Triple jump

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Athletics
Triple jump
Willie Banks Jr. in Seoul 1988.jpg
Former world record holder Willie Banks.
Men's records
WorldJonathan Edwards 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in) (1995)
OlympicKenny Harrison 18.09 m (59 ft 4 in) (1996)
Women's records
WorldInessa Kravets 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in) (1995)
OlympicFrançoise Mbango 15.39 m (50 ft 534 in) (2008)
 
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Athletics
Triple jump
Willie Banks Jr. in Seoul 1988.jpg
Former world record holder Willie Banks.
Men's records
WorldJonathan Edwards 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in) (1995)
OlympicKenny Harrison 18.09 m (59 ft 4 in) (1996)
Women's records
WorldInessa Kravets 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in) (1995)
OlympicFrançoise Mbango 15.39 m (50 ft 534 in) (2008)

The triple jump, sometimes referred to as the hop, step and jump or the hop, skip and jump, is a track and field sport, similar to the long jump. The competitor runs down the track and performs a hop, a bound and then a jump into the sand pit. The triple jump has its origins in the ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympics event since the Games' inception in 1896.

According to IAAF rules, "the hop shall be made so that an athlete lands first on the same foot as that from which he has taken off; in the step he shall land on the other foot, from which, subsequently, the jump is performed." [1]

The current male and female world record holders are Jonathan Edwards of Great Britain, with a jump of 18.29 m (60 ft 0 in), and Inessa Kravets of Ukraine, with a jump of 15.50 m (50 ft 10 in). Both records were set during 1995 World Championships in Gothenburg.

History[edit]

The triple jump, or at least a variant involving three jumps one after the other, has its roots in the Ancient Greek Olympics, with records showing athletes attaining distances of more than 50 feet (15.24 m).[2]

The triple jump was a part of the inaugural modern Olympics in Athens, although at the time it consisted of two hops on the same foot and then a jump. In fact, the first modern Olympic champion, James Connolly, was a triple jumper. Early Olympics also included the standing triple jump, although this has since been removed from the Olympic program and is rarely performed in competition today. The women's triple jump was introduced into the Atlanta Olympics in 1996.[3]

In Irish mythology the geal-ruith (triple jump), was an event contested in the ancient Irish Tailteann Games as early as 1829 BC.[4]

Technique[edit]

The athlete sprints down a runway to a takeoff mark, from which the triple jump is measured. The takeoff mark is commonly a physical piece of wood or similar material embedded in the runway, or a rectangle painted on the runway surface. In modern championships a strip of plasticine, tape, or modeling clay is attached to the far edge of the board to record athletes overstepping or "scratching" the mark, defined by the trailing edge of the board. There are three phases of the triple jump: the "hop" phase, the "bound" or "step" phase, and the "jump" phase. These three phases are executed in one continuous sequence.

Phases of Phillips Idowu jumping at the 2008 Summer Olympics

The hop starts with the athlete jumping from the take off board on one leg, which for descriptive purposes will be the right leg . The objective of the first phase is to hop out, focusing all momentum forward. The hop landing phase is very active, involving a powerful backward "pawing" action of the right leg, with the right take-off foot landing heel first on the runway. The hop landing also marks the beginning of the step phase, where the athlete utilises the backward momentum of the right leg to immediately execute a powerful jump forwards and upwards, the left leg assisting the take-off with a powerful hip flexion thrust. This leads to the familiar step-phase mid-air position, with the right take off leg trailing flexed at the knee, and the left leg now leading flexed at the hip and knee. The jumper then holds this position for as long as possible, before extending the knee of the leading left leg and then immediately beginning a powerful backward motion of the whole left leg, again landing on the runway with a powerful pawing action. The step landing forms the beginning of the take-off of the final phase (the jump), where the athlete utilises the backward force from the left leg to take off again. The jump phase is very similar to the long jump although most athletes have lost too much speed by this time to manage a full hitch kick, and most use a hang or sail technique. When landing in the sand-filled pit, the jumper should aim to avoid sitting back on landing, or placing either hand behind the feet. The sand pit usually begins 13m from the take off board for male international competition, or 11m from the board for international female and club-level male competition. Each phase of the triple jump should get progressively higher, and there should be a regular rhythm to the 3 landings.

