UEFA coefficient

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In European football, the UEFA coefficients are statistics used for ranking and seeding teams in club and international competitions. The coefficients are calculated by UEFA, who administer football within Europe.

For men's competitions (discussed in this article), three different sets of coefficients are calculated:

While not discussed in this article, coefficients are calculated in a similar fashion for women's competitions such as the UEFA Women's Euro[1] and the UEFA Women's Champions League,[2][3] as well as for youth tournaments such as the UEFA Euro U-21 tournament.[4]

National team coefficient[edit]

The UEFA national team coefficient is derived from the results of each European national football team, and only calculated by UEFA every second year in November; defined as being the point of time when all UEFA nations have completed the qualification stage of the upcoming World Cup or European Championship tournament.

The purpose of calculating the coefficients is to compile an official UEFA rank, to be used as seeding criteria for the European nations, when drawing up qualification groups and the final tournament groups of the European Championship. Previously, up until 2006, the UEFA national team coefficient was also used for the seeded draw of World Cup qualification groups in Europe, while the draw for final tournament groups of the World Cup was always seeded on the basis of the official FIFA World Rankings. The reason why UEFA stopped using UEFA national team coefficients for the seeding of World Cup qualification groups was a request from FIFA to only use the official FIFA ranking for all seeded draws related to the World Cup tournament.

Old ranking and calculation method[edit]

It was first introduced in 2003 and used for seeding the 2004 European Final tournament and 2006 World Cup qualification. Until the end of the Euro 2008 tournament, the UEFA national team coefficient was calculated by dividing the number of all points scored (three points for a win, one for a draw) by the number of all matches played, in the last two qualification rounds of the World Cup or European Championship. Results from the final tournaments, Play-off matches and friendly games were all ignored. In those cases where a nation did not take part at one of the two latest qualifying rounds, due to being directly qualified as a host, only one qualifying round would be taken into account.

If two or more nations ended up with exactly the same coefficient, the following ranking criteria was applied:

  1. Highest coefficient from the matches played in the most recent qualifying competition.
  2. Biggest average goal difference per game, found by dividing the sum of all goal differences by the number of ranked matches.
  3. Highest average number of goals scored per game.
  4. Highest average number of away goals scored per game.
  5. Drawing of lots.

The last three times UEFA used this calculation method was for the final UEFA coefficients in 2003, 2005 and 2007.[5]

New ranking and calculation method[edit]

On 20 May 2008, UEFA announced changes to the coefficient ranking system.[6][7][8] The ranking will continue to be calculated every second year in November, but under the new system, teams now gain ranking points for each game played in the most recently completed full cycle (defined as all qualifying games and final tournament games) of both the World Cup and European Championship, with addition of ranking points for each game played at the latest completed half cycle (defined as all games played in the latest qualifying round). Ranking points for all games played inside those two and a half cycles, will be awarded according to the rules listed below.

  1. 10,000 points are awarded for each match played, regardless of the match result.
  2. Each team earns an additional 30,000 for winning and 10,000 for drawing.
  3. In case of a game decided by penalty shoot out, the points are allocated as a draw, with the winner of the shoot-out gaining an additional 10,000 points.
  4. Each match at the final tournament, or play-offs to determine qualification, are also granted some extra bonus points, ranging from 6,000 points for all play-offs or World Cup group stage games, to 38,000 points for playing a final.
  5. 501 points are earned for each goal scored, and -500 are given for each goal conceded.
  6. Coefficients are calculated for each two and a half cycle, by dividing the sum of earned points with the number of games played.
  7. When calculating the overall average coefficient for the cycles, the latest full cycle and half cycle will each have double the weight, compared to the oldest full cycle.
  8. Special arrangements are in place for those nations that did not participate in one of the previous qualifying tournaments due to hosting the competition.

