Troy Donahue

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Troy Donahue
TROY donahue 1999.jpg
Donahue in 1999
BornMerle Johnson, Jr.
(1936-01-27)January 27, 1936
New York City, New York, U.S.
DiedSeptember 2, 2001(2001-09-02) (aged 65)
Santa Monica, California, U.S.
Cause of death
Heart attack
Alma materColumbia University
OccupationActor, singer
Years active1957–2000
Spouse(s)Suzanne Pleshette (m. 1964; div. 1964)
Valerie Allen (m. 1966; div. 1968)
Alma Sharpe (m. 1969; div. 1972)
Vicki Taylor (m. 1979; div. 1981)
Partner(s)Zheng Cao
Children1
 
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Troy Donahue
TROY donahue 1999.jpg
Donahue in 1999
BornMerle Johnson, Jr.
(1936-01-27)January 27, 1936
New York City, New York, U.S.
DiedSeptember 2, 2001(2001-09-02) (aged 65)
Santa Monica, California, U.S.
Cause of death
Heart attack
Alma materColumbia University
OccupationActor, singer
Years active1957–2000
Spouse(s)Suzanne Pleshette (m. 1964; div. 1964)
Valerie Allen (m. 1966; div. 1968)
Alma Sharpe (m. 1969; div. 1972)
Vicki Taylor (m. 1979; div. 1981)
Partner(s)Zheng Cao
Children1

Troy Donahue (January 27, 1936 – September 2, 2001) was an American film and television actor and singer. Donahue became a popular male sex symbol of the 1950s and 1960s.

Early years[edit]

Born Merle Johnson, Jr. in New York City, Donahue was the son of a retired stage actress and the manager of the motion picture department of General Motors.[1] Donahue later recalled in a 1959 interview:

Acting is all I ever wanted. Ever since I can remember I've studied and read plays. My mother would help me but my parents didn't want me to become an actor. They preferred something more stable - doctor, lawyer, Indian chief, anything.[2]

"I can remember always being exposed to Broadway and theater people," he added in 1984. "I can remember sitting with Gertrude Lawrence while she read her reviews in The King and I."[3]

To please his parents he attended a New York military academy. He was going to attend West Point but suffered a damaged knee at a track meet. He volunteered for the army but they rejected him.[4]

When he was 18 he moved to New York and got a job as a messenger in a film company founded by his father (who had died when he was 14). He was fired, he says, because he was too young to join the union.[2]

He attended Columbia University and studied journalism, and acted in summer stock at Bucks County. He trained briefly with Ezra Stone then moved to Hollywood.

One evening producer William Asher and director James Sheldon spotted him in a diner at Malibu and arranged for a screen test with Columbia. It was unsuccessful, and Donahue was in a car accident where he drove off a road and plunged 40 feet down a canyon.[4]

Actress Fran Bennett introduced him to Henry Willson, who represented Rock Hudson, among others. Wilson signed him and it was he who changed Johnson's name to Troy Donahue.[5] "At first they had Paris, the lover of Helen of Troy, in mind," Donahue says. "But I guess they thought they couldn't name me Paris Donahue because there was already a Paris, France and Paris, Illinois."[3] He later added, "it took me five minutes to get used to" his new name.[2]

Career[edit]

Donahue signed with Universal in 1956.[6] He established himself with uncredited roles in The Monolith Monsters and Man Afraid in 1957, leading to larger parts in several films and on TV shows. Donahue starred in Monster on the Campus, Live Fast, Die Young, and The Tarnished Angels, all in 1958. He impressed in a small role in Imitation of Life.

Stardom[edit]

The big break of Donahue's career came when cast opposite Sandra Dee in A Summer Place, made by Warner Bros in 1959.[7] This role role made him a major star, especially among teenaged audiences. In 1960 he was named by Film Daily as one of the five "finds" of the year.[8]

He signed a contract with Warner Bros.[9] and played several successive leading roles in films such as Parrish, Susan Slade, Rome Adventure, Palm Springs Weekend, and A Distant Trumpet. Two of these films co-starred Suzanne Pleshette, whom he married in 1964, but divorced that same year.