A "foul", also known as a "scratch," or missed jump, occurs when a jumper oversteps the takeoff mark, misses the pit entirely, does not use the correct foot sequence throughout the phases, or does not perform the attempt in the allotted amount of time (usually about 90 seconds). When a jumper "scratches," the seated official will raise a red flag and the jumper who was "on deck," or up next, prepares to jump.

Records[edit]

Outdoor[edit]

AreaMen'sWomen's
Mark (m)AthleteMark (m)Athlete
World18.29 m (60 ft 0 in) Jonathan Edwards (GBR)15.50 m (50 ft 10 in) Inessa Kravets (UKR)
Continental records
Africa17.37 m (56 ft 1134 in) Tarik Bouguetaïb (MAR)15.39 m (50 ft 534 in) Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)
Asia17.59 m (57 ft 812 in) Yanxi Li (CHN)15.25 m (50 ft 014 in) Olga Rypakova (KAZ)
Europe18.29 m (60 ft 0 in) Jonathan Edwards (GBR)15.50 m (50 ft 10 in) Inessa Kravets (UKR)
North, Central America
and Caribbean
18.09 m (59 ft 4 in) Kenny Harrison (USA)15.29 m (50 ft 134 in) Yamilé Aldama (CUB)
Oceania17.46 m (57 ft 314 in) Ken Lorraway (AUS)14.04 m (46 ft 034 in) Nicole Mladenis (AUS)
South America17.90 m (58 ft 812 in) Jadel Gregório (BRA)14.99 m (49 ft 2 in) Caterine Ibargüen (COL)

Note: As in all track-and-field events, results cannot count towards records if they are Wind assisted (>2.0 m/s).

All-time top ten athletes[edit]

Men (outdoor)[edit]

RankMarkWind (m/s)AthleteLocationDate
118.29 m (60 ft 0 in)1.3 Jonathan Edwards (GBR)GothenburgAugust 7, 1995
218.09 m (59 ft 4 in)−0.4 Kenny Harrison (USA)AtlantaJuly 27, 1996
318.04 m (59 ft 2 in)0.3 Teddy Tamgho (FRA)MoscowAugust 18, 2013
417.97 m (58 ft 1114 in)1.5 Willie Banks (USA)IndianapolisJune 16, 1985
517.96 m (58 ft 11 in)0.1 Christian Taylor (USA)DaeguSeptember 4, 2011
617.92 m (58 ft 912 in)1.6 Khristo Markov (BUL)RomeAugust 31, 1987
1.9 James Beckford (JAM)OdessaMay 20, 1995
817.90 m (58 ft 812 in)0.4 Jadel Gregório (BRA)BelémMay 20, 2007
1.0 Volodymyr Inozemtsev (URS)BratislavaJune 20, 1990
1017.89 m (58 ft 814 in)0.0 João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)Mexico CityOctober 15, 1975

Men (indoor)[edit]

RankMarkAthleteLocationDate
117.92 m (58 ft 912 in) Teddy Tamgho (FRA)ParisMarch 6, 2011
217.83 m (58 ft 534 in) Aliecer Urrutia (CUB)SindelfingenMarch 1, 1997
 Christian Olsson (SWE)BudapestMarch 7, 2004
417.77 m (58 ft 312 in) Leonid Voloshin (RUS)GrenobleFebruary 2, 1994
517.76 m (58 ft 3 in) Mike Conley (USA)New York CityFebruary 22, 1987
617.75 m (58 ft 234 in) Phillips Idowu (GBR)ValenciaMarch 9, 2008
717.74 m (58 ft 214 in) Marian Oprea (ROU)BucharestFebruary 18, 2006
817.73 m (58 ft 2 in) Fabrizio Donato (ITA)ParisMarch 6, 2011
 Walter Davis (USA)MoscowMarch 12, 2006
1017.72 m (58 ft 112 in) Brian Wellman (BER)BarcelonaMarch 12, 1995

