Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing

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Ormonde, an undefeated Triple Crown winner.

The Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, often shortened to Triple Crown, comprises three races for three-year-old Thoroughbred horses. Winning all three of these Thoroughbred horse races is considered the greatest accomplishment of a Thoroughbred racehorse. The term originated in mid-19th century England and different nations where thoroughbred racing is popular each have their own Triple Crown series.

United States Triple Crowns[edit]

Churchill Downs, home of the Kentucky Derby, has an account of the origin of the "Triple Crown" name in the United States. On May 30, 2014, the Kentucky Derby Twitter feed posted a picture of Gallant Fox and said that a Daily Racing Form reporter originated the name. They expanded on the comment on the Kentucky Derby Facebook page writing, "Did you know? The phrase 'Triple Crown' was not associated with the three-race series until 1930, when Daily Racing Form writer Charles Hatton coined it in describing the sweep of races by Gallant Fox, the second horse to win all three races."

In the United States, the three races that make up the Triple Crown are:

  1. Kentucky Derby, run over the 1 14-mile (2.0 km) dirt track at Churchill Downs in Louisville, Kentucky;
  2. Preakness Stakes, run over the 1 316-mile (1.9 km) dirt track at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore, Maryland;
  3. Belmont Stakes, run over the 1 12-mile (2.4 km) dirt track, the longest in U.S. thoroughbred racing, at Belmont Park in Elmont, New York, just east of the New York City borough of Queens.

Triple Crown winners[edit]

List of US Triple Crown Winners
1919Sir BartonJohnny LoftusH. Guy BedwellJ. K. L. RossJohn E. Madden
1930Gallant FoxEarl SandeJim FitzsimmonsBelair StudBelair Stud
1935OmahaWillie SaundersJim FitzsimmonsBelair StudBelair Stud
1937War AdmiralCharley KurtsingerGeorge H. ConwaySamuel D. RiddleSamuel D. Riddle
1941WhirlawayEddie ArcaroBen A. JonesCalumet FarmCalumet Farm
1943Count FleetJohnny LongdenDon CameronFannie HertzFannie Hertz
1946AssaultWarren MehrtensMax HirschKing RanchKing Ranch
1948CitationEddie ArcaroHorace A. JonesCalumet FarmCalumet Farm
1973SecretariatRon TurcotteLucien LaurinMeadow StableMeadow Stud
1977Seattle SlewJean CruguetWilliam H. Turner, Jr.Karen L. TaylorBen S. Castleman
1978AffirmedSteve CauthenLaz BarreraHarbor View FarmHarbor View Farm

Near Misses[edit]

The following horses won the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness but did not win the Belmont:

List of US Triple Crown Near Misses
YearHorseBelmont performance
1932Burgoo KingDid not start (unknown reason)
1936Bold VentureDid not start (injury)
1944Pensive2nd to Bounding Home
1958Tim Tam2nd to Cavan
1961Carry Back7th to Sherluck
1964Northern Dancer3rd to Quadrangle
1966Kauai King4th to Amberoid
1969Majestic Prince2nd to Arts and Letters
1971Canonero II4th to Pass Catcher
1979Spectacular Bid3rd to Coastal
1981Pleasant Colony3rd to Summing
1987Alysheba4th to Bet Twice
1989Sunday Silence2nd to Easy Goer
1997Silver Charm2nd to Touch Gold
1998Real Quiet2nd to Victory Gallop
1999Charismatic3rd to Lemon Drop Kid
2002War Emblem8th to Sarava
2003Funny Cide3rd to Empire Maker
2004Smarty Jones2nd to Birdstone
2008Big BrownDNF to Da' Tara
2012I'll Have AnotherDid not start (injury)
2014California Chrome4th to Tonalist

Other Misses[edit]

The following horses won two of three races in the triple crown but did not win either the Kentucky Derby or Preakness Stakes:

