Type 053 frigate

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Chinese frigate Dongguan aground on Half Moon Shoal.jpg
The newest updated 053 frigate Dongguan (560)
Class overview
Builders:Hudong Shipyard
Jiangnan Shipyard
Operators: People's Liberation Army Navy
 Bangladesh Navy
 Egyptian Navy
 Royal Thai Navy
 Pakistan Navy
 Myanmar Navy
Succeeded by:Type 054
Subclasses:Type 053H Jianghu-I
Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
Type 053H1G Jianghu-V
Type 053H2 Jianghu-III
Type 053H2G Jiangwei
Type 053H3 Jiangwei-II
Najim al Zafir
Chao Praya
In service:1974
Completed:53
Active:China: 19

Thailand: 4

Pakistan: 2
General characteristics
Class & type:Jianghu
Type:Frigate
Displacement:1,600 to 2,400 tons
Length:103 to 112 m
Beam:10 to 12 m
Draught:3 to 4 m
Propulsion:2 to 4 diesel engines
16,000 to 22,000 shp
Speed:32 knots [1]
Range:7408km (4000nm)
Complement:160 to 200
Armament:Many variations amongst sub-classes
Aircraft carried:Some carry 1 helicopter: Harbin Z-9C
 
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Chinese frigate Dongguan aground on Half Moon Shoal.jpg
The newest updated 053 frigate Dongguan (560)
Class overview
Builders:Hudong Shipyard
Jiangnan Shipyard
Operators: People's Liberation Army Navy
 Bangladesh Navy
 Egyptian Navy
 Royal Thai Navy
 Pakistan Navy
 Myanmar Navy
Succeeded by:Type 054
Subclasses:Type 053H Jianghu-I
Type 053H1 Jianghu-II
Type 053H1G Jianghu-V
Type 053H2 Jianghu-III
Type 053H2G Jiangwei
Type 053H3 Jiangwei-II
Najim al Zafir
Chao Praya
In service:1974
Completed:53
Active:China: 19

Thailand: 4

Pakistan: 2
General characteristics
Class & type:Jianghu
Type:Frigate
Displacement:1,600 to 2,400 tons
Length:103 to 112 m
Beam:10 to 12 m
Draught:3 to 4 m
Propulsion:2 to 4 diesel engines
16,000 to 22,000 shp
Speed:32 knots [1]
Range:7408km (4000nm)
Complement:160 to 200
Armament:Many variations amongst sub-classes
Aircraft carried:Some carry 1 helicopter: Harbin Z-9C

The Type 053 frigates were a family of Chinese ships that served with the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), and a small number of foreign navies. The Type 053 was developed from the Soviet Riga-class frigates after the Sino–Soviet split.

The designation of ships and subclasses is somewhat confusing. Chinese nomenclature temporarily changed during the Cultural Revolution, and some subclasses gained different NATO reporting names.

This article covers the entire Type 053 family except for the final two subclasses, the Type 053H2G and Type 053H3 frigates.

Contents

History

Replicating the Riga and the Type 065

In the 1950s, the Soviets provided China with four kits for Riga-class frigates and four completed Gnevny-class destroyers.[1] These entered PLAN service as the Type 01 Chengdu-class[2] and the Type 07 Anshan-class respectively.[3] The Riga kits were assembled by the Huangpu Shipyard in Guangzhou, and the Hudong Shipyard in Shanghai,[4] from 1955 to 1958. These ships formed the PLAN's backbone in the 1950s and 1960s.[citation needed]

Following the Sino-Soviet split and the withdrawal of Soviet aid, the Wuhan-based No. 701 Institute began reverse-engineering the Type 01 in 1962. The result was the Type 065.[5] It was based on the Riga hull with the flush deck replaced by a long forecastle. This modification was needed to accommodate a large medium-speed diesel powerplant; the civilian diesel was a substitute for the Riga's compact high-pressure steam turbine powerplant that the Chinese were unable to replicate. The first Type 065, 529 Haikou, was laid down at Huangpu in August 1964 and commissioned by August 1966.[citation needed]

Type 053K air-defence frigate

From 1965 to 1967, the No. 701 Institute designed the Type 053K (Kong for air-defence), an air-defence variant of the Type 065. This met a PLAN requirement for air-defence ships to accompany the surface-warfare Type 051 destroyers. The Type 053K was originally intended to have three screws powered by a combined gas-turbine and diesel engine, with a speed of 38 knots. However, technical constraints forced the Chinese to settle for a diesel engine, powering two screws for a maximum speed of 30 knots.