Women (outdoor)[edit]

RankMarkWind (m/s)AthleteLocationDate
115.50 m (50 ft 10 in)0.9 Inessa Kravets (UKR)GothenburgAugust 10, 1995
215.39 m (50 ft 534 in)0.5 Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)BeijingAugust 17, 2008
315.34 m (50 ft 334 in)−0.5 Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)HeraklionJuly 4, 2004
415.32 m (50 ft 3 in)0.9 Hrysopiyi Devetzi (GRE)AthensAugust 21, 2004
515.29 m (50 ft 134 in)0.3 Yamilé Aldama (CUB)RomeJuly 11, 2003
615.28 m (50 ft 112 in)0.9 Yargelis Savigne (CUB)OsakaAugust 31, 2007
715.25 m (50 ft 014 in)1.7 Olga Rypakova (KAZ)SplitSeptember 4, 2010
815.20 m (49 ft 1014 in)0.0 Šárka Kašpárková (CZE)AthensAugust 4, 1997
−0.3 Tereza Marinova (BUL)SydneySeptember 24, 2000
1015.18 m (49 ft 912 in)0.3 Iva Prandzheva (BUL)GothenburgAugust 10, 1995

Women (indoor)[edit]

RankMarkAthleteLocationDate
115.36 m (50 ft 412 in) Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)Budapest2004-03-06
215.16 m (49 ft 834 in) Ashia Hansen (GBR)Valencia1998-02-28
315.14 m (49 ft 8 in) Olga Rypakova (KAZ)Doha2010-03-13
415.08 m (49 ft 512 in) Marija Šestak (SLO)Peanía2008-02-13
515.05 m (49 ft 412 in) Yargeris Savigne (CUB)Valencia2008-03-08
615.03 m (49 ft 312 in) Iolanda Chen (RUS)Barcelona1995-03-11
715.01 m (49 ft 234 in) Inna Lasovskaya (RUS)Paris1997-03-08
815.00 m (49 ft 212 in) Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE)Valencia2008-03-08
914.94 m (49 ft 0 in) Iva Prandzheva (BUL)Maebashi1999-03-07
 Cristina Nicolau (ROM)Bucharest2000-02-05
 Oksana Udmurtova (RUS)Tartu2008-02-20

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1896 Athens
details
 James Connolly (USA) Alexandre Tuffèri (FRA) Ioannis Persakis (GRE)
1900 Paris
details
 Myer Prinstein (USA) James Connolly (USA) Lewis Sheldon (USA)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Myer Prinstein (USA) Fred Englehardt (USA) Robert Stangland (USA)
1908 London
details
 Tim Ahearne (GBR) Garfield MacDonald (CAN) Edvard Larsen (NOR)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Gustaf Lindblom (SWE) Georg Åberg (SWE) Erik Almlöf (SWE)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Vilho Tuulos (FIN) Folke Jansson (SWE) Erik Almlöf (SWE)
1924 Paris
details
 Nick Winter (AUS) Luis Brunetto (ARG) Vilho Tuulos (FIN)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Mikio Oda (JPN) Levi Casey (USA) Vilho Tuulos (FIN)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Chuhei Nambu (JPN) Erik Svensson (SWE) Kenkichi Oshima (JPN)
1936 Berlin
details
 Naoto Tajima (JPN) Masao Harada (JPN) Jack Metcalfe (AUS)
1948 London
details
 Arne Åhman (SWE) George Avery (AUS) Ruhi Sarialp (TUR)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Adhemar da Silva (BRA) Leonid Shcherbakov (URS) Arnoldo Devonish (VEN)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Adhemar da Silva (BRA) Vilhjálmur Einarsson (ISL) Vitold Kreyer (URS)
1960 Rome
details
 Józef Szmidt (POL) Vladimir Goryaev (URS) Vitold Kreyer (URS)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Józef Szmidt (POL) Oleg Fyodoseyev (URS) Viktor Kravchenko (URS)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Viktor Saneyev (URS) Nelson Prudencio (BRA) Giuseppe Gentile (ITA)
1972 Munich
details
 Viktor Saneyev (URS) Jörg Drehmel (GDR) Nelson Prudencio (BRA)
1976 Montreal
details
 Viktor Saneyev (URS) James Butts (USA) João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)
1980 Moscow
details
 Jaak Uudmäe (URS) Viktor Saneyev (URS) João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Al Joyner (USA) Mike Conley, Sr. (USA) Keith Connor (GBR)
1988 Seoul
details
 Khristo Markov (BUL) Igor Lapshin (URS) Aleksandr Kovalenko (URS)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Mike Conley, Sr. (USA) Charles Simpkins (USA) Frank Rutherford (BAH)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Kenny Harrison (USA) Jonathan Edwards (GBR) Yoelbi Quesada (CUB)
2000 Sydney
details
 Jonathan Edwards (GBR) Yoel García (CUB) Denis Kapustin (RUS)
2004 Athens
details
 Christian Olsson (SWE) Marian Oprea (ROU) Danil Burkenya (RUS)
2008 Beijing
details
 Nelson Évora (POR) Phillips Idowu (GBR) Leevan Sands (BAH)
2012 London
details
 Christian Taylor (USA) Will Claye (USA) Fabrizio Donato (ITA)