List of US Triple Crown Other Misses
YearHorseReason unsuccessful
1877CloverbrookDid not start in Derby
1878Duke of MagentaDid not start in Derby
1880GrenadaDid not start in Derby
1881SauntererDid not start in Derby
1895BelmarDid not start in Derby
1920Man o' WarDid not start in Derby
1922PilloryDid not start in Derby
1923Zev12th to Virgil, Preakness
1931Twenty Grand2nd to Mate, Preakness
1939Johnstown5th to Challedon, Preakness
1940Bimelech2nd to Gallahadion, Derby
1942Shut Out5th to Alsab, Derby
1949Capot2nd to Ponder, Derby
1950Middleground2nd to Hill Prince, Preakness
1953Native Dancer2nd to Dark Star, Derby
1955Nashua2nd to Swaps, Derby
1956Needles2nd to Fabius, Preakness
1963Chateaugay2nd to Candy Spots, Preakness
1967Damascus3rd to Proud Clarion, Derby
1972Riva Ridge4th to Bee Bee Bee, Preakness
1974Little Current2nd to Cannonade, Derby
1976Bold Forbes3rd to Elocutionist, Preakness
1984Swale7th to Gate Dancer, Preakness
1988Risen Star3rd to Winning Colors, Derby
1991Hansel10th to Strike the Gold, Derby
1994Tabasco Cat6th to Go for Gin, Derby
1995Thunder Gulch3rd to Timber Country, Preakness
2001Point Given5th to Monarchos, Derby
2005Afleet Alex3rd to Giacomo, Derby

Triple Tiara[edit]

There is also a national Triple Tiara (formerly known as the Filly Triple Crown):

  1. Kentucky Oaks, run over 1 18 miles (1.8 km) on a dirt track, at Churchill Downs;
  2. Black-Eyed Susan Stakes, run over 1 18 miles (1.8 km) (previously 1 116 mi or 1.7 km) on a dirt track, at Pimlico Race Course;
  3. Acorn Stakes, run over 1 mile (1.6 km) (previously 1 12 mi or 2.4 km) on a dirt track, at Belmont Park;

Thus far, only one filly has won the national Filly Triple Crown:

From 1957 to 2002 and 2007 to 2009 the New York Triple Tiara consisted of the Acorn Stakes, the Mother Goose Stakes, and the Coaching Club American Oaks (all three stakes races are run at Belmont Park in New York).

Eight fillies won the original New York Triple Tiara:

In 2010 the NYRA changed the configuration of the new Betfair TVG Triple Tiara it now consists of the Acorn Stakes run at Belmont Park, the Coaching Club American Oaks, and the Alabama Stakes both run at Saratoga Race Course.
Thus far, no filly has won the reconfigured Betfair TVG Triple Tiara.

United Kingdom[edit]

In England, where the term Triple Crown originated with West Australian's three wins in 1853, it is made up of:

  1. the 2,000 Guineas Stakes, run over 1 mile (1,609 meters) at Newmarket Racecourse in Newmarket, Suffolk;
  2. the Epsom Derby, run over 1 mile 4 furlongs and 10 yards (2,423 metres) at Epsom Downs Racecourse in Epsom, Surrey;
  3. the St. Leger Stakes, run over 1 mile, 6 furlongs and 132 yards (2,937 metres) at Town Moor in Doncaster, Yorkshire.

Since the 2,000 Guineas was first run in 1809, only fifteen horses (including three winners of substitute races at Newmarket during World War I) have ever won the English Triple Crown, including Nijinsky in 1970. Nijinsky is still the only winner of the English Triple Crown since World War II. For many years, it was considered unlikely that any horse would ever win the English Triple Crown again. In the winter of 2006/2007, however, trainer Jim Bolger was training his unbeaten colt Teofilo for the Triple Crown[1] and bookmaker William Hill plc was offering odds of only 12/1 against Teofilo winning the 2007 Triple Crown. However, the horse was withdrawn from the 2000 Guineas two days before the race after suffering a setback and never raced again.

