Tyumen

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Tyumen (English)
Тюмень (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Крестовоздвиженская церковь (Тюмень)-2.jpg
A view of central Tyumen
Map of Russia - Tyumen Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Tyumen Oblast in Russia
Tyumen is located in Tyumen Oblast
Tyumen
Location of Tyumen in Tyumen Oblast
Coordinates: 57°09′N 65°32′E / 57.150°N 65.533°E / 57.150; 65.533Coordinates: 57°09′N 65°32′E / 57.150°N 65.533°E / 57.150; 65.533
Coat of Arms of Tyumen (Tyumen oblast) (2005).png
Flag of Tyumen (Tyumen oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
City DayLast Sunday of July[2]
Administrative status (as of November 2011)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectTyumen Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated toCity of Tyumen[1]
Administrative center ofTyumen Oblast,[3] Tyumensky District,[1] City of Tyumen[1]
Municipal status (as of December 2011)
Urban okrugTyumen Urban Okrug[4]
Administrative center ofTyumen Urban Okrug,[4] Tyumensky Municipal District[4]
Head of Administration[5]Alexander Moor[5]
Statistics
Area235 km2 (91 sq mi)[3]
Population (2010 Census)581,907 inhabitants[6]
Rank in 201025th
Density2,476 /km2 (6,410 /sq mi)[7]
Time zoneYEKT (UTC+06:00)[8]
FoundedJuly 29, 1586[2]
Postal code(s)625000-625063[9]
Dialing code(s)+7 3452[10]
Official website
Tyumen on WikiCommons
 
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Tyumen (English)
Тюмень (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Крестовоздвиженская церковь (Тюмень)-2.jpg
A view of central Tyumen
Map of Russia - Tyumen Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Tyumen Oblast in Russia
Tyumen is located in Tyumen Oblast
Tyumen
Location of Tyumen in Tyumen Oblast
Coordinates: 57°09′N 65°32′E / 57.150°N 65.533°E / 57.150; 65.533Coordinates: 57°09′N 65°32′E / 57.150°N 65.533°E / 57.150; 65.533
Coat of Arms of Tyumen (Tyumen oblast) (2005).png
Flag of Tyumen (Tyumen oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
City DayLast Sunday of July[2]
Administrative status (as of November 2011)
CountryRussia
Federal subjectTyumen Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated toCity of Tyumen[1]
Administrative center ofTyumen Oblast,[3] Tyumensky District,[1] City of Tyumen[1]
Municipal status (as of December 2011)
Urban okrugTyumen Urban Okrug[4]
Administrative center ofTyumen Urban Okrug,[4] Tyumensky Municipal District[4]
Head of Administration[5]Alexander Moor[5]
Statistics
Area235 km2 (91 sq mi)[3]
Population (2010 Census)581,907 inhabitants[6]
Rank in 201025th
Density2,476 /km2 (6,410 /sq mi)[7]
Time zoneYEKT (UTC+06:00)[8]
FoundedJuly 29, 1586[2]
Postal code(s)625000-625063[9]
Dialing code(s)+7 3452[10]
Official website
Tyumen on WikiCommons

Tyumen (Russian: Тюмень, IPA: [tʲʉˈmʲenʲ] ( )) is the largest city and the administrative center of Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located on the Tura River 1,700 kilometers (1,100 mi) east of Moscow. Population: 581,907 (2010 Census);[6] 510,719 (2002 Census);[11] 476,869 (1989 Census).[12]

Tyumen was the first Russian settlement in Siberia. Founded in 1586 to support Russia's eastward expansion, the city has remained one of the most important industrial and economic centers east of the Ural Mountains. Located at the junction of several important trade routes and with easy access to navigable waterways, Tyumen rapidly developed from a small military settlement to a large commercial and industrial city. The central part of Old Tyumen retains many historic buildings from throughout the city's history.

Today Tyumen is one of Russia's most important business centers and is prominent in the political and cultural life of Russia.

