U.S. Open (golf)

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U.S. Open
2013USOpenLogo.svg
Tournament information
Location United States
Ardmore, Pennsylvania
in 2013
Established1895
Course(s)Merion Golf Club,
East Course in 2013
Par70 in 2013
Length6,996 yd (6,397 m) in 2013[1][2]
Tour(s)PGA Tour
European Tour
Japan Golf Tour
FormatStroke play
Prize fund$8,000,000 in 2012
6,433,972
Month playedJune
Tournament record score
Aggregate268 Rory McIlroy (2011)
To par–16 Rory McIlroy (2011)
Current champion
United States Webb Simpson
2013 U.S. Open (golf)
 
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U.S. Open
2013USOpenLogo.svg
Tournament information
Location United States
Ardmore, Pennsylvania
in 2013
Established1895
Course(s)Merion Golf Club,
East Course in 2013
Par70 in 2013
Length6,996 yd (6,397 m) in 2013[1][2]
Tour(s)PGA Tour
European Tour
Japan Golf Tour
FormatStroke play
Prize fund$8,000,000 in 2012
6,433,972
Month playedJune
Tournament record score
Aggregate268 Rory McIlroy (2011)
To par–16 Rory McIlroy (2011)
Current champion
United States Webb Simpson
2013 U.S. Open (golf)

The United States Open Championship, commonly known as the U.S. Open, is the annual open golf tournament of the United States. It is the second of the four major championships in golf, and is on the official schedule of both the PGA Tour and the European Tour. It is staged by the United States Golf Association (USGA) in mid-June, scheduled so that, if there are no weather delays, the final round is played on the third Sunday, which is Father's Day.

The U.S. Open is staged at a variety of courses, set up in such a way that scoring is very difficult with a premium placed on accurate driving. U.S. Open play is characterized by tight scoring at or around par by the leaders, with the winner usually emerging at around even par. A U.S. Open course is seldom beaten severely, and there have been many over-par wins (in part because par is usually set at 70, except for the very longest courses). Normally, an Open course is quite long and will have a high cut of primary rough (termed "Open rough" by the American press and fans), undulating greens (such as at Pinehurst No. 2 in 2005, which was described by Johnny Miller of NBC as "like trying to hit a ball on top of a VW Beetle"), and pinched fairways (especially on what are expected to be less difficult holes). Some courses that are attempting to get into the rotation for the U.S. Open will undergo renovations to develop these features. Rees Jones is the most notable of the "Open Doctors" who take on these projects; his father Robert Trent Jones had filled that role earlier. As with any professional golf tournament, the available space surrounding the course (for spectators, among other considerations) and local infrastructure also factor into deciding which courses will host the event.

Contents

History[edit]

The first U.S. Open was played on October 4, 1895, on a nine-hole course at the Newport Country Club in Newport, Rhode Island. It was a 36-hole competition and was played in a single day. Ten professionals and one amateur entered. The winner was a 21-year-old Englishman named Horace Rawlins, who had arrived in the U.S. in January that year to take up a position at the host club. He received $150 cash out of a prize fund of $335, plus a $50 gold medal; his club received the Open Championship Cup trophy, which was presented by the USGA.

In the beginning, the tournament was dominated by experienced British players until 1911, when John J. McDermott became the first native-born American winner. American golfers soon began to win regularly and the tournament evolved to become one of the four majors.

U.S. Open Trophy at the 2008 PGA Golf Show.

Since 1911, the title has been won almost exclusively by players from the United States. Since 1950, players from only six countries other than the United States have won the championship, most notably South Africa, which has won five times since 1965. A streak of four consecutive non-American winners occurred from 2004 to 2007 for the first time since 1910. These four players, South African Retief Goosen (2004), New Zealander Michael Campbell (2005), Australian Geoff Ogilvy (2006) and Argentine Ángel Cabrera (2007), are all from countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Northern Ireland's Graeme McDowell (2010) became the first European player to win the event since Tony Jacklin of England in 1970.

Qualification and prizes[edit]

The U.S. Open is open to any professional, or to any amateur with an up-to-date men's USGA Handicap Index not exceeding 1.4.[3] Players (male or female)[3] may obtain a place by being fully exempt or by competing successfully in qualifying. The field is 156 players.