"I guess because I was blond, blue-eyed and tanned, people associated me with all those beach movies that were around then, even though I never did one," he later said. "I was always the goody-goody, the guy who did what he was supposed to."[3]

In 1962 he claimed he received 5,000 - 7,500 fan letters a week.[10] The following year, exhibitors voted him the 20th most popular star in the USA.[11] He was also very popular in Japan.[12]

Donahue with show-girl Margarita Sierra in the ABC/Warner Brothers television series, Surfside 6 (1961)

From 1960 to 1962, Donahue starred with Van Williams, Lee Patterson, Diane McBain, and Margarita Sierra in the ABC/WB series, Surfside 6, set in Miami Beach, Florida.[5][13]

After Surfside 6 was canceled, Donahue joined the cast of another ABC/WB detective series, Hawaiian Eye for its last season from 1962 to 1963 in the role of hotel director Philip Barton, with Robert Conrad and Connie Stevens in the series lead.[14]

Donahue also had a brief tenure as a recording artist at the height of his fame in the early 1960s, releasing a handful of singles for Warner Bros. records, including "Live Young" and "Somebody Loves Me." However, none of his recordings entered the Billboard Hot 100 list.

Decline[edit]

In 1965, Donahue was cast as a psychopathic killer opposite Joey Heatherton in My Blood Runs Cold. While Donahue was happy to break type and play a different type of role, it was not well received by the public. His contract with Warner Bros. ended shortly thereafter - although it ran until early 1968, Donahue asked to be released from it in January 1966.[15] Donahue later claimed:

Jack Warner called every studio I used to work for and used his muscle to keep me busted. I was backballed and everyone in the business knew it. Please print that. I made one film in Europe playing a Victorian astronaut but no one ever saw it. Then by the time I could get work again it was too late because my type was already out of fashion.[16]

He later reflected on this period, "They pumped me til the well went dry. My image came out of Warner Bros and it was one that was on its way out. I think I'm a little deeper than the roles I was given to play."[2]

In 1967 he said Parrish had been the most satisfactory of his movies. "I had the best script and the best opportunity as an actor. Not too many of those came my way. But I did get great exposure at Warners. Now I'm free to call my own shots. I've made more money in two years on my own than the whole time I was under contract."[17]

That year Donahue walked out of a contract to appear in a play Poor Richard at the Pheasant Run Playhouse.[18][19] He was sued for $200,000.[20]

The following year Donahue signed a long term contract with Universal for films and TV.[21] This lasted a year and saw him guest on a number of shows. He declared bankruptcy in 1968 and eventually lost his home.[22] "I was living like a movie star but wasn't being paid like one," he says. "I lived way over my head and got into great trouble and lost everything. I went from a beautiful home, garden, swimming pool to living in shabby apartments."[3]

Donahue later admitted that he began abusing drugs and alcohol at the peak of his career and increased usage after his career began to wane:

I was loaded all the time... I'd wake up about 6:30 in the morning, take three aspirins mixed with codeine, slug down half a pint of vodka and then do four lines of cocaine. That was just so I could get the front door open to peek out and see if I could face the day... I would lie, steal and cheat, all those wonderful things that drunks do. I was crafty. Nobody knew how much I drank then. If a bottle was out on the counter, I'd take a swig when I passed it and quickly put it back.[3]

"I spent a lot of time judging beauty contests and opening banks," Donahue said of this period.[2] He also wrote TV screenplays under a pseudonym.

Donahue was struggling to make his way in a changing Hollywood. As he said later, "If you're the boy next door and you supposed to be squeaky clean, all you had to do was let your sideburns grow and suddenly you were a hippy."[23] Donahue says when he met casting directors they would ask "Why don't you comb your hair? How come you have grown a moustache? What are you doing with a beard?"[23] He also thinks his career was hurt by the fact he was an anti-Vietnam War Democrat while "everybody assumed I was a Republican".[23]

Move to New York[edit]

In 1969, Donahue moved from Los Angeles to New York City. He said a few years later:

It took guts to walk out of Hollywood, but it would have been worse to stay. I had a house, seven black cadillac convertibles, and two wrecked marriages. I already had my head turned; turning back was easy. It doesn't matter if I have a beard or a crewcut. People respond to me because I have a human quality. I know I'll be put down by Hollywood but I don't speak to anybody out there anyway... I smoke grass and ride cycles, my lifestyle is casual, but I'm not a dope fiend or a hippie freak. I've found strength in Jesus Christ and he's easier to follow than Zen Buddhism. I'm not strung out. I'm a very reasonable, professional actor.[16]

While in New York Donahue appeared in the daytime CBS drama The Secret Storm for six months. He later called the role "the best part I ever had".[2] By this time, Donahue's drug addiction and alcoholism had ruined him financially. One summer, he was homeless and lived in Central Park. "There was always somebody who could be amused by Troy Donahue," he says. "I'd meet them anywhere, in a park, street, party, in bed. I lived in a bush in Central Park for one summer. I kept everything I had in a backpack."[3]

In 1974, Francis Ford Coppola cast him in a small part in The Godfather Part II as the fiancé of Connie Corleone. His character was named Merle Johnson, a nod to Donahue's real name. Donahue was paid $10,000 for the role.

Return to Hollywood[edit]

Donahue moved back to Los Angeles where he married for a fourth time. He acted in occasional television guest spots and appeared in whiskey commercials for the Japanese television market. Donahue said in 1978:

After eight years at Warners I did a few independent pictures that never went any place. I travelled, played stickball, had a few marriages and many affairs. I just totally enjoyed myself and did the things I didn't get to do when I was a kid. Now I've decided I wanna go back to work again and I've been encouraged by a lot of people who feel that I have the talent and everything that goes with it.[23]

There was even some talk of a TV movie, Return to a Summer Place, but it was never made.[23]

After his fourth marriage ended in 1981, Donahue decided to seek help for his drinking and drug use.[3] In May 1982, he joined Alcoholics Anonymous which he credited for helping him achieve and maintain sobriety.[24] "I look upon my sobriety as a miracle," he says. "I simply do it one day at a time. The obsession to not drink has become as big as the obsession to drink. I was very fortunate."[3]

Later Years[edit]

Donahue continued to act in films throughout the 1980s and into the late 1990s. He appeared in the feature Grandview USA shot in Pontiac Illinois. "Crowds of teenage girls would swarm around C. Thomas Howell, and teenage boys around Jamie Lee Curtis. But the major celebrity was Donahue," recalls director Randall Kleiser. "These women who had grown up with him as their heartthrob followed him everywhere."[3]

However he never obtained the recognition that he had in the earlier years of his career.[25] Donahue's final film role was in the 2000 comedy film The Boys Behind the Desk, directed by Sally Kirkland.

Personal life[edit]

Donahue was married four times and had one child. His first marriage was to actress Suzanne Pleshette whom he married on January 5, 1964 in Beverly Hills.[26] They divorced in September 1964.[24][27]

On October 21, 1966, Donahue married actress Valerie Allen in Dublin, Ireland.[28] They separated in April 1967, and she filed for divorce in April 1968, charging him with cruelty, divorcing in November 1968.[29][30] She miscarried during their marriage.[31]

Donahue's third marriage was to executive secretary Alma Sharpe. They married on November 15, 1969 in Roanoke, Virginia.[32][33] "I couldn't take care of myself, and I knew this friend would take me under her wing," he says. They divorced in 1972.[3]

Donahue's fourth and final marriage was to land developer Vicki Taylor. They were married in 1979 and divorced in 1981.[3] In his final years, Donahue was in a long-term relationship with mezzo-soprano Zheng Cao to whom he was engaged and lived with in Santa Monica, California.[5][25]

Donahue had one son, Sean, whom he had with a woman he had a brief relationship with in 1969. He only found out about the son in the early 1980s when he ran into the woman again. As he recalled in 1984:

She walked over and introduced herself and I remembered that we had been together four or five times in L.A. in 1969. Nothing serious. Just fun and games. She said, 'I'm glad I saw you. I've always wanted to tell you about something. Look over there, Troy.' I looked and across the room I saw a 13-year-old spitting image of what I looked like when I was young. 'This is your son, Sean,' she said. 'He's known all his life that you are his father.'... I see him every couple of weeks now.[3]