Tyumen is the transport hub and industrial center of Tyumen Oblast—a vast oil-rich region stretching from the Kazakhstani border to the Arctic Ocean—as well as the home of many companies active in Russia's oil and gas industry.

Geography[edit]

View to flood-lands upstream Tyumen from the right bank (summer 2007)

Tyumen covers an area of 235 square kilometers (91 sq mi).[3] Its primary geographical feature is the Tura River, which crosses the city from northwest to southeast. The river is navigable downstream of the city. The left bank of the Tura is a floodplain surrounded by gently rolling hills. The Tura is a shallow river with extensive marshlands.

The river floods during the snow melting season in the spring. The spring flood usually peaks in the second half of May,[13] when the river becomes 8-10 times wider than during the late-summer low water season. The city is protected from flooding by a dike which can withstand floods up to 8 meters high.[14] The highest ever flood water level in Tyumen was 9.15 m (30.02 ft), recorded in 1979. More recently, in 2007, a water level of 7.76 was recorded.[15] In the spring 2005, a flood higher than the critical 8 m (26.25 ft) mark was expected,[16] but did not appear.

History[edit]

Tumen on Sigismund von Herberstein's map, published in 1549
Weliki Tumen (the Great Tyumen) is shown on Gerhard Mercator's map of Asia (published in 1595) as located south of Perm and Sibier
Town foundation sign

The Tyumen area, originally part of the Siberia Khanate, was annexed to Russia by the Cossack ataman Yermak Timofeyevich in 1585. On July 29, 1586,[2] Tsar Feodor I ordered two regional commanders, Vasily Borisov-Sukin and Ivan Myasnoy, to construct a fortress on the site of the former Tatar town of Chingi-Tura ('city of Chingis'), also known as Tyumen, from the Turkish and Mongol word for 'ten thousand.'[17]

Tyumen was founded on the "Tyumen Portage" on the historical trade route between Central Asia and the Volga region. Control of the portage had been continuously contested by various South Siberian nomads in the preceding centuries. As a result, early Russian settlers were often attacked by Tatar and Kalmyk raiders. These attacks caused Tyumen's population to be dominated by the Streltsy and Cossack garrisons stationed in the town until the mid-17th century. As the area became less restive, the town began to take on a less military character.

At the beginning of the 18th century, Tyumen had developed into an important center of trade between Siberia and China in the east and Central Russia in the west. Tyumen had also become an important industrial center, known for leather goods makers, blacksmiths, and other craftsmen. In 1763, 7,000 people were recorded as living in the town.

In the 19th century the town's development continued. In 1836, the first steam boat in Siberia was built in Tyumen. In 1862, the telegraph came to the town, and in 1864 the first water mains were laid. Further prosperity came to Tyumen after the construction, in 1885, of the Trans-Siberian Railway. For some years, Tyumen was Russia's easternmost railhead, and the site of transhipment of cargoes between the railway and the cargo boats plying the Tura, Tobol, Irtysh, and Ob Rivers.

By the end of the 19th century, Tyumen's population exceeded 30,000, surpassing that of its northern rival Tobolsk, and beginning a process whereby Tyumen gradually eclipsed the former regional capital. The growth of Tyumen culminated on August 14, 1944 when the city finally became the administrative center of extensive Tyumen Oblast.

Monument to Perished Graduates of Tyumen Schools

At the outbreak of the Russian Civil War, Tyumen was controlled by forces loyal to Admiral Alexander Kolchak and his Siberian White Army. However, the city fell to the Red Army on January 5, 1918.

During the 1930s, Tyumen became a major industrial center of the Soviet Union. By the onset of World War II, the city had several well-established industries, including shipbuilding, furniture manufacture, and the manufacture of fur and leather goods.

World War II saw rapid growth and development in the city. In the winter of 1941, twenty-two major industrial enterprises were evacuated to Tyumen from the European part of the Soviet Union.[18] These enterprises were put into operation the following spring. Additionally, war-time Tyumen became a "hospital city", where thousands of wounded soldiers were treated.