About half of the field is made up of players who are fully exempt from qualifying. As of the most recent U.S. Open in 2013[4], the exemption categories are:

The exemptions for amateurs apply only if the players remain amateurs as of the tournament date.

Before 2011, the sole OWGR cutoff for entry was the top 50 as of two weeks before the tournament. An exemption category for the top 50 as of the tournament date was added for 2011, apparently in response to the phenomenon of golfers entering the top 50 between the original cutoff date and the tournament (such as Justin Rose and Rickie Fowler in 2010).[6]

Through 2011, exemptions existed for leading money winners on the PGA, European, Japanese, and Australasian tours, as well as winners of multiple PGA Tour events in the year before the U.S. Open. These categories were eliminated in favor of inviting the top 60 on the OWGR at both relevant dates.[6] Starting with the 2012 championship, an exemption was added for the winner of the current year's BMW PGA Championship, the European Tour's equivalent of The Players Championship.[7]

Potential competitors who are not fully exempt must enter the Qualifying process, which has two stages. Firstly there is Local Qualifying, which is played over 18 holes at more than 100 courses around the United States. Many leading players are exempt from this first stage, and they join the successful local qualifiers at the Sectional Qualifying stage, which is played over 36 holes in one day at several sites in the U.S., as well as one each in Europe and Japan. There is no lower age limit and the youngest-ever qualifier was 14-year-old Andy Zhang of China, who qualified in 2012 after Paul Casey withdrew days before the tournament.

The purse at the 2012 U.S. Open was $8 million, and the winner's share was $1.44 million. The European Tour uses conversion rates at the time of the tournament to calculate the official prize money used in their Race to Dubai (€6,433,971 in 2012). In line with the other majors, winning the U.S. Open gives a golfer several privileges that make his career much more secure if he is not already one of the elite players of the sport. U.S. Open champions are automatically invited to play in the other three majors (the Masters, the Open Championship (British Open), and the PGA Championship) for the next five years, as well as the Players Championship, and they are exempt from qualifying for the U.S. Open itself for 10 years. They may also receive a five-year exemption on the PGA Tour, which is automatic for regular members. Non-PGA Tour members who win the U.S. Open have the choice of joining the PGA Tour either within 60 days of winning, or prior to the beginning of any one of the next five tour seasons. Finally, U.S. Open winners receive automatic invitations to three of the five senior majors once they turn 50; they receive a five-year invitation to the U.S. Senior Open and a lifetime invitation to the Senior PGA Championship and Senior British Open.

The top 10 finishers at the U.S. Open are fully exempt from qualifying for the following year's Open, and the top eight are automatically invited to the following season's Masters.

Playoff format[edit]

The U.S. Open is the only one of the four major championships which retains a full 18-hole playoff the following day (Monday). If a tie exists after that fifth round, then the playoff continues as sudden-death on the 91st hole. The U.S. Open has advanced to sudden-death three times (1990, 1994, 2008), most recently when Tiger Woods defeated Rocco Mediate on the first additional playoff hole in 2008. Before sudden-death was introduced in the 1950s, additional 18-hole rounds were played (1925, 1939, and 1946) to break the tie. When the playoff was scheduled for 36 holes and ended in a tie, as in 1931, a second 36-hole playoff was required.

Champions[edit]

Willie Anderson, Bobby Jones, Ben Hogan and Jack Nicklaus hold the record for the most U.S. Open victories, with four victories each.[8] Hale Irwin is the oldest winner of the U.S. Open at 45 years and 15 days in 1990.[9] The youngest winner of the U.S. Open is John McDermott at 19 years, 10 months and 14 days in 1911.[9]