Final ranking in 2009[edit]

The coefficients from November 2009, to be used for the seeding and pot placements in the draw for UEFA Euro 2012 qualification groups, were calculated for each country by averaging:

The new official UEFA coefficients were calculated for the first time in November 2009:[9]

Final ranking in 2011[edit]

The coefficients to be calculated for UEFA Euro 2012 final tournament were found by averaging:[10]

The seeding and pot placements of the qualified teams in the draw for Euro 2012 were based on UEFA coefficients, determined on 16 November 2011, which are as follows:[11]

Final ranking in 2013[edit]

The coefficients from 2013, to be used for the seeding and pot placements in the draw for UEFA Euro 2016 qualification groups, were calculated for each country by averaging:

The seeding and pot placements of the teams in the draw for UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying were based on UEFA coefficients, determined on 12 December 2013, which are as follows:[12]

Country coefficient[edit]

Map of UEFA countries, teams from which have reached the group stage of the UEFA Champions League
  UEFA member country that has been represented in the group stage
  UEFA member country that has not been represented in the group stage
  Not a UEFA member

The country coefficient is used to rank the football associations of Europe, and thus determine the number of clubs from an association that will participate in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League.

The UEFA ranking determines the number of teams competing in the season after the next, not in the first season after the publication of the ranking. Thus, the rankings at the end of the 2013–14 season determine the team allocation by association in the 2015–16 (not 2014–15) UEFA season; however, the actual teams that will be participating are determined at the end of the 2014–15 season when the individual association classifications and national cups are finalized.

This coefficient is determined by the results of the clubs of the associations in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League games over the past five seasons. Two points are awarded for each win by a club, and one for a draw (points are halved in the qualifying and playoff rounds). Results determined by extra time do count in determining the allocation of points, but results determined by penalty-shootouts do not affect the allocation of points, other than for bonus points given for qualification into the latter rounds of the Champions League or the Europa League. The number of points awarded each season is divided by the number of teams that participated for that association in that season. This number is then rounded down to three decimal places (e.g. 2⅔ would be rounded to 2.666).[13] [14]

To determine a country's coefficient for a particular season, the coefficients for the last five seasons are added. Bonus points are added to the number of points scored in a season. Bonus points are allocated for:

Current ranking[edit]

The ranking below takes into account of each association's performance in European competitions from 2010–11 to 2014–15, with the 2014–15 season currently taking place.

The final ranking at the end of the 2014–15 season will be used to determine the number of places for each association in the 2016–17 UEFA Champions League and 2016–17 UEFA Europa League.

Note: Starting from the 2015–16 season, all associations will have a maximum of three teams entering the Europa League (currently associations 7–9 have four entrants).[15]

As of 8 August 2014 the coefficients are as follows:[16]