The Type 053Ks were armed with HQ-61 surface-to-air missiles, launched from two twin-armed launchers; these did not enter service until the mid-1980s. The 100 mm. gun armament was also delayed.

Only two Type 053Ks were completed, possibly due to unsatisfactory performance and the long development time for their intended armament. 531 Yingtan was laid down in 1970 and commissioned in 1977, and followed by 532. Both ships were withdrawn from service in 1992, with one scrapped in 1994 and the other preserved as a museum ship.[6][7][8]

Type 053H surface-warfare frigate

Zigong 558 was armed with six SY-1 anti-ship missiles

The PLAN retired many older frigates in the 1970s, and the No. 701 Institute developed the Type 053H (Hai for anti-ship) as a replacement. The initial design was armed with six SY-1 anti-ship missiles in two three-missile box launchers, and a single 100 mm. gun. The Type 053H received the NATO codename Jianghu-I. The first was constructed by the Hudong Shipyard and entered service in the mid-1970s. At least a dozen were built and entered service with the PLAN East Sea Fleet.[9]

The Type 053H was improved in four successive subclasses, receiving NATO codenames Jianghu-II through Jianghu-V. The Type 053Hs were succeeded by the PLAN's first multirole frigates, the Type 053H2G and Type 053H3 frigates.[10]

Foreign sales

The Chinese sold the Type 053H, and derivatives, to foreign navies. The buyers generally found the ships to be of poor quality.

BNS Osman (F-18) underway in 1991.

One used Type 053H1 was sold to the Bangladesh Navy, with two used Type 053H1s going to the Egyptian Navy. Sonars for these ships are Echo Type 5, a development of EH-5 sonar used on Jianghu-III's, adopting LSIC technology. The stabilizers did not work, and ships that had air conditioning could only use them sparingly to save the generators. The 100 mm. gun was hand-loaded and did not have working fire-control radar. They mounted obsolete Chinese copies of the Soviet P-15 Termit anti-ship missile.

The Royal Thai Navy received four new Type 053Ts (based on the then-latest Type 053H2) in the early-1990s. Each cost ฿2 billion; a Western ship would have been ฿8 billion each. Two were modified with rear helicopter decks. The sonar on these ships is SJD-5A, a further development of Echo Type 5 sonars on the same class of ships sold to Egyptian and Bangladesh navies, with VLSIC repalcing LSIC. The interior wiring was exposed and had to be rewired. The damage control system, notably the fire-suppression system and water-tight locks, was also poor; it was expected a hull breach would lead to rapid flooding and the loss of the ship. The Thai Navy spent considerable time and effort to correct some of the issues.[11]

The negative feedback drove improvements in the Chinese shipbuilding industry. By the mid-1990s, the Thai Navy was confident enough to order two enlarged Type 053 hulls as the F25T Naresuan-class frigates. The F25Ts were fitted with Western engines and armament, and their construction was supervised by technical advisers from the German ship building industry. Sonars on these F25Ts are SO-7H, which is the Chinese version of French DUBA25.[12]

Transfers to the Coast Guard

In 2007, the Type 053H frigates 509 and 510 were transferred to the China Coast Guard and refitted as Ocean Patrol Vehicles 1002 and 1003. The superstructure was heavily modified. Armament was reduced to a small cannon forward and heavy machine guns; some of freed space was used to stow small patrol boats and add crew quarters.[13]