Women[edit]

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1996 Atlanta
details
 Inessa Kravets (UKR) Inna Lasovskaya (RUS) Šárka Kašpárková (CZE)
2000 Sydney
details
 Tereza Marinova (BUL) Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Olena Hovorova (UKR)
2004 Athens
details
 Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR) Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE) Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)
2008 Beijing
details
 Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR) Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE)
2012 London
details
 Olga Rypakova (KAZ) Caterine Ibargüen (COL) Olha Saladukha (UKR)

World Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1983 Helsinki Zdzisław Hoffmann (POL) Willie Banks (USA) Ajayi Agbebaku (NGR)
1987 Rome Khristo Markov (BUL) Mike Conley (USA) Oleg Sakirkin (URS)
1991 Tokyo Kenny Harrison (USA) Leonid Voloshin (URS) Mike Conley (USA)
1993 Stuttgart Mike Conley (USA) Leonid Voloshin (RUS) Jonathan Edwards (GBR)
1995 Gothenburg Jonathan Edwards (GBR) Brian Wellman (BER) Jerome Romain (DMA)
1997 Athens Yoelbi Quesada (CUB) Jonathan Edwards (GBR) Aliecer Urrutia (CUB)
1999 Seville Charles Friedek (GER) Rostislav Dimitrov (BUL) Jonathan Edwards (GBR)
2001 Edmonton Jonathan Edwards (GBR) Christian Olsson (SWE) Igor Spasovkhodskiy (RUS)
2003 Saint-Denis Christian Olsson (SWE) Yoandri Betanzos (CUB) Leevan Sands (BAH)
2005 Helsinki Walter Davis (USA) Yoandri Betanzos (CUB) Marian Oprea (ROU)
2007 Osaka Nelson Évora (POR) Jadel Gregório (BRA) Walter Davis (USA)
2009 Berlin Phillips Idowu (GBR) Nelson Évora (POR) Alexis Copello (CUB)
2011 Daegu Christian Taylor (USA) Phillips Idowu (GBR) Will Claye (USA)
2013 Moscow Teddy Tamgho (FRA) Pedro Pablo Pichardo (CUB) Will Claye (USA)

Women[edit]

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1993 Stuttgart Anna Biryukova (RUS) Yolanda Chen (RUS) Iva Prandzheva (BUL)
1995 Gothenburg Inessa Kravets (UKR) Iva Prandzheva (BUL) Anna Biryukova (RUS)
1997 Athens Šárka Kašpárková (CZE) Rodica Mateescu (ROU) Olena Hovorova (UKR)
1999 Seville Paraskevi Tsiamita (GRE) Yamilé Aldama (CUB) Olga Vasdeki (GRE)
2001 Edmonton Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR) Tereza Marinova (BUL)
2003 Saint-Denis Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR) Magdelin Martinez (ITA)
2005 Helsinki Trecia Smith (JAM) Yargelis Savigne (CUB) Anna Pyatykh (RUS)
2007 Osaka Yargelis Savigne (CUB) Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS) Hrysopiyí Devetzí (GRE)
2009 Berlin Yargelis Savigne (CUB) Mabel Gay (CUB) Anna Pyatykh (RUS)
2011 Daegu Olha Saladukha (UKR) Olga Rypakova (KAZ) Caterine Ibargüen (COL)
2013 Moscow Caterine Ibargüen (COL) Ekaterina Koneva (RUS) Olha Saladukha (UKR)