Rank
2015
Rank
2014
Mvmt.Member association
(L: League, C: Cup, LC: League cup1)
2010–112011–122012–132013–142014–15Coeff.Teams
CL placesEL placesTotal
11Disc Plain yellow dark.svgSpain Spain (L, C)18.21420.85717.71423.0002.00081.7857/7437
22Disc Plain yellow dark.svgEngland England (L, C, LC1)18.35715.25016.42816.7851.92868.7487/7
33Disc Plain yellow dark.svgGermany Germany (L, C)15.66615.25017.92814.7141.85765.4156/7
45Green-Up-Arrow.svg +1Portugal Portugal (L, C)18.80011.83311.7509.9161.58353.8826/636
54RedDownArrow.svg –1Italy Italy (L, C)11.57111.35714.41614.1661.66653.1766/6
66Disc Plain yellow dark.svgFrance France (L, C, LC1)10.75010.50011.7508.5001.91643.4166/6
77Disc Plain yellow dark.svgRussia Russia (L, C)10.9169.7509.75010.4161.75042.5826/625
89Green-Up-Arrow.svg +1Ukraine Ukraine (L, C)10.0837.7509.5007.8331.41636.5825/6
98RedDownArrow.svg –1Netherlands Netherlands (L, C)11.16613.6004.2145.9161.08335.9795/6
1010Disc Plain yellow dark.svgBelgium Belgium (L, C)4.60010.1006.5006.4002.00029.6004/5
1113Green-Up-Arrow.svg +2Switzerland Switzerland (L, C)5.9006.0008.3757.2001.50028.9754/5
1211RedDownArrow.svg –1Turkey Turkey (L, C)4.6005.10010.2006.7001.60028.2004/5
1312RedDownArrow.svg –1Greece Greece (L, C)7.6007.6004.4006.1001.60027.3004/5
1415Green-Up-Arrow.svg +1Czech Republic Czech Republic (L, C)3.5005.2508.5008.0001.75027.0001/4
1516Green-Up-Arrow.svg +1Romania Romania (L, C)3.1664.3336.8006.8752.62523.7993/4
1614RedDownArrow.svg –2Austria Austria (L, C)4.3757.1252.2507.8001.00022.5502/414
1717Disc Plain yellow dark.svgIsrael Israel (L, C)4.6256.0003.2505.7501.12520.7501/4
1818Disc Plain yellow dark.svgCyprus Cyprus (L, C)3.1259.1254.0002.7501.20020.2004/5
1920Green-Up-Arrow.svg +1Croatia Croatia (L, C)4.1253.7504.3754.3753.37520.0004/4
2021Green-Up-Arrow.svg +1Poland Poland (L, C)4.5006.6252.5003.1251.62518.3752/4
2119RedDownArrow.svg –2Denmark Denmark (L, C)6.7003.1003.3003.8001.00017.9003/5
2222Disc Plain yellow dark.svgBelarus Belarus (L, C)5.8753.1254.5001.7502.37517.6253/4
2324Green-Up-Arrow.svg +1Sweden Sweden (L, C)2.6002.9005.1253.2002.30016.1252/5
2423RedDownArrow.svg –1Scotland Scotland (L, C)3.6002.7504.3003.2502.12516.0251/4
2525Disc Plain yellow dark.svgBulgaria Bulgaria (L, C)4.6251.5000.7505.6252.25014.7501/4
2626Disc Plain yellow dark.svgNorway Norway (L, C)2.3752.3004.9002.6002.20014.3750/5
2727Disc Plain yellow dark.svgSerbia Serbia (L, C)3.5002.1253.0002.5001.75012.8751/4
2829Green-Up-Arrow.svg +1Slovenia Slovenia (L, C)1.5002.2503.2502.6251.87511.5001/4
2930Green-Up-Arrow.svg +1Slovakia Slovakia (L, C)3.0002.3751.5001.6252.50011.0002/4