Since Nijinsky, only Nashwan (1989), Sea the Stars (2009), and Camelot (2012) have won both the Guineas and the Derby. Between Reference Point in 1987 and Camelot in 2012, no Derby winner (not even the potential Triple Crown winners Nashwan and Sea the Stars) even entered the St. Leger. This reluctance to compete in the St. Leger is said to be due to the impact it would have on a horse's stud value in a market where speed is preferred to stamina.

Triple Crown winners[edit]

For a list of the annual individual race winners, see English Triple Crown race winners.

Bahram, an undefeated Triple Crown winner.

Triple Crown Champions:

1853West AustralianFrank ButlerJohn ScottJohn Bowes
1865GladiateurHarry GrimshawTom Jennings, Sr.Frédéric de Lagrange
1866Lord LyonHarry CustanceJames DoverRichard Sutton
1886OrmondeFred ArcherJohn PorterDuke of Westminster
1891CommonGeorge BarrettJohn PorterSir Frederick Johnstone
1893IsinglassTommy LoatesJames JewittHarry McCalmont
1897Galtee MoreCharles WoodSam DarlingJohn Gubbins
1899Flying FoxMorny CannonJohn PorterDuke of Westminster
1900Diamond JubileeHerbert JonesRichard MarshEdward, Prince of Wales
1903Rock SandDanny MaherGeorge BlackwellSir James Miller
1915PommernSteve DonoghueCharles PeckSolly Joel
1917Gay CrusaderSteve DonoghueAlec Taylor, Jr.Alfred W. Cox
1918GainsboroughJoe ChildsAlec Taylor, Jr.Lady James Douglas
1935BahramFreddie Fox and Charlie SmirkeFrank ButtersHH Aga Khan III
1970NijinskyLester PiggottVincent O'BrienCharles W. Engelhard, Jr.

Failed Triple Crown attempts[edit]

The following horses won the 2000 Guineas and Derby but were beaten in the St Leger:

Fillies Triple Crown[edit]

There is also a Fillies Triple Crown for a filly winning the 1,000 Guineas Stakes, Epsom Oaks and St. Leger Stakes.[2] In the past, this was not considered a true Triple Crown as the best fillies would run in the Derby and Two Thousand Guineas. As this is no longer the case, the Fillies' Triple Crown would now be considered as comparable as the original. Winners of the Fillies Triple Crown are:

Alternative Triple Crowns[edit]

The trio of Ascot Gold Cup, Goodwood Cup and Doncaster Cup is sometimes referred to as the Stayers Triple Crown.[3]


In Ireland, the Triple Crown, modelled on the English equivalent,[4] is made up of

  1. the Irish 2,000 Guineas
  2. the Irish Derby
  3. the Irish St. Leger (open to older horses)

All three races are run at the Curragh.

Triple Crown winners[edit]

For a list of the annual individual race winners, see Irish Triple Crown race winners.

Only two horses have won all three races since the Irish Two Thousand Guineas was first run in 1921:


In Canada the three races that comprise the Triple Crown are:

  1. Queen's Plate
  2. Prince of Wales Stakes
  3. Breeders' Stakes

Winners of the Canadian Triple Crown[edit]

12 horses are officially recognized as winning the Canadian Triple Crown:[5][6][7]

Pre-1959 establishment[edit]

Since 1959 establishment[edit]

Winners of the Canadian Fillies Triple Crown[edit]


The Australian Triple Crown comprises the following races:[8]

  1. Randwick Guineas (1,600 m)
  2. Rosehill Guineas (2,000 m)
  3. AJC Australian Derby (2,400 m).

The three-year-old Triple Crown initially included the Canterbury Guineas (1,900 m) but nowadays the first leg is the Randwick Guineas.[9]

Australian Triple Crown champions[edit]

A total of five horses have won the Australian Triple Crown:[10]

1959Martello Towers
2013It's a Dundeel

The Two Year Old Triple Crown (also known as the Two-year-old Grand Slam)[11] consists of:

  1. Golden Slipper Stakes (1,200 m)
  2. AJC Sires Produce Stakes
  3. Champagne Stakes (1,600 m)

Only six horses have won the Australian Two Year Old Triple Crown:


In Germany, the Triple Crown (Dreifache Krone) consists of

  1. Mehl-Mülhens-Rennen, German 2000 Guineas (formerly Henckel-Rennen), Cologne, 1600 m
  2. Deutsches Derby, Hamburg, 2400 m
  3. Deutsches St. Leger, Dortmund, 2800 m

Only one horse has won the German Triple Crown, Königsstuhl in 1979.[12]


In Switzerland, the Triple Crown series consists of:

  1. Swiss Derby
  2. Swiss 2000 Guineas
  3. Swiss St. Leger

Plus the series for fillies

  1. Swiss Oaks
  2. Swiss 1000 Guineas

One horse has won the Swiss Triple Crown

(Majofil's half-sister Singapore Creek (FR) captured the 2007 Swiss Oaks)


The three races that comprise the Indian Triple Crown are the Indian 2000 Guineas, the Indian Derby and the Indian St Leger, all run at Mahalaxmi Race Course in Bombay. The 2000 Guineas is run in December, and the Derby on the first Sunday of the following February. The St Leger is usually run in April—between 1970 and 1990 it was run at Pune.

Ten horses have won the Indian Triple Crown.


In the Turkish, the three races that compose the Triple Crown are:[13]

  1. Erkek Tay Deneme (Turkish 2000 Guineas – 1,600 m) or Dişi Tay Deneme (Turkish 1000 Guineas – 1,600 m)
  2. Gazi Derby (Turkish Derby Stakes – 2,400 m)
  3. Ankara Stakes (Turkish St. Leger – 2,800 m)

Three old horses are eligible for the Turkish Triple Crown.

Champions of the Turkish Triple Crown are:


Japan has two sets of races referred to as Triple Crowns.

Japanese Triple Crown[14]

  1. the Satsuki Sho (Japanese 2000 Guineas - 2000m), at Nakayama Racecourse in Funabashi, Chiba
  2. the Tokyo Yushun (Japanese Derby - 2400m), at Tokyo Racecourse in Fuchu, Tokyo
  3. the Kikuka Sho (Japanese St.Leger - 3000m), at Kyoto Racecourse in Kyoto, Kyoto

Only seven horses have received the Japanese Triple Crown:

Japanese Fillies' Triple Crown[15]

  1. the Oka Sho (Japanese 1000 Guineas), at Hanshin Racecourse in Takarazuka, Hyogo
  2. the Yushun Himba (Japanese Oaks), at Tokyo Racecourse in Fuchu, Tokyo
  3. the Shuka Sho (since 1996), at Kyoto Racecourse in Kyoto, Kyoto / the Queen Elizabeth II Commemorative Cup (1976–1995)

Only four horses have received the Japanese Fillies' Triple Crown:

Hong Kong[edit]

The Triple Crown series at Hong Kong's Sha Tin Racecourse consists of three races at increasingly longer distances. Unlike most other Triple Crown events, these races are not confined to three-year-olds.[16] They are:

  1. Hong Kong Stewards' Cup at 1,600 metres (0.99 mi) held in January
  2. Hong Kong Gold Cup at 2,000 metres (1.2 mi) held in February
  3. Hong Kong Champions & Chater Cup at 2,400 metres (1.5 mi) held in May

In 1994, River Verdon became the first, and to date, only horse to win the Hong Kong Triple Crown.


The Triple Crown series consists in three races at increasingly longer distances.

