and propeller. She continued operations and later went to drydock for repairs.

In 1986, the carrier made her 12th WESTPAC deployment, leaving on 15 January 1986. She led Battle Group FOXTROT, including USS Truxtun, USS Arkansas, USS O'Brien, USS Reasoner, USS Lewis B. Puller, McClusky, and USS David R. Ray. The Battle Group sailed directly for the Indian Ocean, with stops in Hawaii, Naval Station Subic Bay, and Singapore.[27] On 28 April 1986, Enterprise became the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to transit the Suez Canal. She went from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean to relieve Coral Sea, on station with America off the coast of Libya. Enterprise entered the Mediterranean to support "Operation El Dorado Canyon", the U.S. bombing of Libya. It was the ship's first visit to the Mediterranean in more than 22 years. During the deployment, Rear Admiral J.T. Howe was relieved as Commander Cruiser-Destroyer Group 3 by Rear Admiral Paul David Miller.[28]

In April 1988, Enterprise underwent her 13th deployment and was assigned to Operation Earnest Will, escorting reflagged Kuwaiti oil tankers in the Persian Gulf. On 14 April, another Earnest Will ship, Samuel B. Roberts, struck an Iranian mine in international waters. In response, the U.S. launched Operation Praying Mantis against Iranian targets, starting with two Iranian oil platforms that were being used as support bases for Iranian attacks on merchant shipping. Aircraft from Enterprise's CVW-11 bombed two Iranian frigates, helping to sink one, and provided other air support for the strike.[29]

In September 1989, Enterprise left Alameda and began her 14th overseas deployment, an around-the-world cruise that would end at the ship's new homeport of Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia. In early December 1989, Enterprise and Midway participated in Operation Classic Resolve, President George H.W. Bush's response to Philippine President Corazon Aquino's request for air support during the rebel coup attempt. Enterprise remained on station conducting flight operations in the waters outside Manila Bay until the situation subsided.

1990s

In March 1990, Enterprise completed her around-the-world deployment, arriving in Norfolk, Virginia, after having steamed more than 43,000 mi (69,000 km) (nautical). In October, the carrier moved to Newport News Shipbuilding for refueling and the Navy's largest complex overhaul refit ever attempted. During this overhaul, the Navy extended the carrier's length from 1,101 ft (336 m) to 1,123 ft (342 m), as well as other modifications to extend her service life.

On 27 September 1994, Enterprise returned to sea for sea trials, during which she performed an extended full power run as fast as when she was new.

On 28 June 1996, Enterprise began her 15th overseas deployment. The carrier enforced no-fly zones in Bosnia as part of Operation Joint Endeavor and over Iraq as part of Operation Southern Watch. The deployment ended in December 1996, which also marked the end of active service for the A-6 Intruder from the Navy. In February 1997, Enterprise entered Newport News Shipbuilding for an extended selective restrictive availability lasting four-and-a-half months.

Aircraft carrier steaming away from camera in open sea. On deck is a large contingent of aircraft
Enterprise patrols the Persian Gulf in support of Operation Desert Fox

In November 1998, following workups, Enterprise departed on her 16th overseas deployment, with CVW-3 embarked. On the night of 8 November, shortly after the start of the deployment, a EA-6B Prowler crashed into an S-3 Viking on the carrier's flight deck. The mishap occurred as the EA-6B was landing during night carrier qualifications, striking the folded wings of the S-3, which had not yet cleared the landing area of the flight deck. The four crew of the EA-6B perished when the aircraft hit the water, but the two crew members of the S-3 ejected. A fire broke out on the flight deck, but was quickly extinguished by the flight deck crew. Three of the four members of the Prowler crew were lost at sea, and the remains of the fourth were recovered shortly after the crash. The crew of the Viking were rushed to the Naval Medical Center Portsmouth (Portsmouth, Virginia). There were no other significant injuries. An exhaustive search for three missing EA-6B Prowler crew members was suspended after nearly 24 hours.

