Knit cap

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A knit cap (or tuque).

A knit cap, originally of wool, though now often of synthetic fibers, is designed to provide warmth in cold weather. Many variants exist, with many names, such as toboggan (Southern American English) and stocking cap or watch cap (American English). In much of the English-speaking world, the term beanie has come to mean a knit cap as well, but North American usage often describes a completely different seamed cap that is not knitted at all.

In Canada, the knit cap is also known as a tuque (pronounced /ˈtk/; also spelled touque or toque), a word closely related to the French word toque, originally referring to a traditional headwear and now used for type of chef's hat (short for toque blanche, meaning "white hat").

There are many other names for a knit cap (see "Other names" section below).

Most knit caps are tapered at the top; they sometimes have ear flaps, and may be topped with a pom-pom (this style of cap is sometimes referred to as a bobble hat, toboggan or sherpa). Knit caps may have a folded brim, or none, and may be worn tightly fitting the head or loose on top.


The precursor to the modern knit cap (tuque) was a small, round, close-fitting hat, brimless or with a small brim known as a Monmouth cap. In the 12th and 13th centuries, women wore embroidered "toques", made of velvet, satin, or taffeta, on top of their head-veils. In the late 16th century, brimless, black velvet toques were popular with men and women. Throughout the 19th century, women wore toques, often small, trimmed with fur, lace, bows, flowers, or leaves.[1]

Canadian tuque[edit]

The tuque is similar to the Phrygian cap, and, as such, during the 1837 Patriotes Rebellion, a red tuque became a symbol of French-Canadian nationalism. The symbol was revived briefly by the Front de libération du Québec in the 1960s.[2] It is considered outerwear and is not commonly worn indoors.

The word tuque is etymologically related to the name of the chef's toque, an alternate spelling. Also occasionally spelled touque, although the latter is not considered a standard spelling by the Canadian Oxford Dictionary.[3][4]

In some sections of Canada, a tuque with a brim on it, commonly worn by snowboarders, is nicknamed a bruque (a brimmed tuque).[5]

The word tuque became more widely known in the United States after the release of the album The Great White North.[citation needed]

In popular culture[edit]

U2 guitarist The Edge wearing a knit cap.

Knit caps are common in cold climates, and are worn worldwide in various forms. They have become the common headgear for stereotypical dockworkers and sailors in movies and television. Bill Murray wore this type of hat in The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou, possibly as a parody of the red tuque (or Phrygian cap) worn by Jacques Cousteau.

Famous media characters to sport a knit cap are the SCTV characters Bob and Doug McKenzie. Michael Nesmith of The Monkees also wore this hat in his television series, as did Jay in the films of the View Askewniverse, Robert Clothier's character "Relic" in the long-running Canadian TV series The Beachcombers, and Hanna-Barbera's character Loopy de Loop wore a knit cap as well. Robert Conrad also had worn one in his role of coureur des bois in the epic TV series Centennial. Bruce Weitz's character Mick Belker wore this hat throughout almost every episode of Hill Street Blues.

Characters in the animated series South Park, including Eric Cartman and Stan Marsh, usually wear knit caps. Jayne Cobb from the TV series Firefly wore an orange sherpa knitted and sent him by his mother in the episode "The Message". The character Compo on the British TV show Last of the Summer Wine is almost always seen wearing a knit cap.

The guitarist for the Irish band U2, The Edge, is also known for wearing a knit cap while performing, or during interviews. Tom Delonge, guitarist and vocalist of the pop punk band Blink-182 is also known to wear a knit cap during live performances. Rob Caggiano, music producer and former guitarist for thrash metal band Anthrax, is often seen wearing a black one. Canadian Daniel Powter also wore a blue knit cap during the music video for "Bad Day". Knit caps are also worn commonly by hip hop artists. Masao Inaba from Revelations: Persona wears one.

Toronto Maple Leafs goalie Jonathan Bernier wore a tuque over his helmet during the sixth annual National Hockey League Winter Classic on January 1, 2014.

One of the more notable wearers of the tuque was Jacques Plante, the Hall of Fame goaltender for the Montreal Canadiens ice hockey team throughout the 1950s. During the 2003 Heritage Classic game (which was played at temperatures below −15 °C (5 °F)), another Canadiens goaltender, José Théodore, wore a tuque on top of his goalie mask.

A 1984 Québécois film about an enormous snowball fight has the French title La guerre des tuques (The War of the Tuques).[6] A town in Quebec is known as La Tuque, named after a nearby hill that resembles a tuque.

American rapper Eminem is known for wearing a knit cap.

Other names[edit]

A bright green knit cap.

In parts of the English-speaking world, this type of knitted hat is called a "beanie". In Canada and the US, the word "beanie" is used to denote a completely different less floppy cap that is not knitted, but rather made up of joined panels of felt, twill or other tightly woven cloth (see Beanie (seamed cap)).

Other names include: sock hat, knit hat, knit cap, sock cap, tossel cap, tossle cap, ski hat, toboggan, burglar beanie, woolly hat, snookie, "sugan", or chook.

A knit cap is commonly referred to as a watch cap by members of the United States Military as the head gear worn while "standing watch" on a ship or guard post.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ History of the Tuque (archived)
  2. ^ An image of an 1837 Patriote in a Phrygian cap can be seen in images of the published FLQ manifesto, for instance at
  3. ^ Barber, Katherine, ed. (2004). Canadian Oxford Dictionary, second edition. Toronto, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-541816-6. — "Toque" is a main headword, "tuque" considered a variant spelling, "touque" does not appear.
  4. ^ "tuque" at Merriam-Webster: it derives from Canadian French tuque, in turn from French toque.
  5. ^ Toque, tuque, bruque: What's the difference?
  6. ^ La Guerre des Tuques (1984) at IMDB

External links[edit]