3032Green-Up-Arrow.svg +2Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (L, C)2.0001.3753.0002.5002.12511.0002/4
3128RedDownArrow.svg –3Hungary Hungary (L, C)2.7502.2503.0000.8752.00010.8751/4
3234Green-Up-Arrow.svg +2Kazakhstan Kazakhstan (L, C)0.8751.6251.3753.1253.37510.3752/4
3331RedDownArrow.svg –2Moldova Moldova (L, C)2.1250.5002.2503.3751.5009.7502/4
3433RedDownArrow.svg –1Georgia (country) Georgia (L, C)1.8752.8751.5001.8751.2509.3750/4
3537Green-Up-Arrow.svg +2Iceland Iceland (L, C)0.3751.3751.2502.5002.5008.0001/4
3635RedDownArrow.svg –1Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina (L, C)1.8751.1251.2501.5001.7507.5001/4
3736RedDownArrow.svg –1Finland Finland (L, C)1.8001.5002.0000.5001.3007.1001/5
3846Green-Up-Arrow.svg +8Liechtenstein Liechtenstein (C)20.5002.0000.0001.0002.5006.0000/1011
3942Green-Up-Arrow.svg +3Republic of Macedonia Macedonia (L, C)1.3751.6251.2500.5001.1255.8750/4134
4043Green-Up-Arrow.svg +3Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland (L, C)1.0001.5001.0000.2502.0005.7500/4
4139RedDownArrow.svg –2Montenegro Montenegro (L, C)1.7500.5001.3751.2500.7505.6250/4
4240RedDownArrow.svg –2Albania Albania (L, C)0.8750.8750.7502.0000.8755.3750/4
4344Green-Up-Arrow.svg +1Luxembourg Luxembourg (L, C)0.6251.1251.3751.5000.5005.1250/4
4447Green-Up-Arrow.svg +3Northern Ireland Northern Ireland (L, C)1.1250.5001.0000.8751.3754.8750/4
4541RedDownArrow.svg –4Lithuania Lithuania (L, C)0.6251.0001.1251.2500.5004.5000/4
4638RedDownArrow.svg –8Latvia Latvia (L, C)0.5000.6251.2501.6250.2504.2500/4
4745RedDownArrow.svg –2Malta Malta (L, C)1.5000.8330.8750.8750.1254.2080/4
4850Green-Up-Arrow.svg +2Estonia Estonia (L, C)0.2500.3750.3751.0001.5003.5000/4
4951Green-Up-Arrow.svg +2Faroe Islands Faroe Islands (L, C)0.2500.5000.5000.8751.3753.5000/4
5048RedDownArrow.svg –2Wales Wales (L, C)0.8750.6250.5000.7500.1252.8750/4
5149RedDownArrow.svg –2Armenia Armenia (L, C)0.2500.1250.8751.1250.3752.7500/4
5253Green-Up-Arrow.svg +1Andorra Andorra (L, C)0.0000.0000.0000.3330.5000.8330/323
5352RedDownArrow.svg –1San Marino San Marino (L, C)0.1660.0000.0000.3330.0000.4990/3
5454Disc Plain yellow dark.svgGibraltar Gibraltar (L, C)0.0000.0000.0000.0000.2500.2500/212
  Indicates active countries which have all their teams still competing in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.
  Indicates active countries which have teams still competing in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.
  Indicates countries which have no teams remaining in this year's UEFA Champions League or Europa League.