On 23 November 1998, Enterprise relieved Dwight D. Eisenhower in the Persian Gulf. During a port call in Dubai, UAE, the carrier hosted former President George H.W. Bush and a live concert by Grammy Award-winning rock group Hootie and the Blowfish. In December 1998, Enterprise battlegroup spearheaded Operation Desert Fox, destroying Iraqi military targets with more than 300 Tomahawk land attack missiles and 691,000 lb (346 short tons; 313 t) of ordnance. The 70-hour assault was carried out by Enterprise, Gettysburg, Stout, Nicholson and Miami.

Shortly after the Racak massacre and failure of Yugoslavian peace talks in Rambouillet, France, Enterprise quickly left a port visit in Cannes, France to return to the Adriatic.

In early March 1999, Enterprise returned to the Persian Gulf to relieve Carl Vinson in support of Operation Southern Watch, returning to Norfolk in May 1999.

During the 1998–1999 deployment, Enterprise steamed more than 50,000 nmi (93,000 km; 58,000 mi) and spent 151 days underway. Enterprise Battle Group was the first to deploy with IT-21, which allowed unprecedented internal and external communication capabilities, including Internet, email, and television.

2000s

Enterprise, the world's first nuclear-powered carrier (background) with what was then the newest: French carrier Charles De Gaulle, 16 May 2001

On 25 April 2001, Enterprise began her 17th overseas deployment with CVW-8. From 18–28 June, the carrier and four escorts participated in an exercise with the British Royal Navy in a joint and combined warfare training exercise in the North Sea, near the Hebrides Islands and in Scotland.

Enterprise was beginning her voyage home from the Persian Gulf when the September 11 attacks were carried out. Without orders, the carrier returned at flank speed to the waters off Southwest Asia near the Persian Gulf, outrunning her escorts. In October 2001, the United States launched air attacks against Al Qaeda training camps and Taliban military installations in Afghanistan. The actions were designed to disrupt the use of Afghanistan as a base for terrorist operations and to attack the military capability of the Taliban regime. Over three weeks, aircraft from Enterprise flew nearly 700 missions and dropped large amounts of ordnance over Afghanistan. On 10 November, the carrier arrived at her home port of Norfolk, Virginia, 16 days later than originally planned. During her last day at sea, the ship hosted a live two-hour broadcast of ABC's Good Morning America. Garth Brooks performed a concert with Jewel from Enterprise on 21 November while she was docked in Norfolk, Virginia. The concert was carried live on CBS.

In January 2002, Enterprise entered the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Portsmouth, Virginia for a scheduled one-year Extended Dry Docking Selected Restricted Availability.

Operation Iraqi Freedom

USS Enterprise (CVN 65) Sailors of the Year appeared on the set of the Paramount Television series Enterprise to present the cast and crew with an American flag in 2003. The flag was flown in their honor as gratitude for the support the cast, and crew of the TV series have given the Sailors of the carrier.

In 2003–2004, the carrier provided air support for Operation Iraqi Freedom. In 2004, the ship participated in Summer Surge 2004 and several multinational exercises.

In May 2006, Enterprise departed for a six-month deployment, operating in the 6th, 5th and 7th Fleet areas, and supported both Operations Iraqi and Enduring Freedom. She returned to Norfolk 18 November 2006.

On 19 December 2007, the carrier returned home after a six-month deployment in the Persian Gulf.[30]

In April 2008, Enterprise entered the Northrop-Grumman Newport News shipyard for a scheduled 18 month Extended Docking Selected Restricted Availability, with a projected completion date of September 2009. As maintenance was performed, costs continued to rise above projections and the completion date repeatedly slid. Enterprise, the oldest active combat vessel in the Navy, was scheduled to be decommissioned as late as 2014. On 6 April 2009, Admiral Gary Roughead, Chief of Naval Operations, stated that he was seeking a congressional dispensation to speed up the process to decommission Enterprise. Under this new timetable, the ship would complete one final deployment before being decommissioned in late 2012 or early 2013. This would temporarily reduce the U.S. Navy to having only ten active aircraft carriers through the launch of the Gerald R. Ford in 2015. In October 2009, the House and Senate Armed Services Committees agreed with the recommendation, approving the decommissioning of Enterprise in 2013 after 51 years of service.[11]