During the initial stages of World War II, when there was a possibility that Moscow would fall to the advancing German Army, Tyumen also became a refuge for the body of the deceased Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin. Lenin's body was secretly moved from Lenin's mausoleum in Moscow to a hidden tomb located in what is now the Tyumen State Agriculture Academy.[19] (former Tyumen Agriculture Institute).

Between 1941 and 1945, more than 20,000 Tyumen natives saw action at the front. Almost a third, about 6,000, perished in action (the exact number is uncertain as official data includes non-native soldiers who died in Tyumen's hospitals).

After the discovery of rich oil and gas fields in Tyumen Oblast in the 1960s, Tyumen became the focus of the Soviet oil industry. The activities of the oil industry caused a second economic and population boom in Tyumen. While most of the oil and gas fields were hundreds of kilometers to the north of the city, near the towns of Surgut and Nizhnevartovsk, Tyumen was the nearest railway junction as well as the oblast administrative center. These advantages made Tyumen the natural site for numerous oil related enterprises which contributed to the city's development between 1963 and 1985. These years saw the arrival in Tyumen of tens of thousands of skilled workers from across the Soviet Union.

Old Tyumen in summer 2008

The rapid growth of the city also brought a host of problems, as the growing population quickly outstripped Tyumen's limited social infrastructure. As well, the lack of city planning has resulted in uneven development which Tyumen has continued to struggle with into the present.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Tyumen is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Tyumensky District, even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with nineteen rural localities, incorporated separately as the City of Tyumen—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Tyumen is incorporated as Tyumen Urban Okrug.[4]

City divisions[edit]

Leninsky Okrug Administration building

Tyumen is divided into four administrative okrugs:

Government[edit]

City government[edit]

Tyumen Town Hall, July 2009

The legislative authority of Tyumen is the City Duma. In addition to legislative activities, the City Duma appoints the Head of the Tyumen City Administration, who is the chief executive officer of the city.

Oblast government[edit]

Since Tyumen is the administrative center of the oblast, all the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city. They include:

Climate[edit]

Tyumen has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, somewhat humid summers and long, cold winters. The weather in town is very changeable, and the temperature in town is always higher than in the surrounding area by a few degrees. The town area also attracts more precipitation. The average temperature in January is −16.7 °C (1.9 °F), with a record low of −50 °C (−58 °F) (February 1951). The average temperature in July is +18.6 °C (65.5 °F), with a record high of +38 °C (100 °F).

The average annual precipitation is 457 millimeters (18.0 in). The wettest year on record was 1943, with 581 millimeters (22.9 in), and the driest was 1917, with only 231 millimeters (9.1 in).[20]

Demographics[edit]

Tyumen's population grew steadily from the 16th century through the 19th century. However, when the Trans-Siberian Railway came through at the end of the 19th century, the town's rate of population growth was greatly boosted. Tyumen rapidly became the largest town in the region, with approx. 30,000 inhabitants by the beginning of the 20th century. Tyumen again experienced rapid population growth with the coming of World War II. The evacuation of workers from factories in central Russia in 1941 more than doubled Tyumen's population to 150,000.

In the 1960s, the discovery of the rich oil and gas fields in Western Siberia caused the city's population, which had not been forecast to exceed 250,000 inhabitants that decade, to swell to almost half a million. After the growth of the 1960s, a period of population stability lasted until 1988, when economic depression hit the Soviet Union. The city's population in 1989 was 476,869, according to the census of that year. However, within five or six years Tyumen was again a major economic center with a rising population. By 2002, Tyumen's population had risen to 510,719. Further population growth (mainly due to migration and the incorporation of surrounding settlements) meant that by 2008 regional government statistics put Tyumen's population at 588,600 inhabitants.