Transfers to Myanmar

In 2012, two units, Anshun (FFG 554) and Jishou (FFG 557) were transferred to Myanmar as UMS Mahar Bandoola (F-21) and UMS Mahar Thiha Thura (F-23) respectively.[14]

Incidents

On 11 July 2012, a Jianghu-V ship, 560 Dongguan, ran aground on a shoal off the coast of the Philippines. The area where the incident occurred, known as Half Moon Shoal (Hasa Hasa Shoal in the Philippines) in the Spratly Islands, is well within the Philippines 200 nmi-EEZ, just 60 miles west of Rizal, Palawan.[15] By 15 July the ship had been refloated and was returning to port with no injuries and only minor damage.[16] Confrontations over territorial disputes in the South China Sea, and particularly the disputed status of the Spratly Islands, have become more frequent in recent years, and caused noticeable friction at the 2012 ASEAN summit in Phnom Penh that was taking place at the same time as the incident.[16]

Versions

Completed as Riga-class frigates. Slightly more heavily armed than the Soviet Riga class frigate it is based on in that the two twin 25 mm gun mounts on original Riga class are replaced by a second pair of twin 37 mm gun mounts in Chengdu class. By the early 1970s their torpedo tubes were replaced by a twin launcher for SY-1 anti-ship missiles. Retired in the 1980s.
Based on the Type 6601/01. design first started in Dec 1962 by the 701st Institute at Wuhan, and the construction begun in Aug 1964, with the first ship entering service on Aug 1, 1966. Powered by modified civilian diesel engine rather than military-grade steam turbines. Main guns were mounted one forward and two aft, instead of two forward and one aft on the Riga.[17] Completely withdrawn from active duty in the 1980s, but remained as training, museum, and public relations ships. The ships remain on the PLAN's roster, and their upkeep at museums is provided by the PLAN.
Air-defense frigate armed with two twin-armed HQ-61 surface-to-air missile (SAM) launchers. Only two built, and retired from active service in the early 1990s. 531 Yingtan is docked at a museum in Qingdao; the PLAN retains ownership and provides upkeep.
Surface warfare frigate armed with six SY-1s in two triple-box launchers. These ships are equipped with Chinese SJD-3 sonar, which is modification of Soviet Tamir-11 (MG-11, with NATO reporting name Stag Hoof) hull mounted sonar: instead of being fixed to the hull, SJD-3 has a telescoping arm, so when not in use, the sonar is stored in the hull, and when deployed, the sonar is lowered into water several meter below the hull, thus increased detection range by avoiding baffles generated by the hull.11 remained in service with the East Sea Fleet in 2007.[9]
Improved Type 053H with newer electronics, engine, and replenishment equipment. The sonar for Jianghu-II is SJD-5, which is a Chinese development of Soviet Tamir-11 (MG-11), (NATO reporting name Stag Hoof), with transistors replacing vacuum tubes in the original Soviet MG-11. Armed with six SY-2 in two triple-box launchers.[18]
555 Zhaotong was modified with more advanced systems as a test bed. PL-9C SAMs were added to its 37mm AA gun mounts.[18]
8 remained in service in 2007.[18]
Designed on an enlarged Type 053 hull, and displayed European influence. Considered the first "modern" Chinese frigate with airtight cabins, central air condition, NBC protection, and integrated combat system (British CTC-1629/Chinese ZKJ-3A). The sonar for Jianghu-III is EH-5, a development of earlier SJD-5 used on Jianghu-II, with integrated circuits replacing transistors. Armed with two four-box missile launchers, carrying YJ-8 or YJ-82 surface-to-surface missiles (SSM), and four Type 79A 100mm guns in two two-gun turrets. Three were in service with the East Sea Fleet in 1997.[19]
Modified Type 053H with aft weapons replaced with a helicopter deck for Harbin Z-9 helicopter. Armed with one SY-1 SSM triple-box launcher, and a compact French-made 100mm gun. Only one ship was built; 544 Siping served with the North Sea Fleet. This ship was renamed Lushun in July 2010, and later transferred to Chinese Naval Academy to serve as a training ship.
Originally an economy class based on the Type 053H1. Six built by the Guangzhou-based Huangpu Shipyard in the 1990s to meet an urgent need for ships by the South Sea Fleet. Incorporated improvements from the Type 053H2, including air-tight cabins, central air conditioning, NBC protection, and integrated combat system. The sonar for Jianghu-V is EH-5A, the latest variant of SJD-5/EH-5/Echo Type 5 family, and it's a highly digitized version. Initially armed with six obsolescent SY-1A in two tripled-box launchers, later upgraded to eight YJ-83 SSM in two four-box launchers.[20]