2010s

In April 2010, the Navy announced that the cost of refurbishing the carrier had risen to $655 million and was scheduled to be completed the same month.[31] On 19 April 2010, Enterprise left the Northrop Grumman shipyard to conduct sea trials in preparation for return to the fleet.[32] The total cost of refurbishing the carrier was $662 million, which was 46% over budget. Also, it took eight months longer than scheduled. The Navy said it planned to use the carrier for two six-month deployments before her scheduled 2013 decommissioning date.[33]

On 1 January 2011, the Virginian-Pilot leaked highlights from the final video of a set entitled "XO Movie Night" that was filmed on Enterprise and aired via closed circuit television on select Saturday evenings. The videos, which were not meant for release outside the command, were produced by Capt. Owen Honors when he was executive officer (XO) of the ship in the 2006–2007 timeframe and included profanity, anti-gay slurs, and sexually suggestive scenes.[34][35] Capt. Honors received public support from Navy personnel,[36] but on 4 January 2011, Adm. John C. Harvey Jr., the commander of the United States Fleet Forces Command in Norfolk removed Honors for demonstrating poor judgment. Capt. Dee Mewbourne was appointed as replacement commander.[37] Forty officers and enlisted sailors, including six flag officers, were later disciplined to varying extents over the incident.[38]

The carrier and her strike group deployed on 13 January 2011. Accompanying the carrier on the cruise to the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean were Carrier Air Wing One, guided missile cruiser Leyte Gulf, and guided missile destroyers Barry, Bulkeley, and Mason.[39] In February 2011 the Enterprise was involved in an incident with Somali pirates, an event that ended in the deaths of four American citizens and four pirates.[40]

The carrier returned to Norfolk on 15 July 2011. During its deployment, it had participated in operations that captured 75 Somali pirates and its strike group made missile strikes against the Libyan government.[41]

On 9 April 2012, the Navy announced that the Enterprise and her group, Carrier Strike Group Twelve, would be assigned to join the USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) in the Persian Gulf. The mission was described as routine, not a response to a specific threat. Upon completion of this mission, the Enterprise is scheduled to be deactivated (Fall 2012).[42]

Decommissioning

Enterprise, is scheduled for decommissioning on 1 December 2012 at Norfolk Naval Station, Virginia, with her inactivation scheduled to begin no later than 15 March 2013.[43][44] The deactivation of the Enterprise will result in a one-time increase of approximately $857.3 million in depot maintenance costs for the U.S. Navy's operation and maintenance budget for Fiscal Year 2013.[45]

Enterprise will be the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier decommissioned.[46] Petitioners and naval enthusiasts have requested the Enterprise be converted into a museum, including a 2009 Internet-based petition;[47][48] Harold Hutchison has pointed out that early decommissioning will reduce the current number of carriers to 10, and would diminish the ability of the United States to respond.[49] While the costs of doing so regarding her nuclear reactors has yet to be calculated by the United States Department of Defense, by 2012 they had been deemed too expensive to make such an effort practical.[13] A petition has also been set up for the next carrier (CVN-80) to be named as the ninth USS Enterprise.[50]

Newport News Shipbuilding will deactivate and de-fuel the ship after her decommissioning.[51] The process is scheduled to begin in mid-2013 and be completed in 2015.[13] Once the Navy dismantles and recycles the ship's reactors, there will be very little left to turn into a museum;[47] virtually everything two decks below the hangar bay would have to be cut apart.[47] What remains of Enterprise following 2015 is currently scheduled to be taken to Washington state for scrapping.[13] It remains possible the ship's island could be removed and used as a memorial.[47]

In Popular Culture

Enterprise was a principal setting of the popular movie Top Gun released in 1986. Director Tony Scott filmed actual flight operations aboard ship and incorporated them into the film's plot. Some interior scenes taking place aboard Enterprise were actually filmed on USS Ranger (CV-61).

Also in 1986, Enterprise was a setting of scenes in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home. The ship was unavailable for filming, so scenes depicting Enterprise were again filmed aboard USS Ranger.[52]

In The Hunt for Red October film production, the Enterprise is the flagship of the US fleet responding to the Soviet deployment.

More important for Star Trek lore, the first nuclear aircraft carrier was in position to inspire naming of Starship USS Enterprise (NCC-1701). The original premise by Gene Roddenberry dated March 1964 describes a starship USS Yorktown. As USS Enterprise (CVN-65) was then one of the newest and most celebrated ships of the US Navy, occupying a similar status as the fictional Starship Enterprise, the aircraft carrier may have inspired a name change. One of Art Director Matt Jeffries' original drawings depicts the Starship Enterprise with Enterprise (CVN-65) for scale.[53] Most of the subsequent Star Trek television shows and movies have been set aboard a ship named Enterprise.