Ethnic groups[edit]

While the population of Tyumen includes people from over a hundred different ethnicities, most belong to one of the following ethnicities:

Religion[edit]

The mid-18th century Trinity Monastery in Tyumen, as photographed ca. 1912 by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky
The mid-18th century Trinity Monastery in Tyumen (fall 2008)

From its foundation, Tyumen was a religious center.[citation needed]

As of 2009, there are over ten operational Orthodox temples (both newly built and historical), two mosques (both newly built), one synagogue, and one Roman Catholic church in Tyumen.

Orthodox Christianity[edit]

While the state religion of the Russian Empire was Orthodoxy, this religion historically prevailed in Tyumen.

In 1616, Trinity Monastery was established in Tyumen by Nifont of Kazan. In 1709-1711, this monastery was rebuilt in stone by the order of Filofey Leshchinsky, the first Metropolitan of Siberia.

In 1761, the Tyumen Religious School was established.

Overall, from 1708 to 1885, twelve stone Orthodox temples of different size, and two monasteries were constructed in Tyumen.

During Soviet times, two of the temples were completely destroyed, but the rest remained. As of 2008, most of them are accessible and returned to operational state.[23] At the start of 2009, one of the destroyed temples is being restored to double size at a new location, and another is under discussion.

Some operational temples are also under restoration. Tyumen Religious School was reopened in 1997.

Other religions[edit]

Despite Orthodoxy predominance, in the past Catholic churches and temples of Islam and Judaism were also built. However, only one Catholic church remains preserved. The Tyumen Mosque was completely destroyed, but the mosque's reconstruction on the same site caused controversy. The Tyumen synagogue collapsed in 2000, but was reconstructed on the same site.

At the start of the 20th century, there was a strong Old Believers community in Tyumen.

All of the aforementioned religions operate cultural centers in Tyumen.

There are also several other religious bodies with a few adherents in Tyumen.

Interesting facts

Tyumen Trinity Monastery was built with special permission of Peter the Great. At the time, the construction of stone buildings outside Saint Petersburg was prohibited.

Church of Savior Uncreated was visited by Crown prince Alexandr (later Alexander II) during his Siberian tour.

Economy[edit]

Tyumen is an important service center for the gas and oil industries in Russia. Due to its advantageous location at the crossing of the Motor, Rail, Water and Air way and its moderate climate Tyumen was an ideal base town for servicing the oil and gas industry of the West Siberia. As the result today Tyumen is the center of industry, science, culture, education and medicine.

Many world level oil and gas companies such as Gazprom, LUKoil and Gazpromneft, TNK-BP, Shell (Salym Petroleum Development N.V.) have their representative offices in Tyumen.

There are numerous, factories, engineering companies, oil industry service companies (KCA DEUTAG and Schlumberger), design institutes shipyard and other oil servicing companies located in Tyumen. Schwank, market leader for industrial heaters, has its subsidiary, SibSchwank, in Tyumen holding market shares of approx. 25%.[24]

Tyumen is one of the Russian towns which have its own Technopark. UTair is also based in Tyumen.

Town has a quite good selection of recreational activities of all kinds for any ages. Tyumen is also a destination for a fair number of tourists, in particular from Germany.

There are three universities and several tens of colleges in Tyumen. Town is one of the Medical Centers of the Russian Federation so its population can receive most of high tech medical services locally without need to go to Moscow or elsewhere.

Transportation[edit]

Railway[edit]

Tyumen Railway Station Tracks 2008
Tyumen Railway Station Terminal 2008

Tyumen railway station was built in 1885. Currently Station Administratively belongs to the Tyumen Division of Sverdlovskaya Rail Road.

Station is located in the very center of the Tyumen city in 15 minutes walk south from the city hall. Station services suburban, intercity and international passenger traffic.

At the regional level the station services three directions to Yekaterinburg, to Omsk and to Tobolsk. Railroad to Yekaterinburg electrified since 1980.