  1. Premio Parioli at Capannelle Racecourse in Rome, 1600 m, Group 3
  2. Derby Italiano at Capenelle Racecourse in Rome, 2200 m, Group 2
  3. Gran Premio di Milano at San Siro Racecourse in Milan, 2400 m, Group 1 (also open to older horses)


In Makkah, the Macau Jockey Club introduced the Triple Crown Series in 2008, with three races all held in Taipa Racecourse, Macau:

  1. Director's Cup, Macau Group 2 Race, 1,500 metres (0.93 mi)
  2. Macau Cup, Macau Group 2 Race, 1,500 metres (0.93 mi)
  3. Macau Gold Cup, Macau Group 1 Race, 1,800 metres (1.1 mi)

In 2009 Macau Jockey Club changed the series for 4-year old horses:

  1. Macau Guineas, Macau Group 1 Race, 1,500 metres (0.93 mi), only for 4-year old horses
  2. Macau Derby, Macau Group 1 Race, 1,800 metres (1.1 mi), only for 4-year old horses
  3. Macau Gold Cup, Macau Group 1 Race, 1,800 metres (1.1 mi)

In 2010, Luen Yat Forever become the first and, to date, only horse to win the Macau Triple Crown.[17]


The three races that comprise the Triple Crown in Argentina are:

  1. Gran Premio Polla de Potrillos and Gran Premio Polla de Potrancas, Hipodromo Argentino de Palermo (1 mile on dirt)
  2. Gran Premio Jockey Club, Hipodromo de San Isidro (1 1/4 m mile on turf)
  3. Gran Premio Nacional (Argentine Derby), Hipodromo Argentino de Palermo (1 9/16 m on dirt)

Winners of the Argentinian Triple Crown are:


The Mexican Triple Crown series consists of the Derby Mexicano (8 1/2 furlongs), Stakes Jockey Club Mexicano (8 furlongs) and the Gran Premio Nacional (8 1/2 furlongs). All three races are contested at Hippodromo de las Americas, in Mexico City.

Mexican Triple Crown winners:

The Mexican Fillies' Triple Crown series consists of the Clasico Rubi (7 furlongs), Clasico Esmeralda (8 furlongs) & Clasico Diamante (8 1/2 furlongs). All three races are contested at Hippodromo de las Americas, in Mexico City.

Mexican Filly Triple Crown winners:


The three races that comprise the Triple Crown in Chile are:

  1. Clásico El Ensayo, Club Hipico de Santiago
  2. Clásico St. Leger, Hipodromo Chile
  3. El Derby, Valparaiso Sporting Club.

Winners of the Chilean Triple Crown are:

Dominican Republic[edit]

The winners of the Dominican Republic Triple Crown have been:


The winners of the Norwegian Triple Crown have been:


The winners of the Panamanian Triple Crown have been:


In Poland, the Triple Crown (Potrójna korona) consists of

  1. Rulera, Polish 2000 Guineas, Warsaw, 1600 m
  2. Służewiec Derby, Warsaw, 2400 m
  3. St. Leger, Warsaw, 2800 m

Puerto Rico[edit]

Camarero winner of 56 consecutive races and the Triple Crown.

The Triple Crown series at Puerto Rico's Camarero Racetrack consists of three races at increasingly longer distances. They are:

  1. Derby Puertorriqueño at 1,700 meters (8½ furlongs) held in the first Sunday of May
  2. Copa Gobernador at 1,800 meters (9 furlongs) held in the end of May
  3. Copa San Juan at 1,900 meters (9½ furlongs) held in the last Sunday of June

The Puerto Rico Triple Crown winners are:


The three races that comprise the Triple Crown in Uruguay are:

  1. Gran Premio Polla de Potrillos
  2. Gran Premio Jockey Club
  3. Gran Premio Nacional

This combination of races received some publicity outside of Uruguay in 2006. The 2005 Triple Crown winner Invasor, after being sold to Sheik Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum's Shadwell Racing and sent to be raced in the United States, went on to win three Grade I races in 2006 before winning that year's Breeders' Cup Classic. He finished the year as the top-ranked horse in the 2006 World Thoroughbred Racehorse Rankings, and won the 2007 Dubai World Cup before being retired to stud following a training injury.