YearChampionCountryVenueLocationScoreWinner's
share ($)
2013June 13–16Merion Golf Club, East CourseArdmore, Pennsylvania
2012Webb Simpson United StatesOlympic Club, Lake CourseSan Francisco, California281 (+1)1,440,000
2011Rory McIlroy Northern IrelandCongressional Country Club, Blue CourseBethesda, Maryland268 (−16)1,440,000
2010Graeme McDowell Northern IrelandPebble Beach Golf LinksPebble Beach, California284 (E)1,350,000
2009Lucas Glover United StatesBethpage State Park, Black CourseFarmingdale, New York[N 1]276 (−4)1,350,000
2008Tiger Woods (3) United StatesTorrey Pines Golf Course, South CourseLa Jolla, California[N 2]283 (−1)1,350,000
2007Ángel Cabrera ArgentinaOakmont Country ClubOakmont, Pennsylvania285 (+5)1,260,000
2006Geoff Ogilvy AustraliaWinged Foot Golf Club, West CourseMamaroneck, New York285 (+5)1,225,000
2005Michael Campbell New ZealandPinehurst Resort, Course No. 2Pinehurst, North Carolina280 (E)1,170,000
2004Retief Goosen (2) South AfricaShinnecock Hills Golf ClubShinnecock Hills, New York276 (−4)1,125,000
2003Jim Furyk United StatesOlympia Fields Country Club, North CourseOlympia Fields, Illinois272 (−8)1,080,000
2002Tiger Woods (2) United StatesBethpage State Park, Black CourseFarmingdale, New York[N 1]277 (−3)1,000,000
2001Retief Goosen South AfricaSouthern Hills Country ClubTulsa, Oklahoma276 (−4)900,000
2000Tiger Woods United StatesPebble Beach Golf LinksPebble Beach, California272 (−12)800,000
1999Payne Stewart (2) United StatesPinehurst Resort, Course No. 2Pinehurst, North Carolina279 (−1)625,000
1998Lee Janzen (2) United StatesOlympic Club, Lake CourseSan Francisco, California[N 3]280 (E)535,000
1997Ernie Els (2) South AfricaCongressional Country Club, Blue CourseBethesda, Maryland276 (−4)465,000
1996Steve Jones United StatesOakland Hills Country Club, South CourseBloomfield Hills, Michigan278 (−2)425,000
1995Corey Pavin United StatesShinnecock Hills Golf ClubShinnecock Hills, New York280 (E)350,000
1994Ernie Els South AfricaOakmont Country ClubOakmont, Pennsylvania279 (−5)320,000
1993Lee Janzen United StatesBaltusrol Golf Club, Lower CourseSpringfield, New Jersey272 (−8)290,000
1992Tom Kite United StatesPebble Beach Golf LinksPebble Beach, California285 (−3)275,000
1991Payne Stewart United StatesHazeltine National Golf ClubChaska, Minnesota282 (−6)235,000
1990Hale Irwin (3) United StatesMedinah Country Club, Course No. 3Medinah, Illinois280 (−8)220,000
1989Curtis Strange (2) United StatesOak Hill Country Club, East CourseRochester, New York[N 4]278 (−2)200,000
1988Curtis Strange United StatesThe Country Club, Composite CourseBrookline, Massachusetts278 (−6)180,000
1987Scott Simpson United StatesOlympic Club, Lake CourseSan Francisco, California[N 3]277 (−3)150,000
1986Raymond Floyd United StatesShinnecock Hills Golf ClubShinnecock Hills, New York279 (−1)115,000
1985Andy North (2) United StatesOakland Hills Country Club, South CourseBloomfield Hills, Michigan279 (−1)103,000
1984Fuzzy Zoeller United StatesWinged Foot Golf Club, West CourseMamaroneck, New York276 (−4)94,000
1983Larry Nelson United StatesOakmont Country ClubOakmont, Pennsylvania280 (−4)72,000
1982Tom Watson United StatesPebble Beach Golf LinksPebble Beach, California282 (−6)60,000
1981David Graham AustraliaMerion Golf Club, East CourseArdmore, Pennsylvania273 (−7)55,000
1980Jack Nicklaus (4) United StatesBaltusrol Golf Club, Lower CourseSpringfield, New Jersey272 (−8)55,000
1979Hale Irwin (2) United StatesInverness ClubToledo, Ohio284 (E)50,000