In 1958 Donahue was jailed for 15 days for speeding.[34] In 1961 his one time fiancee Lili Kardell sued him for damages, claiming he hit her without provocation.[35]

Death[edit]

On August 30, 2001, Donahue suffered a heart attack and was admitted to Saint John's Health Center in Santa Monica. He died there on September 2 at the age of 65.[5][24]

Filmography[edit]

Film
YearTitleRoleNotes
1957Man AfraidReporterUncredited
1957Man of a Thousand FacesAssistant Director in BullpenUncredited
1957The Tarnished AngelsFrank Burnham
1957The Monolith MonstersHank JacksonUncredited
1958Flood TideTeenager at BeachUncredited
1958Summer LoveSax Lewis
1958Live Fast, Die YoungArtie Sanders/Artie Smith
1958This Happy FeelingTony Manza
1958Voice in the MirrorPaul Cunningham
1958Wild HeritageJesse Bascomb
1958The Perfect FurloughSgt. Nickles
1958Monster on the CampusJimmy Flanders
1959Imitation of LifeFrankie
1959A Summer PlaceJohnny Hunter
1960The Crowded SkyMcVey
1961ParrishParrish McLean
1961Susan SladeHoyt Brecker
1962Rome AdventureDon Porter
1963Palm Springs WeekendJim Munroe
1964A Distant Trumpet2nd Lt. Matthew 'Matt' Hazard
1965My Blood Runs ColdBen Gunther
1967Come Spy with MePete Barker
1967Jules Verne's Rocket to the MoonGaylordAlternative title: Those Fantastic Flying Fools
1970The Phantom GunslingerBill
1971Sweet SaviorMoonAlternative title: Frenetic Party
1972The Last StopSheriff
1974SeizureMark Frost
1974CockfighterRandall Mansfield
1974South SeasSteve
1974The Godfather: Part IIMerle Johnson
1977The Legend of Frank WoodsSheriff John Baxom
1977Ultraje
1983Tin ManLester
1984Katy the CaterpillarWalla (Voice)English-dubbed version
1984Grandview, U.S.A.Donny Vinton
1986Low BlowJohn TempletonAlternative title: The Last Fight to Win: The Bloody End
1987Fight to WinRosenbergAlternative titles: Dangerous Passages
Eyes of the Dragon
1987CycloneBob Jenkins
1987Hyôryu kyôshitsuTaggartEnglish title: The Drifting Classroom
1987Hollywood CopLt. Maxwell
1987Deadly PreyDon Michaelson
1988Hard Rock NightmareUncle Gary
1988HawkeyeMayorAlternative title: Karate Cops
1989Blood NastyBarry Hefna
1989The ChillingDr. Miller
1989Deadly SpygamesPython
1989The Platinum TriangleHarold Farber
1989Assault of the Party NerdsSid WitherspoonDirect-to-video release
1989American RampagePolice Psychiatrist
1989Dr. AlienDr. Ackerman
1989Terminal ForceSlim
