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In Margaret Mitchell's novel Gone with the Wind, Twelve Oaks is the plantation of the Wilkes family in Clayton County, Georgia named for the twelve great oak trees that surround the family mansion in an almost perfect circle, a "beautiful white-columned house that crowned the hill like a Greek Temple".
John Wilkes is the elderly widowed patriarch of the family which includes his son, Ashley, and two unwed daughters, India and Honey. The Wilkeses are among the wealthiest families in the county with land, slaves and money second only to those of the large and hardy Tarleton family of Fairhill Plantation. The Wilkes are revered by the county folk for their generosity and good nature, but also considered slightly odd because of their interests in reading books and traveling to the North to hear music and view paintings--this sophistication and elegance attributed to their grandfather being from Virginia. The Wilkeses are also known to marry their cousins.
When the novel begins, Gerald O'Hara is returning from Twelve Oaks (having purchased a slave to be wife to his devoted valet Pork) with the news that Ashley Wilkes, with whom 16 year old Scarlett O'Hara is convinced she is in love, has just formally become engaged to his second cousin, Melanie Hamilton of Atlanta. In spite for what she perceives as Ashley spurning her, Scarlett accepts the impromptu proposal of Melanie's brother Charles, who was expected by all to marry Honey Wilkes (though changed to India in the film, which omits the character of Honey) and as such becomes a relative by marriage to both Melanie and Ashley.
Twelve Oaks suffers terribly in the war from the same shortages and privations as its neighbors. The family is also decimated as first Charles Hamilton dies of pneumonia, then John Wilkes is killed in combat (though elderly, he joined the Home Guard in defense of Atlanta). The mansion is looted and burned by Union troops in 1864; Scarlett finds a straggling cow in the ruins of the home and enough beans and turnips for a meal from its slave quarters gardens but otherwise it is a total loss. Presumably the lands are lost to the same taxes that necessitates Scarlett's marriage to Frank Kennedy to save Tara.
The representation of the plantation house at Tara in the film Gone with the Wind corresponds more or less to the description of the house in the novel. The portrayal of the mansion at Twelve Oaks in the film is exaggerated and bears more resemblance to the Colonial Revival mansions popular in the United States in the first quarter of the 20th Century than it does to the home of an antebellum planter in rural Georgia. During the film's pre-production period this discrepancy raised mild disapproval from author Margaret Mitchell. Mitchell had envisioned a more ordinary and historically accurate house. Nevertheless it is the stately mansion from the film with its imperial staircase and improbably high ceilinged corridors (the product of early paint-on-glass style special effect rather than a physical set) that remains in the public mind as the iconic image of "Twelve Oaks" rather than the more restrained Greek revival house described in the novel.