1978Andy North United StatesCherry Hills Country ClubCherry Hills Village, Colorado285 (+1)45,000
1977Hubert Green United StatesSouthern Hills Country ClubTulsa, Oklahoma278 (−2)45,000
1976Jerry Pate United StatesAtlanta Athletic Club, Highlands CourseDuluth, Georgia[N 5]277 (−3)42,000
1975Lou Graham United StatesMedinah Country Club, Course No. 3Medinah, Illinois287 (+3)40,000
1974Hale Irwin United StatesWinged Foot Golf Club, West CourseMamaroneck, New York287 (+7)35,000
1973Johnny Miller United StatesOakmont Country ClubOakmont, Pennsylvania279 (−5)35,000
1972Jack Nicklaus (3) United StatesPebble Beach Golf LinksPebble Beach, California290 (+2)30,000
1971Lee Trevino (2) United StatesMerion Golf Club, East CourseArdmore, Pennsylvania280 (E)30,000
1970Tony Jacklin EnglandHazeltine National Golf ClubChaska, Minnesota281 (−7)30,000
1969Orville Moody United StatesChampions Golf Club, Cypress Creek CourseHouston, Texas281 (+1)30,000
1968Lee Trevino United StatesOak Hill Country Club, East CourseRochester, New York[N 4]275 (−5)30,000
1967Jack Nicklaus (2) United StatesBaltusrol Golf Club, Lower CourseSpringfield, New Jersey275 (−5)30,000
1966Billy Casper (2) United StatesOlympic Club, Lake CourseSan Francisco, California[N 3]278 (−2)26,500
1965Gary Player South AfricaBellerive Country ClubSt. Louis, Missouri[N 6]282 (+2)26,000
1964Ken Venturi United StatesCongressional Country Club, Blue CourseBethesda, Maryland278 (−2)17,000
1963Julius Boros (2) United StatesThe Country Club, Composite CourseBrookline, Massachusetts293 (+9)17,500
1962Jack Nicklaus United StatesOakmont Country ClubOakmont, Pennsylvania283 (−1)17,500
1961Gene Littler United StatesOakland Hills Country Club, South CourseBloomfield Hills, Michigan281 (+1)14,000
1960Arnold Palmer United StatesCherry Hills Country ClubCherry Hills Village, Colorado280 (−4)14,400
1959Billy Casper United StatesWinged Foot Golf Club, West CourseMamaroneck, New York282 (+2)12,000
1958Tommy Bolt United StatesSouthern Hills Country ClubTulsa, Oklahoma283 (+3)8,000
1957Dick Mayer United StatesInverness ClubToledo, Ohio282 (+2)7,200
1956Cary Middlecoff (2) United StatesOak Hill Country Club, East CourseRochester, New York[N 4]281 (+1)6,000
1955Jack Fleck United StatesOlympic Club, Lake CourseSan Francisco, California[N 3]287 (+7)6,000
1954Ed Furgol United StatesBaltusrol Golf Club, Lower CourseSpringfield, New Jersey284 (+4)6,000
1953Ben Hogan (4) United StatesOakmont Country ClubOakmont, Pennsylvania283 (−5)5,000
1952Julius Boros United StatesNorthwood ClubDallas, Texas281 (+1)4,000
1951Ben Hogan (3) United StatesOakland Hills Country Club, South CourseBloomfield Hills, Michigan287 (+7)4,000
1950Ben Hogan (2) United StatesMerion Golf Club, East CourseArdmore, Pennsylvania287 (+7)4,000
1949Cary Middlecoff United StatesMedinah Country Club, Course No. 3Medinah, Illinois286 (+2)2,000
1948Ben Hogan United StatesRiviera Country ClubPacific Palisades, California[N 7]276 (−8)2,000
1947Lew Worsham United StatesSt. Louis Country ClubLadue, Missouri282 (−2)2,500
1946Lloyd Mangrum United StatesCanterbury Golf ClubBeachwood, Ohio284 (−4)1,833
1942–1945: Cancelled due to World War II
1941Craig Wood United StatesColonial Country ClubFort Worth, Texas284 (E)1,000
1940Lawson Little United StatesCanterbury Golf ClubBeachwood, Ohio287 (−1)1,000
1939Byron Nelson United StatesPhiladelphia Country Club, Spring Mill CourseGladwyne, Pennsylvania284 (−4)1,000
1938Ralph Guldahl (2) United StatesCherry Hills Country ClubCherry Hills Village, Colorado284 (E)1,000