1989Sounds of SilenceLarry Haughton
1989Bad BloodJack Barnes
1989Hot Times at Montclair HighMr. Nichols
1990SexpotPhillip
1990Click: The Calendar Girl KillerAlan
1990Cry-BabyHatchet's Father
1990Omega CopSlim
1990Nudity RequiredJackAlternative title: Young Starlet
1991Shock 'Em DeadRecord Exec
1991Deadly DiamondsMatt PlimptonDirect-to-video release
1992Double TroubleLeonard
1992The Pamela PrincipleTroy
1993Showdown
1998Merchants of VenusFBI AgentAlternative title: A Dirty Little Business
2000The Boys Behind the Desk
Television
YearTitleRoleNotes
1958Man Without a GunJanEpisode: "Night of Violence"
1958The CaliforniansEpisode: "A Girl Named Sue"
1959RawhideBuzz TravisEpisode: "Incident at Alabaster Plain"
1959Wagon TrainTed GarnerSegment: "The Hunter Malloy Story"
1959Tales of Wells FargoSmithEpisode: "The Rawhide Kid"
1959MaverickDan JamisonEpisode: "Pappy"
1959SugarfootKen SavageEpisode: "The Wild Bunch"
1959Colt .45James 'Jim' GibsonEpisode: "The Hothead"
1959BroncoRoy Parrott
Bart Bonner
2 episodes
1959The AlaskansTed AndrewsEpisode: "Heart of Gold"
1959-1963Hawaiian EyePhilip Barton26 episodes
1960LawmanDavid ManningEpisode: "The Payment"
1960-196177 Sunset StripStar Bright
Sandy Winfield I
2 episodes
1960-1962Surfside 6Sandy Winfield II71 episodes
1965The Patty Duke ShowDr. MorganEpisode: "Operation: Tonsils"
1968IronsideFather Dugan2 episodes
1968The Name of the GameNorman HoakEpisode: "Nightmare"
1969The VirginianBrackenEpisode: "Fox, Hound and the Widow McCloud"
1969The Lonely ProfessionJulian ThatcherTelevision movie
1970The Secret StormR.B. KeeferUnknown episodes
1976Ellery QueenGilbert MalloryEpisode: "The Adventure of the Sinister Scenario"
1977The Godfather SagaMerle JohnsonMiniseries
1978The Hardy Boys/Nancy Drew MysteriesAlan SummervilleEpisode: "Mystery on the Avalanche Express"
1978CHiPsBob NilesEpisode: "Peaks and Valleys"
1978Vega$Teddy HowardEpisode: "The Games Girls Play"
1978The Eddie Capra MysteriesEpisode: "Dying Declaration"
1978-1981Fantasy IslandJack Terry
Wallis Jaeger
2 episodes
1980The Love BoatMr. ClarkEpisode: "Tell Her She's Great..."
1982Matt HoustonWilliam 'Willie' HoytEpisode: "Joey's Here"
1983MalibuClint RedmanTelevision movie
1990MonstersEpisode: "Micro Minds"
1998LegionFlemmingTelevision movie
1999Shake, Rattle and Roll: An American Love StoryRob KamenMiniseries