In turn, the name was given to the Space Shuttle Enterprise. Originally to be named Constitution, test vehicle OV-101 was named following a concerted letter-writing campaign by Star Trek fans.

In the Japanese series, "Mahoromatic Something More Beautiful" the CVN-65 is used to test a matter transporter which sends the Enterprise from the earths surface into the path of an alien ship near the Moon. Just before the ship is transported the character responsible comments, "True science is not without a sense of irony. This turned out to be the first "Enterprise" to be sent into space. Ha Ha Ha!"

See also

References

Citations
  1. ^ Jane's American fighting ships of the 20th century. New York: Mallard Press, 1991. ISBN 0-7924-5626-2.
  2. ^ a b Naval Vessel Register – CVN-65
  3. ^ a b c USS Enterprise Turns 49 Years Old Thanksgiving Day. Navy.mil
  4. ^ a b USS Enterprise Nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. military-today.com
  5. ^ Cracknell, p. 56: "The main armor carried on Enterprise is the heavy armored flight deck. This was to prove a significant factor in the catastrophic fire and explosions that occurred on Enterprise's flight deck in 1969. The US Navy learned its lesson the hard way during World War II when all its carriers had only armored hangar decks. All attack carriers built since the Midway class have had armored flight decks."
  6. ^ Enterprise class nuclear powered attack aircraft carriers
  7. ^ a b ENTERPRISE Facts & Stats. U.S. Navy
  8. ^ USS Enterprise: The Legend. U.S. Navy.
  9. ^ a b Capt Richard Sharpe OBE RN, ed. (2000). Jane's Fighting Ships 2000–2001. Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group Limited. p. 798. ISBN 0-7106-2018-7. 
  10. ^ Navy CVN-21 Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress. history.navy.mil Retrieved 8 December 2006.
  11. ^ a b "House and Senate Armed Services Committees agree FY 2010 Navy shipbuilding authorization". defpro.com, 10 October 2009
  12. ^ "USS Enterprise repair bill now $605 million". dailypress.com, 22 October 2009
  13. ^ a b c d "World's First Nuclear-powered Aircraft Carrier, the Big E, makes final voyage". foxnews.com, 10 March 2012.
  14. ^ Jane's American fighting ships of the 20th century, p. 89. New York, N.Y.: Mallard Press, 1991. ISBN 0-7924-5626-2.
  15. ^ Cullen, Tony. Encyclopedia Of World Sea Power, p. 68. ISBN 0-517-65342-7.
  16. ^ 061031-N-0119G-115 Stbd side, RAM aft, DN-SD-07-21656 Forward Port side, RAM launcher[dead link]
  17. ^ "The First and the Finest: Aboard the USS Enterprise". Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110628223157/http://www.nascar.com/2007/news/opinion/06/20/bweber.cedwards.uss.enterprise/index.html. Retrieved 14 July 2007. 
  18. ^ Battle 360, "The Empire's Last Stand." Dir. Tony Long. History Channel. 2 May 2008 (2 May 2008)
  19. ^ "Enterprise". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/e4/enterprise-viiia.htm. Retrieved 5 September 2011. 
  20. ^ Enterprise Command History 1966, history.navy.mil, 1–2
  21. ^ History.com
  22. ^ This YouTube film extract[dead link] shows some of the events. The film can also be seen on militaryvideo.com.
  23. ^ Cold war games
  24. ^ "Off Course". Time, 9 May 1983.
  25. ^ History.navy.mil
  26. ^ CPF.navy.mil
  27. ^ McClusky Command History 1986
  28. ^ Enterprise Command History 1986
  29. ^ Peniston, Bradley (2006). No Higher Honor: Saving the USS Samuel B. Roberts in the Persian Gulf. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 181–187. ISBN 1-59114-661-5. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110718093911/http://www.navybook.com/nohigherhonor/index.shtml. 
  30. ^ USS Enterprise Returns Home
  31. ^ Frost, Peter, "USS Enterprise Delayed Again; Cost Of Maintenance Balloons 44.5 Percent", Newport News Daily Press, 1 April 2010.
  32. ^ "Enterprise Departs for Sea Trials"
  33. ^ Frost, Peter. "USS Enterprise: After Spending 2 Years In Newport News, Enterprise Returned To Navy". Newport News Daily Press, 20 April 2010.