1937Ralph Guldahl United StatesOakland Hills Country Club, South CourseBloomfield Hills, Michigan281 (+1)1,000
1936Tony Manero United StatesBaltusrol Golf Club, Upper CourseSpringfield, New Jersey282 (−2)1,000
1935Sam Parks, Jr. United StatesOakmont Country ClubOakmont, Pennsylvania299 (+11)1,000
1934Olin Dutra United StatesMerion Golf Club, East CourseArdmore, Pennsylvania293 (+9)1,000
1933Johnny Goodman (a) United StatesNorth Shore Country ClubGlenview, Illinois287 (−1)0
1932Gene Sarazen (2) United StatesFresh Meadow Country ClubQueens, New York286 (+2)1,000
1931Billy Burke United StatesInverness ClubToledo, Ohio292 (+4)1,000
1930Bobby Jones (a) (4) United StatesInterlachen Country ClubEdina, Minnesota287 (−1)0
1929Bobby Jones (a) (3) United StatesWinged Foot Golf Club, West CourseMamaroneck, New York2940
1928Johnny Farrell United StatesOlympia Fields Country Club, North CourseOlympia Fields, Illinois294500
1927Tommy Armour Scotland
 United States
Oakmont Country ClubOakmont, Pennsylvania301500
1926Bobby Jones (a) (2) United StatesScioto Country ClubColumbus, Ohio2930
1925Willie Macfarlane ScotlandWorcester Country ClubWorcester, Massachusetts291500
1924Cyril Walker EnglandOakland Hills Country Club, South CourseBloomfield Hills, Michigan297500
1923Bobby Jones (a) United StatesInwood Country ClubInwood, New York2960
1922Gene Sarazen United StatesSkokie Country ClubGlencoe, Illinois288500
1921Jim Barnes EnglandColumbia Country ClubChevy Chase, Maryland289500
1920Ted Ray JerseyInverness ClubToledo, Ohio295500
1919Walter Hagen (2) United StatesBrae Burn Country Club, Main CourseWest Newton, Massachusetts301500
1917–1918: Cancelled due to World War I
1916Chick Evans (a) United StatesThe Minikahda ClubMinneapolis, Minnesota2860
1915Jerome Travers (a) United StatesBaltusrol Golf Club, Revised CourseSpringfield, New Jersey2970
1914Walter Hagen United StatesMidlothian Country ClubMidlothian, Illinois290300
1913Francis Ouimet (a) United StatesThe Country ClubBrookline, Massachusetts3040
1912John McDermott (2) United StatesCountry Club of BuffaloBuffalo, New York294300
1911John McDermott United StatesChicago Golf ClubWheaton, Illinois307300
1910Alex Smith (2) ScotlandPhiladelphia Cricket Club, St. Martin's CoursePhiladelphia, Pennsylvania298300
1909George Sargent EnglandEnglewood Golf ClubEnglewood, New Jersey290300
1908Fred McLeod ScotlandMyopia Hunt ClubSouth Hamilton, Massachusetts322300
1907Alec Ross ScotlandPhiladelphia Cricket Club, St. Martin's CoursePhiladelphia, Pennsylvania302300
1906Alex Smith ScotlandOnwentsia ClubLake Forest, Illinois295300
1905Willie Anderson (4) ScotlandMyopia Hunt ClubSouth Hamilton, Massachusetts314200
1904Willie Anderson (3) ScotlandGlen View ClubGolf, Illinois303200
1903Willie Anderson (2) ScotlandBaltusrol Golf Club, Original CourseSpringfield, New Jersey307200
1902Laurie Auchterlonie ScotlandGarden City Golf ClubGarden City, New York307200
1901Willie Anderson ScotlandMyopia Hunt ClubSouth Hamilton, Massachusetts331200
1900Harry Vardon JerseyChicago Golf ClubWheaton, Illinois313200
1899Willie Smith ScotlandBaltimore Country Club, Roland Park CourseLutherville-Timonium, Maryland315150
1898Fred Herd ScotlandMyopia Hunt ClubSouth Hamilton, Massachusetts328150
1897Joe Lloyd EnglandChicago Golf ClubWheaton, Illinois162150
1896James Foulis ScotlandShinnecock Hills Golf ClubShinnecock Hills, New York152150
1895Horace Rawlins EnglandNewport Country ClubNewport, Rhode Island173150