General characteristics

Type 053KType 053HType 053H2
Displacement
  • 1,674 tons (empty)
  • 1,924 tons (full)
  • 1,425 tons (empty)
  • 1,702 tons (full)
  • 1,565 tons (empty)
  • 1,960 tons (full)
Length103 m103.2 m103.2 m
Beam10.8 m10.8 m11.3 m
Draft3.1 m3.05 m3.19 m
Powerplant2 x 14,000 hp diesels2 x 12E390VA,880 kW (7,885 hp) at 480 rpm.
Speed
  • 26 knots (design)
  • 30 knots+ (trials)
26 knots26.5 knots
Crew200190190-200
Electronics
  • Type 354 Radar (Eye Shield) 2D air/surface search
  • Type 352 Radar (Square Tie)
  • G/H-band radar for SSM and 100 mm gun targeting
  • EH-5 hull-mounted MF sonar
  • Jug Pair intercept ECM/EW system
  • ZKJ-3 combat data system (with reported speed of 1 Mbit/s) in some units
  • Data link: HN-900 (Chinese equivalent of Link 11A/B, to be upgraded)
  • Communication: SNTI-240 SATCOM
  • Type 354 Radar (Eye Shield) 2D air/surface search, I-band
  • Type 517H-1 (Knife Rest) 2D long-range air search, A-band
  • Type 352 Radar (Square Tie) surface search fire-control, I-band
  • Type 343 (Wasp Head) fire control radar, G/H-band
  • 2 x Type 341 fire control radar for dual 37 mm AA gun
  • 2 x Racal RM-1290 navigation radars, I-band
  • SJD-5 medium-frequency sonar
  • SJC-1B reconnaissance sonar
  • SJX-4 communications sonar
  • CTC-1629 combat data system (or Chinese copy ZKJ-3A)
  • Data link: HN-900 (Chinese equivalent of Link 11A/B, to be upgraded)
  • Communication: SNTI-240 SATCOM
  • RWD-8 (Jug Pair) intercept EW suite
  • Type 9230I radar warning receiver
  • Type 651A IFF
Armament
  • 2 x twin 100 mm gun (22 km range)
  • 2-4 x twin 37mm AAA (8.5 km range)
  • 2 x twin HQ-61B SAM (10 km range)
  • 2 x Type 62, 5-tube ASW RL (1.2 km range)
  • DC rack
  • 6 x SY-1 SSM
  • 2 x 100 mm gun
  • 4 x dual 37 mm AA guns
  • 2 x Type 81 (RBU-1200) 5-tube ASW RL (30 rockets), or 2 x Type 3200 6-tube ASW RL (36 rockets)
  • 2 x Type 62 5-tube A/S mortar launchers
  • 2 x depth charge (DC) racks & projector
  • 8 x YJ-8 or YJ-82 SSM
  • 2 x Type 79A dual-100 mm gun
  • 4 x Type 76 dual-37 mm AA guns
  • 2 x 5-tube Type 81 ASW rocket launcher (30 rounds)
  • 4 x Type 64 DC projectors
  • 2 x DC racks
  • 2 x Mk-36RBOC 6-barrel decoy rocket launchers

Ships

053H (Jianghu-I)

14 built:

053H1 (Jianghu-II)

9 built:

053H1Q (Jianghu-IV)