Box Office Ranking[edit]

Theatre Credits[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ferguson, Michael S. (2003). Idol Worship: A Shameless Celebration of Male Beauty in the Movies. STARbooks Press. p. 139. ISBN 1-891-85548-4. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Teens Pick Our Movie Stars: Donahue Buildup an Example Beck, Joan. Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) [Chicago, Ill] 22 Oct 1959: c3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Stark, John (August 13, 1984). "After 20 Years Awash in Booze and Drugs, Troy Donahue Prizes His Sobering Discoveries". people.com. Retrieved May 23, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b GOLDEN BOY TROY: Tall, Talented, and Terrific, He Has Attained the Fame Hedda Predicted for Him Last January Hopper, Hedda. Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) [Chicago, Ill] 29 May 1960: b16.
  5. ^ a b c d Bridges, Andrew (September 2, 2001). "Actor Troy Donahue dead of heart attack at ae 65". The Tuscaloosa News. p. 2A. Retrieved May 23, 2014. 
  6. ^ PRODUCERS STUDY NEW CAMERA IDEA: Film and TV Officials View Electronicam, Du Mont's Dual Purpose Instrument Welles to Direct at M-G-M By THOMAS M. PRYOR Special to The New York Times.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 03 Oct 1956: 29.
  7. ^ ' A SUMMER PLACE' ON THE CALIFORNIA COAST By PAINE KNICKERBOCKERSAN FRANCISCO.. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 05 Apr 1959: X7.
  8. ^ Film Daily Announces Winners in Latest Poll The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973) [Washington, D.C] 26 Dec 1960: A25
  9. ^ Screen Executive Enthused Over Coming Films Tinee, Mae. Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) [Chicago, Ill] 22 Nov 1959: f13.
  10. ^ Troy Donahue Goes to Class: How Chicago Teens Hailed Film Idol Schulz, Barbara. Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) [Chicago, Ill] 29 Mar 1962: c3.
  11. ^ 'Doris Day Heads Top 10' The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973) [Washington, D.C] January 14, 1964: A27.
  12. ^ The Hazards Of Hitting It Big TROY DONAHUE:. Chicago Tribune (1963-Current file) [Chicago, Ill] 21 June 1964: h9.
  13. ^ Man With the Fans Korman, Seymour. Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) [Chicago, Ill] 10 June 1961: b3.
  14. ^ ROUTE 66 MAKES A DETOUR AROUND WORLD'S FAIR Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) [Chicago, Ill] 28 Apr 1962: c8.
  15. ^ LETTERS: Statements Denied Warner, Jack L. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 22 Aug 1971: n14.
  16. ^ a b Troy Donahue--from Beachboy to Jesus Freak Reed, Rex. Chicago Tribune (1963-Current file) [Chicago, Ill] 08 Aug 1971: e2.
  17. ^ a b Troy Donahue Newest Film 'Kid You' Clifford, Terry. Chicago Tribune (1963-Current file) [Chicago, Ill] 08 Jan 1967: g12.
  18. ^ a b Donahue Walks Out Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 07 Nov 1967: c16.
  19. ^ Schedule 'Voice of the Turtle' Chicago Tribune (1963-Current file) [Chicago, Ill] 07 Nov 1967: b3.
  20. ^ Imogene Coca, Donovan Return to Drury Lane Chicago Tribune (1963-Current file) [Chicago, Ill] 19 Nov 1967: f10.
  21. ^ MOVIE CALL SHEET: Brennan Set for Western Martin, Betty. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 16 Feb 1968: c14.
  22. ^ Personal Finance: Debtors Should Weigh Bankruptcy Ills Carefully to Avoid Adding to Troubles Personal Finance: Bankruptcy Ills By ROBERT J. COLE. New York Times (1923-Current file) [New York, N.Y] 03 Oct 1968: 69.
  23. ^ a b c d e Donahue Is Back, in the 'CHiPs': HAIR, HUMILITY Donahue Back, in the 'CHiPs' Rosenberg, Howard. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 28 July 1978: j3.
  24. ^ a b c Donnelley, Paul (2003). Fade to Black: A Book of Movie Obituaries. Music Sales Group. p. 215. ISBN 0-711-99512-5. 
  25. ^ a b Emory, Alan (August 30, 1997). "Troy Donahue at 61: still blonde, now sober". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. pp. C–7. Retrieved May 23, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Troy Donahue, Actress Wed". The Pittsburgh Press. January 5, 1964. p. 16. Retrieved May 23, 2014. 
  27. ^ Troy Donahue Divorced by Suzanne Pleshette Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 09 Sep 1964: A2.
  28. ^ "Hound Wedding Star". The Evening Independent. October 22, 1966. pp. 16–A. Retrieved May 23, 2014. 
  29. ^ "Divorces Donahue". The Free Lance-Star. November 16, 1968. p. 2. Retrieved May 23, 2014. 
  30. ^ Troy Donahue's Wife Files Divorce Action Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 20 Apr 1968: b5.
  31. ^ Valerie Allen Iill The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973) [Washington, D.C] 26 Dec 1966: A14.
  32. ^ "Actor Tory Donahue Marries T.V. Secretary". St. Petersburg Times. November 20, 1969. pp. 2–A. Retrieved May 23, 2014. 
  33. ^ Donahue and Secretary Say Vows Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 20 Nov 1969: f22.
  34. ^ Actor Jailed for Speeding Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 17 Apr 1958: B1.
  35. ^ Sues Actor Chicago Daily Tribune (1923-1963) [Chicago, Ill] 24 Nov 1961: 3.
  36. ^ Nina Wayne Signed for 'Luv' Martin, Betty. Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 16 Aug 1966: c13.
  37. ^ The Simpsons Season 2 DVD, Episode: Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment
  38. ^ a b Filichia, Peter (2010). Broadway Musicals: The Biggest Hit and the Biggest Flop of the Season, 1959 to 2009. p. 98. ISBN 1-423-49562-4. 

External links[edit]