1 The winners of the league cups of England and France are given a place in the UEFA Europa League by special permission from UEFA.
2 The Liechtenstein Football Association does not organize a national league competition as it does not have the necessary amount of national clubs. As a result, the only competitor from Liechtenstein in European competitions is the Liechtenstein Cup winners, who qualify for the UEFA Europa League.

UEFA uses this coefficent system to decide which teams gain automatic entry to the group stage and which teams must go through qualifying. The teams who occupy the top three league places in the countries ranked 1 to 3 in UEFA competition gain automatic entry into the group stages for the following season’s Champions League competition. The first and second placed teams in the countries ranked 4 to 6 also gain automatic entry, as do the champions in the countries ranked 7 to 12. The Champions League holders automatically get the chance to defend their title in the following season’s competition.

Further information on Liechtenstein's status and similar cases.

According to the UEFA regulations a National League needs to consist of at least eight clubs to be considered valid, otherwise no participants of such a league will be allowed to enter European competitions. There are only seven clubs that are active in Liechtenstein, all of which play in neighbouring Switzerland's league competitions. Note: prior to the introduction of the Welsh Premier League in 1992 Wales also had a single participant, the winner (or best placed Welsh team as several English teams also competed) of the Welsh Cup, in the European competitions.

History[edit]

La LigaPremier LeagueLa LigaSerie ABundesligaSerie AFootball League First DivisionBundesligaFootball League First DivisionLa Liga

Ranking has been published by UEFA since 1979 to identify the number of participants for each country in the UEFA Cup after the re-organization of the Inter-cities Fairs Cup in 1971. No calculation of coefficients took place prior to that. Later, for statistical purposes, various rankings were introduced to portray the history of competitions. Because the Inter-cities Fairs Cup was limited only to certain clubs and/or by invitation no coefficient calculation was necessary. According to the prorated (extended) calculation system only four leagues have succeeded in being the top European league.[17]

Due to the Heysel Stadium disaster, all English teams were banned from UEFA competitions in 1985 and so the First Division didn't gain any coefficient points until the ban was lifted after 5 seasons, directly affecting the ranking of the First Division and then the Premier League for 9 years from 1986 to 1994; top in 1985,[18] England was unranked in 1990,[19] and would not regain the top position until 2008.[20]

The table shows the ranking of nations with respect to the total number of years leading in Europe:

As of 24 May 2014
RankLeagueTotal
1Spain La Liga17
2England First Division/Premier League15
3Italy Serie A13
4Germany Bundesliga10

Club coefficient[edit]

The club coefficient rankings are determined by the results of clubs in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League over the previous five seasons, as well as by the coefficient of the clubs' association. The club coefficient is the sum of the points earned by the club over the five seasons plus 20% of the club's association coefficient.[21][22]

The clubs receive two points for a win, one point for a draw, and no points for a defeat in games of the main stages of the Champions League and the Europa League. Results determined after extra-time are included in this method, however results determined after penalty shoot-outs are not (the result is considered a draw). Bonus points for entering the Europa League group stage are not additional to win/draw points; they provide a minimum points allowance for participating clubs, whereas bonus points for entering the Champions League group stage (and those for qualifying to the knockout stage) are additional to win/draw points.

Qualifying round results are only taken into account if the team is eliminated in one of the rounds (see table below). Otherwise, the qualifying round results are taken into account only for the calculation of the association's coefficient and are halved.[21] The clubs do not receive any points for elimination in the Champions League third qualifying round or the play-off because those teams move to the Europa League and receive points from participation in that competition.[22]

RoundPoints awarded
Champions LeagueEuropa League
First qualifying round elimination0.50.25
Second qualifying round elimination10.5
Third qualifying round elimination1
Play-off elimination1.5
Group stage participation42
Win in group stage or subsequent round22
Draw in group stage or subsequent round11
Round of 16 participation5
Quarter-finals, semi-finals, and finals participation11

This ranking is used by UEFA to determine a club's seeding in club competition draws, including the preliminary and first rounds of the Champions League, and the preliminary, first and second rounds of the Europa League.

Before 1999 a number of strong teams in the UEFA Cup were seeded such that those teams did not meet in the first two rounds. To determine these teams, the sum of, the ratio of the number of points achieved to the number of games played by each team, was calculated for the past five years.

UEFA Team Ranking[edit]

The top 25 clubs as of 24 July 2014 are as follows.[23]

Rank
2015
ClubCountry2010–112011–122012–132013–142014-15Coeff.
1Real Madrid Spain33.64236.17129.54239.6004.342143.299
2Barcelona Spain36.64234.17127.54228.6004.342131.299
3Bayern Munich Germany24.13333.05036.58529.9424.342128.054
4Chelsea England26.67133.05030.32828.3574.342122.706
5Benfica Portugal25.76023.36628.35030.9834.266112.726
6Manchester United England36.67116.05021.28526.3570.342100.706
7Atlético Madrid Spain9.64234.17113.54237.6004.34299.299
8Valencia Spain21.64225.17122.54226.6000.34296.299
9Schalke 04 Germany30.13320.05022.58518.9424.34296.054
10Arsenal England22.67122.05021.28521.3572.34289.706
11Porto Portugal31.76012.36622.35017.9832.26686.726
12Borussia Dortmund Germany10.13310.05033.58524.9424.34283.054
13Paris Saint-Germain France14.1509.10027.35026.7004.26681.566
14Milan Italy18.31422.27119.88318.8330.26679.568
15Tottenham England24.67110.05019.28518.3571.84274.206
16Manchester City England16.67120.05010.28522.3574.34273.706
17Zenit St. Petersburg Russia18.18319.95014.95018.0831.70072.866
18Basel  Switzerland10.18020.20017.67520.4404.20072.695
19Shakhtar Donetsk Ukraine26.0169.55018.90012.5664.20071.233
20Lyon France19.15019.10014.35016.7001.26670.566
21Bayer Leverkusen Germany16.13319.05012.58518.9422.34269.054
22Juventus Italy8.3142.27125.88325.8334.26666.568
23Internazionale Italy21.31420.27116.8832.8331.76663.068
24Napoli Italy9.31421.2718.88318.8332.26660.568
25Rubin Kazan Russia12.1839.95019.95013.0830.20055.366
  Indicates teams still active in this year's UEFA Champions League or UEFA Europa League.
  Indicates teams from active countries in this year's UEFA Champions League or UEFA Europa League.