Direct international passenger directions(Trans-Siberian Railway): Poland, Germany, China, Mongolia and Azerbaijan (The destination is Baku).

Additional stations within city territory: Tyumen North, Tyumen yard, Voynovka yard.

Public transportation[edit]

Tyumen Central Market Bus Stop

Public transportation in Tyumen is dominated by both municipal bus services and by numerous private operators (marshrutkas), which account for nearly a third of all transport capacity. The city's bus fleet is in process of modernization and expansion, with newly acquired Russian buses replacing the severely aged soviet models.

Tyumen is a major hub for intercity bus service, centered on the bus-terminal, which was constructed in 1972, and greatly expanded between 2006 and 2008.

Air transportation[edit]

Tyumen is served by the international Roschino Airport located 13 kilometres (8 miles) west of the city. In addition Plekhanovo Airport is in the area.

The Roschino airport has permits to handle with the following types of aircraft: Tu-154, Tu-134, An-12, An-24, An-26, Yak-40, Yak-42, IL-18, L-410, B-737, B-767, B-757, IL-86, IL-76, ATR-42, ATR-72, HS-125.

The airport has a permit to handle all types of helicopters.

The airstrip is capable to handle with huge aircraft such as An-22 Antaeus.

City has a regular service to the large number of Russian towns include such important as:

There are also weekly or biweekly flights to the following international locations:

Road[edit]

Tyumen has very difficult road scheme. The town is divided by Tura River Tyumneka River and Trans-Siberian Railroad, creating several isolated zones. Seven bridges, one footbridge, five flyovers, and five foot crossings connect these zones. In addition, the Tyumen Road network was planned before the fall of the Soviet Union and in its current state, it is capable to operate normally only in the scheme which includes public transportation only. Compact planning of city center prevents expansion of main roads; congestion coming from the city perephery moves slower and slower as it approaches the town center. To date, the road network is congested about 200% above capacity, which leads to numerous traffic jams and high accident rates.
Since 2002, city and regional authorities have undertaken numerous initiatives to improve Tyumen road network; due to growth of private automobile ownership, this all had only a short term effect. To date, a complex transport infrastructure reconstruction project is being directed by Regional Administration.[25]

Cityscape[edit]

Tyumen Footbridge, summer 2008

Historically, Tyumen occupied a small area on the high bank of the Tura River around the foundation site of the city. The city consisted of one and two story wooden buildings, surrounded by a number of villages. With time, the territory of the city was developed and extended by including the surrounding villages.

Present-day Tyumen has a decentralized feel. When viewed from above, Tyumen appears to be a collection of low-rise towns with occasional clusters of tall buildings.

Two areas of the city, Yamalskaya Sloboda and Republic Street are noted for their historic character. These areas are dominated by old brick and wooden merchant houses and buildings, with the occasional intrusion of mid-century Soviet low-rise buildings.

Yamskaya Sloboda

Bukharskaya Sloboda - a Historic residential area on the low bank of the Tura river. This area is mostly made up of very old one and two story wooden buildings. The area is part of the Historical Center on the city and has a mostly Muslim population.

Low bank Dormitories - this cluster of standard 9 story buildings was built on reclaimed land east of Bukharskaya Sloboda - Zareka and Vatutina.

Center near FSS
Center Republic St.

City Center - the area at east of the Historical town built between 1948 and 1978 and is mostly 4 and 5 story buildings. Earlier buildings in this area have individual designs, but the later builtings have a rectangular style. This area contains most of the political and business activities of the town.

Alexander's Garten District
Malyigina Street

New Center - the modern area almost at the center of the town and is built over demolished wooden houses and industrial areas. This area contains mostly tall buildings and is a mix of the dormitory areas and business centers.

Oborona
Melnikayte Street

Old Dormitories - this area features standard 5 storey blocks of flats constructed in the 1960s and 1970s at the west and east extremities of the city. However, today this area is actually in the town center. While there are almost no variety in the area's architecture, this area has the most greenery in the city and the best social infrastructure.