Season's bests[edit]

Men (outdoor)[edit]

YearDistanceAthletePlace
197017.34 m (56 ft 1012 in) Viktor Saneyev (URS)Suhumi
197117.40 m (57 ft 1 in) Pedro Pérez (CUB)Cali
197217.44 m (57 ft 212 in) Viktor Saneyev (URS)Suhumi
197317.20 m (56 ft 5 in) Mikhail Bariban (URS)Moscow
197417.23 m (56 ft 614 in) Viktor Saneyev (URS)Rome
197517.89 m (58 ft 814 in) João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)Mexico City
197617.38 m (57 ft 014 in) João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)Rio de Janeiro
197717.19 m (56 ft 434 in) Ron Livers (USA)Sochi
197817.44 m (57 ft 212 in) João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)Bratislava
197917.27 m (56 ft 734 in) João Carlos de Oliveira (BRA)San Juan
198017.35 m (56 ft 11 in) Jaak Uudmäe (URS)Moscow
198117.56 m (57 ft 714 in) Willie Banks (USA)Sacramento
198217.57 m (57 ft 712 in) Keith Connor (GBR)Provo
198317.55 m (57 ft 634 in) Vasiliy Grishchenkov (URS)Moscow
198417.46 m (57 ft 314 in) Oleg Protsenko (URS)Moscow
198517.97 m (58 ft 1114 in) Willie Banks (USA)Indianapolis
198617.80 m (58 ft 434 in) Khristo Markov (BUL)Budapest
198717.92 m (58 ft 912 in) Khristo Markov (BUL)Rome
198817.77 m (58 ft 312 in) Khristo Markov (BUL)Sofia
198917.62 m (57 ft 912 in) Volodymyr Inozemtsev (URS)Gorkiy
199017.93 m (58 ft 934 in) Kenny Harrison (USA)Stockholm
199117.78 m (58 ft 4 in) Kenny Harrison (USA)Tokyo
199217.72 m (58 ft 112 in) Mike Conley (USA)Zürich
199317.86 m (58 ft 7 in) Mike Conley (USA)Stuttgart
199417.68 m (58 ft 0 in) Mike Conley (USA)Paris
199518.29 m (60 ft 0 in) Jonathan Edwards (GBR)Gothenburg
199618.09 m (59 ft 4 in) Kenny Harrison (USA)Atlanta
199717.85 m (58 ft 634 in) Yoelbi Quesada (CUB)Athens
199818.01 m (59 ft 1 in) Jonathan Edwards (GBR)Oslo
199917.59 m (57 ft 812 in) Charles Friedek (GER)Seville
200017.71 m (58 ft 1 in) Jonathan Edwards (GBR)Sydney
200117.92 m (58 ft 912 in) Jonathan Edwards (GBR)Edmonton
200217.86 m (58 ft 7 in) Jonathan Edwards (GBR)Manchester
200317.77 m (58 ft 312 in) Christian Olsson (SWE)Haina
200417.79 m (58 ft 414 in) Christian Olsson (SWE)Athens
200517.81 m (58 ft 5 in) Marian Oprea (ROM)Lausanne
200617.71 m (58 ft 1 in) Walter Davis (USA)Indianapolis
200717.90 m (58 ft 812 in) Jadel Gregório (BRA)Belém
200817.67 m (57 ft 1112 in) Nelson Évora (POR)Beijing
200917.73 m (58 ft 2 in) Phillips Idowu (GBR)Berlin
201017.98 m (58 ft 1134 in) Teddy Tamgho (FRA)New York City
201117.96 m (58 ft 11 in) Christian Taylor (USA)Daegu
201217.81 m (58 ft 5 in) Christian Taylor (USA)London
201318.04 m (59 ft 2 in) Teddy Tamgho (FRA)Moscow