(a) denotes amateur

Records[edit]

There is an extensive records section on the official site here.

Television[edit]

Coverage of The U.S. Open is broadcast on television in the United States[12] by NBC and ESPN, with additional online coverage of a marquee group provided by ESPN via the U.S. Open's official website. Of golf's broadcast television partners in the U.S., NBC is the only network to provide four days of major tournament coverage (CBS, which airs the Masters and PGA Championship, only provides weekend coverage of its tournaments. Since 2010, The Open Championship from Britain has not been aired live in the U.S. on an over-the-air network, with all four rounds on ESPN, and only edited highlights screened by ABC).

After thirty years, NBC returned as the network of the U.S. Open in 1995; ABC held the broadcast rights from 1966 through 1994.[13]

Future sites[edit]

YearEditionCourseLocationDatesTimes hosted
2013113thMerion Golf Club, East CourseArdmore, PennsylvaniaJune 13–161934, 1950, 1971, 1981
2014114thPinehurst Resort, Course #2[14]Pinehurst, North CarolinaJune 12–151999, 2005
2015115thChambers BayUniversity Place, WashingtonJune 18–21Never
2016116thOakmont Country ClubOakmont, PennsylvaniaJune 16–191927, 1935, 1953, 1962, 1973, 1983, 1994, 2007
2017117thErin HillsErin, WisconsinJune 15–18Never
2018118thShinnecock Hills Golf ClubShinnecock Hills, New YorkJune 14–171896, 1986, 1995, 2004
2019119thPebble Beach Golf LinksPebble Beach, CaliforniaJune 13–161972, 1982, 1992, 2000, 2010
2020120thWinged Foot Golf ClubMamaroneck, New YorkJune 18–211929, 1959, 1974, 1984, 2006

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Most of the course lies within the hamlet of Old Bethpage, but the clubhouse is in Farmingdale, and the park has a Farmingdale postal address. Both places are within the Town of Oyster Bay.
  2. ^ La Jolla is a neighborhood within the city of San Diego that has a unique postal identity.
  3. ^ a b c d The course straddles the border between Daly City and San Francisco; the club's postal address is in San Francisco.
  4. ^ a b c The club has a Rochester postal address, but is located in the adjacent town of Pittsford.
  5. ^ The club is located in a portion of the Duluth postal area that became part of the newly incorporated city of Johns Creek in 2006. Although the club is still served by the Duluth post office, it now lists its mailing address as Johns Creek.
  6. ^ The club has a St. Louis postal address, but is located in the Missouri suburb of Town and Country.
  7. ^ Pacific Palisades is a neighborhood within the city of Los Angeles that has a unique postal identity.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2013 U.S. Open: Course - Merion Golf Club, Ardmore, Pa.". USGA. Retrieved May 30, 2013. 
  2. ^ "2013 U.S. Open Fact Sheet". USGA. January 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "112th U.S. Open Championship application form". USGA. Retrieved June 11, 2012. 
  4. ^ http://www.usopen.com/en_US/news/qualifying/exemptions.html
  5. ^ a b "USGA - Changes Made To Exemptions For 2012 USGA Championships". USGA. February 23, 2012. Retrieved June 12, 2013. 
  6. ^ a b "U.S. Open to expand world-ranking use". ESPN. Associated Press. February 5, 2011. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  7. ^ "USGA Announces Changes To Exemption Categories" (Press release). USGA. February 5, 2011. Retrieved January 12, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Champions". U.S. Open. Archived from the original on March 3, 2008. Retrieved April 26, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b "Age". U.S. Open. Archived from the original on March 3, 2008. Retrieved April 26, 2008. 
  10. ^ a b "Rory McIlroy runs away with Open title". ESPN. June 20, 2011. Retrieved June 20, 2011. 
  11. ^ Murray, Scott (June 19, 2011). "US Open 2011 – day four as it happened". The Guardian. Retrieved June 12, 2013. 
  12. ^ "History of US Open golf TV coverage (1954-present)". Classic Sports TV and Media. June 10, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2013. 
  13. ^ Rosaforte, Tim (June 27, 1994). "See Ya Later". Sports Illustrated: 49. Retrieved June 12, 2013. 
  14. ^ This will be the first year in which a single course will host both the men's and women's Opens. The women's Open will be held the week after the men's.

External links[edit]