South-East Extremity

New dormitories - this area features clusters of standard tall buildings constructed after year 1980 at the south and south-east edges of Tyumen. This area is considered to be the worst place to live in the city. The area is remote, badly planned, and has very poor social infrastructure. The best feature of this areas is a better natural environment when compare to city center.

Architecture[edit]

Tyumen is too diverse to be characterized by any particular architectural style, and it generally has no overall style whatsoever. The town was built and non-planned for decades and because of that its architecture is an eclectic mix of buildings of different styles and eras.

Tyumen's nickname is the Capital of Villages because the most of its the territory built up by lumber houses. But most of the people who visited Tyumen as well as a considerable part of its core dwellers mistakenly consider it is a modern high-rise town due of tall buildings concentrated along all town arterial roads. Many of wooden buildings located in historical part of the city had cultural value:

Parks and gardens[edit]

There are many parks and Gardens of different size located around the Tyumen making town landscape green and fresh. Some of this parks also has sport and entertaining components.

Society and culture[edit]

Accent[edit]

The phenomenon of Tyumen is accent absence. During all its history Tyumen language environment was never isolated long enough to form any kind of accent. As a merchant town Tyumen permanently kept in contact with Russian capital territories and always received many people from all over the country. This fact furthered the preservation of literary language and to the present day people in Tyumen speak Russian completely the same as the people in Saint Petersburg or in Tver. Very few slang words are in use and these are usually slang words in general use throughout Siberia.

Leisure and entertainment[edit]

Tyumen Theater of the Drama and the Comedy at Night
Tyumen Puppet Show
Tyumen Circus

Tyumen has a range of entertainment possibilities for all ages. There are many cinemas including two with high class stereo systems, and clubs. Tyumen has had its own Drama and Comedy Theater since 1858. There is a professional Puppet Show and the Angazhement Youth Theater. The Tyumen Music Hall is one of the most common venues for tours of Russian and World class Music Stars. The Tyumen Circus is the most contemporary in Siberia and one of the best in the whole of Russia. Tyumen offers a great variety of cuisine in its numerous restaurants and bars. There are some annual events taking place in the town such as the Student Spring Music show and Day of The City Show.

Literature and film[edit]

Tyumen has not been the setting for too many works of literature however there were some poets and writers in the town history.

A writer closely associated with the city is the children's writer Vladislav Krapivin. A famous Russian writer Mikhail M. Prishvin spent his youth in Tyumen as well. Viktor L. Strogalschikov one of the modern Russian writers is also living in Tyumen.

A modern Russian producer Konstantin V. Odegov was born and studied in Tyumen. Tyumen was also the location for a few episodes in Russian films.

Museums and art galleries[edit]

Museum House of Merchant Masharov

There are numerous museums and art galleries in Tyumen. The best known are the Tyumen Museum of Local Lore and the Tyumen Fine Art Gallery which were merged last year by local government decision.

Some of the Tyumen Museums:

Music[edit]

Tyumen philharmonic

Music has always attracted the attention of Tyumen's inhabitants. The town has its own philharmonic orchestra and the Tyumen Music hall has steady auditory. While performing Russian tours Music Stars will visit the Tyumen without fail.

Sports[edit]

Tyumen Central Sport Complex

For many years Tyumen was the source for the Soviet and the Russian sport reserve.

Many of the most famous Soviet and Russian sportsmen started their career in Tyumen youth sport including Soviet cycle racing stars Sergey Uslamin, Yury Korotkikh, and Oleg Polovnikov.

There are some Tyumen Biathlonists in the current Russian national team.

Today Tyumen offers a number of sport activities for all ages. There are numerous sport and fitness clubs around the town. Tyumen has a National Level Soccer Team, Hockey team and Futsal team. There are three all season ice arenas, a soccer field (amateur fields are not counted), a ski center, a hippodrome, a shooting range, several tennis-courts including in the open and all season, three Olympic sized pools. In winter time parks for the cross country skiing are available around the town.