  34. ^ "Raunchy videos starring Enterprise skipper come to light". http://hamptonroads.com/2010/12/raunchy-videos-starring-enterprise-skipper-come-light. Retrieved 2 January 2011. 
  35. ^ "Navy Captain Owen Honors 'to lose post for lewd videos'". BBC News. 4 January 2011. Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110105090056/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-12114023. Retrieved 4 January 2011. 
  36. ^ "Navy to relieve officer during inquiry over lewd videos". http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/40889027/ns/us_news-life. Retrieved 3 January 2011. 
  37. ^ "USFF Relieves USS Enterprise Commanding Officer". U.S. Navy – Fleet Forces Command Public Affairs. http://www.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=57937. Retrieved 4 January 2011. 
  38. ^ Military Times, "40 faulted in Enterprise video investigation", 3 March 2011; Retrieved 4 March 2011.
  39. ^ Lessig, Hugh, "Enterprise Carrier Group To Deploy Next Week", Newport News Daily Press, 8 January 2011.
  40. ^ MSNBC.msn.com
  41. ^ Wilson, Todd Allen, "USS Enterprise Returns To Norfolk", Newport News Daily Press, 16 July 2011.
  42. ^ US Navy deploys 2nd aircraft carrier to Gulf, Associated Press, 9 April 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012
  43. ^ "Inactivation & Decommissioning". Public Relations. USS Enterprise (CVN-65). 2012. http://www.public.navy.mil/airfor/enterprise/Documents/Enterprise/public_relations.html#Deactivate. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  44. ^ "Revised FY13 Projected Ship Inactivation Schedule UNCLASSIFIED". NAVADMIN 123/12. Office of the Chief of Naval Operation N9. 12 April 2012. http://www.public.navy.mil/bupers-npc/reference/messages/Documents/NAVADMINS/NAV2012/NAV12123.txt. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  45. ^ Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)/Chief Financial Officer (February 2012). "Operation and Maintenance Overview: Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Estimates PERATION" (in English) (PDF). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Defense. p. Navy - 13. http://comptroller.defense.gov/defbudget/fy2013/fy2013_OM_Overview.pdf. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  46. ^ "CNO wants faster decommissioning for Enterprise", 7 April 2009
  47. ^ a b c d Erwing, Phillip (21 September 2010). "Big E preps for final combat deployment". Navy Times. http://www.navytimes.com/news/2010/09/navy-enterprise-prepares-last-combat-deployment-092010w/. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  48. ^ CVN65.epetitions.net
  49. ^ Harold Hutchison (27 August 2010). "Save the Enterprise". National Review. http://www.nationalreview.com/articles/315012/save-ienterprisei-harold-hutchison?pg=1. Retrieved 27 August 2012. 
  50. ^ "Signatures for A Petition to name the next United States Navy nuclear powered aircraft carrier the USS Enterprise". http://ussenterp.epetitions.net/signatures.php?petition_id=1870. Retrieved 18 June 2011. 
  51. ^ USS Enterprise: The Beginning of the End for the “Big E” – Defence Industry Daily, 13/11/08
  52. ^ Okuda, Denise & Michael (1999). The Star Trek Encyclopedia. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-53609-5.
  53. ^ Whitfield, Stephen and Roddenberry, Gene (1968). The Making of Star Trek, p. 167. New York, Ballantine Books. ISBN 345-24691-8-195.
Bibliography

External links

External media
Images
USS Enterprise CVN-65 Photo Gallery at Maritimequest
Videos
Enterprise in War. Nuclear Carrier Joins 7th Fleet, 1965/08/30 (1965), Universal Studios at the Internet Archive
Vietnam Action. Enterprise Planes Support Troops, 1965/12/09 (1965), Universal Studios at the Internet Archive
Preceded by
USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63)
Oldest active combat ship of the United States Navy
2009–present
Succeeded by
incumbent