1 built:

053H2 (Jianghu-III)

3 built:

053H1G (Jianghu-V)

6 built:

Service with other navies

9 total:

Nomenclature

The naming of the Type 053/Type 6601/Type 065 frigates reflected contemporary Chinese political turmoil. The PLAN originally named major surface combatants after geographical areas in China, but this practice was abolished during the Cultural Revolution. During that period, most of the third batch of Type 065s were either not named or had their names stripped; ships were referred to only by their hull numbers.[citation needed]

The naming of ships resumed in the latter half of the 1980s. However, by that time the Type 065s were nearing retirement, and the traditional geographic names were given to newer ships. For example, Jinan was allocated to a Type 051 destroyer. When the older Type 053/Type 6601/Type 065 were renamed, none received the same one they had held before.[citation needed]

Coast Guard ship class

Two Type 053H are now classed as coast guard cutters following transfer and modifications:

Career (China)
Operator:China Coast Guard
Builder:Jiangnan Shipyard
Launched:1974-1975
Commissioned:1975-1976
Recommissioned:2006
Decommissioned:2006
In service:2008-present
Refit:1996 with PLAN
Status:in active service, as of 2012
General characteristics
Type:ocean patrol vessel - converted ex-Jianghu-I FFG (Type 053 frigate Type H)
Displacement:1,600 tonnes (1,763.70 short tons)
Length:103 metres (338 ft)
Beam:10.8 metres (35 ft)
Height:3.19 metres (10.5 ft)
Ice class:N/A
Propulsion:2 12PA68TC DE 16000hp
Speed:25.6 knots (47.4 km/h)
Boats & landing
craft carried:
  • 2 high speed boats
Complement:160-200
Armament:small cannon forward and heavy machine guns - replacing 1 dual 37mm G, 2 dual 14.55 mm AAMG 2 water cannons
Aircraft carried:Harbin Z-9C
Notes:25.6 kn

References

  1. ^ Bates, Gill; Kim, Taeho (1995). "China's Arms Acquisitions from Abroad: A Quest for 'Superb and Secret Weapons'". SIPRI Research Report No. 11. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. http://books.sipri.org/files/RR/SIPRIRR11.pdf. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  2. ^ "Chengdu-class frigates". GlobalSecurity.org. April 27, 2005. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/chengdu.htm. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  3. ^ "Anshan-class Destroyer". GlobalSecurity.org. 11 June 2010. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/anshan.htm. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  4. ^ "Chengdu-class frigates - Specifications". GlobalSecurity.org. April 27, 2005. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/chengdu-specs.htm. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  5. ^ "Type 065 Jiangnan-class Frigates". GlobalSecurity.org. July 31, 2005. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/jiangnan.htm. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  6. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/jiangdong.htm
  7. ^ http://knows.jongo.com/res/article/10300
  8. ^ http://1895-1945.i.tiexue.net/blog/post_2109161_1.html
  9. ^ a b http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/surface/type053h_jianghu.asp
  10. ^ http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/surface/maanshan054.asp
  11. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/thailand/naresuan.htm
  12. ^ http://www.forecastinternational.com/archive/ws/ws11485.htm
  13. ^ http://china-defense.blogspot.com/2008/07/photos-of-two-old-jianghu-ffg-in-coast.html
  14. ^ http://articles.maritimepropulsion.com/article/Two-Chinese-Frigates-for-Myanmar-2028.aspx
  15. ^ Laude, Jamie. "China ship runs aground near Phl" The Philippine Star. 14 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  16. ^ a b "Stranded naval frigate refloated." AFP. 15 July 2012
  17. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/jiangnan.htm
  18. ^ a b c http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/surface/type053h1_jianghu2.asp
  19. ^ http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/surface/type053h2_jianghu3.asp
  20. ^ http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/surface/type053h1g_jianghu5.asp

Jackson, Robert "Fighting Ships of The World." London: Amber Books Ltd, 2004 Pg.383 ISBN 9781840136470

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