Top club by period[edit]

Top-ranked clubs in each 5-year period listed by year:[24]

Top-rated clubs listed by number of times they were top-ranked over a 5 year period:

RankClubTotal
1Spain Real Madrid15
2Spain Barcelona8
3Italy Juventus7
4West Germany Borussia Mönchengladbach5
5Portugal Benfica3
England Leeds United3
Netherlands Ajax3
Germany Bayern Munich3
9England Liverpool2
Italy Milan2
11Spain Real Zaragoza1
Belgium Anderlecht1
France Paris Saint-Germain1
England Chelsea1
England Manchester United1

Criticisms[edit]

The UEFA coefficient system has been criticised for being likely to preserve the status quo for rankings and seedings, as well as for favouring teams from stronger nations.[25] In July 2014, Celtic manager Ronny Deila said that it "is stupid the Scottish coefficient is not regarded as good enough."[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "UEFA Women's National Team Coefficient Ranking". UEFA.com. 25 October 2012. 
  2. ^ "UEFA Women's Champions League Association Coefficient Ranking". UEFA.com. 
  3. ^ "UEFA Women's Champions League 2012/13 Entry List". UEFA.com. 
  4. ^ "Spain and Israel top seeds for Under-21 draw". UEFA.com. 19 October. 
  5. ^ jf
  6. ^ "EXCO approves new coefficient system". UEFA. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008. 
  7. ^ "New UEFA National Team Coefficient Ranking System" (PDF). UEFA. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2008. 
  8. ^ "National Team Coefficient Ranking -Technical explanation" (PDF). UEFA. October 2009. 
  9. ^ "National Team Coefficients Overview" (PDF). UEFA. 19 November 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2009. 
  10. ^ "Regulations of the UEFA European Football Championship 2010–12" (PDF). UEFA. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  11. ^ "2011 National Team Coefficient Ranking" (PDF). UEFA. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  12. ^ "National Team Coefficients Overview". UEFA.com. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  13. ^ "UEFA Country Coefficients 2012-2013". UEFA. Retrieved 12 November 2012. 
  14. ^ "Regulations of UEFA Champions League". UEFA. Retrieved 27 May 2013. 
  15. ^ "Added bonus for UEFA Europa League winners". UEFA.com. 24 May 2013. 
  16. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 2015". Bert Kassies. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  17. ^ UEFA European Cup Coefficients Database (Bert Kassies)
  18. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 1985". Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  19. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 1990". Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  20. ^ "UEFA Country Ranking 2008". Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  21. ^ a b "UEFA Coefficients calculation method". Bert Kassies. Retrieved 28 August 2010. 
  22. ^ a b "UEFA Club Coefficients 2012-2013". UEFA. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 
  23. ^ "UEFA Team Ranking 2015". kassiesa.home.xs4all.nl. Retrieved 24 July 2014. 
  24. ^ See column Team Ranking in "UEFA European Cup Coefficients Database". Bert Kassies. Retrieved 13 April 2012. 
  25. ^ "How Uefa's seeding system helps Arsenal & hinders Celtic". BBC Sport. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  26. ^ "Celtic: Champions League qualifying 'stupid' - Ronny Deila". BBC Sport. 15 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 

External links[edit]