Women (outdoor)[edit]

YearDistanceAthletePlace
198613.68 m (44 ft 1012 in) Esmeralda García (BRA)Indianapolis
198714.04 m (46 ft 034 in) Li Huirong (CHN)Hamamatsu
198814.16 m (46 ft 514 in) Li Huirong (CHN)Shijiazhuang
198914.52 m (47 ft 712 in) Galina Chistyakova (URS)Stockholm
199014.54 m (47 ft 814 in) Li Huirong (CHN)Sapporo
199114.95 m (49 ft 012 in) Inessa Kravets (URS)Moscow
199214.62 m (47 ft 1112 in) Galina Chistyakova (RUS)Villeneuve d'Ascq
199315.09 m (49 ft 6 in) Anna Biryukova (RUS)Stuttgart
199414.98 m (49 ft 134 in) Sofiya Bozhanova (BUL)Stara Zagora
199515.50 m (50 ft 10 in) Inessa Kravets (UKR)Gothenburg
199615.33 m (50 ft 312 in) Inessa Kravets (UKR)Sacramento
199715.20 m (49 ft 1014 in) Šárka Kašpárková (CZE)Athens
199815.12 m (49 ft 714 in) Iva Prandzheva (BUL)Tokyo
199915.07 m (49 ft 514 in) Paraskevi Tsiamita (GRE)Seville
200015.32 m (50 ft 3 in) Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)Yokohama
200115.25 m (50 ft 014 in) Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)Edmonton
200214.95 m (49 ft 012 in) Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)Radès
200315.29 m (50 ft 134 in) Yamilé Aldama (CUB)Rome
200415.34 m (50 ft 334 in) Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)Iraklion
200515.11 m (49 ft 634 in) Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)
 Trecia Smith (JAM)
Paris
Helsinki
200615.23 m (49 ft 1112 in) Tatyana Lebedeva (RUS)Athens
200715.28 m (50 ft 112 in) Yargelis Savigne (CUB)Osaka
200815.39 m (50 ft 534 in) Françoise Mbango Etone (CMR)Beijing
200915.14 m (49 ft 8 in) Nadezhda Alekhina (RUS)Cheboksary
201015.25 m (50 ft 014 in) Olga Rypakova (KAZ)Split
201114.99 m (49 ft 2 in)
14.99 m (49 ft 2 in) A
 Yargelis Savigne (CUB)
 Caterine Ibargüen (COL)
Paris
Bogotá
201214.99 m (49 ft 2 in) Olha Saladuha (UKR)Helsinki
201314.85 m (48 ft 812 in) Olha Saladuha (UKR)Eugene, Oregon

References[edit]

  1. ^ "IAAF Competition Rules 2012-2013". Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  2. ^ Rosenbaum, Mike (2012). An Illustrated History of the Triple Jump. Retrieved from http://trackandfield.about.com/od/triplejump/ss/illustriplejump.htm.
  3. ^ "Athletics at the 1996 Atlanta Summer Games: Women's Triple Jump". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  4. ^ Adams, Patricia (2006-03-01). History of the Highland Games and Women in Scottish Athletics. ...contained in the Irish "Book of Leinster", which was written in the twelfth century AD...this book describes the Tailteann Games held at Telltown, County Meath from 1829 BC until at least 554 BC...included in these events...were the geal-ruith (triple jump). Clan MacTavish Genealogy and History, 1 March 2006. Retrieved from http://www.dunardry.net/ladies_lounge.html.
  5. ^ Men's Outdoor Triple Jump Records. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  6. ^ Women's Outdoor Triple Jump Records. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  7. ^ Triple Jump - men - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  8. ^ Triple Jump - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  9. ^ Triple Jump - men - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.
  10. ^ Triple Jump - women - senior - indoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-25.

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