Education[edit]

Higher education[edit]

Tyumen is a town of students. The great boost to Tyumen Education development was given in the 1964 when the Tyumen Industrial Institute was founded to supply oil industry by qualified local workforce. Many academies of the different disciplines was founded in Tyumen since this date, and now the Higher Education is one of the major economic activities of the Tyumen town. There are over 10 academies, including three universities in the town and dozens of colleges. In the educational year of 2008-2009 the five largest Academies of Tyumen together had over 110,000 students.

Important note - most students are not counted in the city population since they are non-residents of the Tyumen city according to Russian law.

Secondary education[edit]

There are over one hundred secondary schools in Tyumen.

Libraries[edit]

Tyumen Scientific Library

There are about fifty public libraries in Tyumen. In addition there are several corporate libraries integrated into public libraries book exchange system. The Tyumen special is the Tyumen Regional Scientific Library after D.I. Mendeleev which has about 2 670 000 unic units of issue in its stock .

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Tyumen is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

Natives of Tyumen[edit]

Other[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #53
  2. ^ a b c "Charter of Tyumen (city proper) January 1, 2010. The Tyumen City Administration". Retrieved 2010-05-11. 
  3. ^ a b c "Geography of Tyumen (city proper), January 1, 2010. The City Government of Tyumen". Retrieved 2010-05-11. 
  4. ^ a b c d Law #263
  5. ^ a b "Head of Tyumen (city proper)January 1, 2010. The Tyumen City Administration". Retrieved 2010-05-11. 
  6. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  7. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  9. ^ "Tyumen postal codes (Russian Post) January 1, 2010. The official site of the Tyumen Post Office". Retrieved 2010-05-11. 
  10. ^ "Population of Tyumen (city proper)1 Janyary 2010. The City Government of Tyumen". Retrieved 2010-05-11. 
  11. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  12. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  13. ^ В Тюмени готовятся к паводку (Tyumen is preparing for the spring flood)
  14. ^ "Тюмени паводок не страшен (Flooding is no threat to Tyumen)". 
  15. ^ "Уровень воды в р. Тура не превышает паводкового значения (Тюмень) (Water level in the Tura River does not exceed the [normal] spring-flood mark)". "... максимальный уровень паводковых вод в Тюмени составил 9,15 м в 1979 г., а в 2007 г. он составлял 7,76 м." 
  16. ^ "Уровень воды в реке Тобол уже начал подниматься" [Water level in the Tobol has started to rise]. 25-Mar-2005. "Ожидается, что уровень воды в Туре превысит критический и достигнет восьми метров. (The water level in the Tura is expected to exceed the critical level and to reach 8 meters" 
  17. ^ E.M. Pospelov, Geograficheskie nazvaniya mira (Moscow: Russkie slovari, 1998), p. 427.
  18. ^ http://www.tyumen-city.ru/gorodtumeny/istoriigoroda/pg1/106/%7C Official Site Of Tyumen City History of the Town Section
  19. ^ http://www.tsaa.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=frontpage&Itemid=28%7C Official Site of the Tyumen State Agriculture Academy
  20. ^ http://slovari.yandex.ru/dict/bse%7CGreat Soviet Encyclopedia
  21. ^ "Tyumen Climate" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved April 1, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Tyumen, Russia". Weatherbase. Retrieved April 1, 2013. 
  23. ^ http://www.temples.ru/tree.php?ID=2757
  24. ^ Chamber of Commerce Nuremburg: Short Description of the Region Tyumen / Kurzbeschreibung der Region Tjumen., Nuremburg 2008
  25. ^ http://admtyumen.ru/economics/Transport/dorogi/more.htm?id=10439288@cmsArticle
  26. ^ http://www.tyumen-city.ru/sobitii/society/yr2008/mn3/am/2490/
  27. ^ "Stadt Celle". www.celle.de. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 

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