Uruguayan Triple Crown winners are:


1980 – present

Ecuador has two sets of races referred to as Triple Crowns:

Ecuador Triple Crown[25]

  1. Clásico Estreno Dr. Raúl Lebed Sigall, at Hipódromo BUIJO in Samborondón;
  2. Clásico Polla Nacional Sr. Agustin Febres Cordero, at Hipódromo BUIJO in Samborondón;
  3. Clásico Derby Nacional Sr.Benjamin Rosales A., at Hipódromo BUIJO in Samborondón;

Ecuador Fillies' Triple Crown

  1. Clásico Ing. Carlos San Andres, at Hipódromo BUIJO in Samborondón;
  2. Clásico Sr. Eduardo Jairala F, at Hipódromo BUIJO in Samborondón;
  3. Clásico Abogado Carlos Julio Arosemena Peet, at Hipódromo BUIJO in Samborondón;

In Ecuador, the Triple Crown consists of:

  1. Clásico Nelson Uraga Suarez, at Hipódromo Santa Cecilia in Guayaquil;
  2. Clásico Enrique Guzman Aspiazu, at Hipódromo Santa Cecilia in Guayaquil;
  3. Clásico Inginiero Ignacio De Icaza Aspiazu, at Hipódromo Santa Cecilia in Guayaquil.

Triple Crown Champions:

Miss Florida
Capo Di Monte II
1967AlcatrazEstuardo ToreroAlcides GuerreroInginiero Miguel Salem Dibo
1971FarsanteEstuardo ToreroAlcides GuerreroInginiero Miguel Salem Dibo


Venezuela has two sets of races referred to as Triple Crowns:

Venezuelan Official Triple Crown Champions: (From 1956)

1960GradiscoManuel CamacaroLeopoldo MárquezStud Rey-Gan
1972El CorsarioJosé Luís VargasEduardo AzpúruaStud El Corsario
1985IraquíJuan Vicente Tovar (+)Daniel PérezStud Chivacoa
1992Catire BelloDouglas Valiente(+)Iván CalixtoStud Ilusión
2005Polo GroundsEmisael JaramilloCarlos RegaladoStud Black Label
2007Taconeo[26]Emisael JaramilloGustavo DelgadoStud Paula C
2008El Gran CesarSantiago GonzálezAntonio MachadoStud Agrop. Los Alelíes
2010Water JetEmisael JaramilloGustavo DelgadoStud El Fantasma

Undefeated Triple Crown winners[edit]

The following horses won their Triple Crown when still undefeated. Those marked with an asterisk retired undefeated.

Individual Triple Crown winners[edit]

Only two jockeys have won the Triple Crown with different horses (i.e., rode horses to Triple Crowns in different years):

At least one other jockey is known to have won all three of a country's Triple Crown races in the same year on different horses:

One trainer is known to have accomplished the same feat as Contreras:

Back to back Triple Crown winners (jockeys)[edit]

Don Seymour (Canada)

Javier Santiago (Puerto Rico)

Most Triple Crown winners (jockeys)[edit]

Winston Grifiths - Jamaica (5)

Alexis Feliciano - Puerto Rico (3)

Emisael Jaramillo - Venezuela (3)

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ a b Craig, Dennis, Breeding Racehorses from Cluster Mares, J A Allen, London, 1964
  3. ^ Waterman, Jack (1999). The Punter's Friend. Harpenden, Herts, UK: Queen Anne Press. ISBN 1852916001.  edit
  4. ^ "Irish Triple Crown of Horse Racing | International Triple Crown Races | UK Horse Racing". Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  5. ^ "WEG, Hall of Fame announces grandfathering of Canadian Triple Crown winners". Woodbine Entertainment Group. 4 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  6. ^ "WEG, Hall of Fame Announces Grandfathering of Canadian Triple Crown Winners". Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame. 4 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  7. ^ "Canadian Hall of Fame Honors Early Triple Crown Winners". Blood-Horse. 4 July 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2014. 
  8. ^ "Australian Triple Crown". Retrieved 24 May 2012. 
  9. ^ Australian Triple Crown Retrieved 2010-11-2
  10. ^ "SMH Sport". The Sydney Morning Herald. 11 April 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2009. 
  11. ^ Huxley, Dennis, Miller’s Guide, Sporting records, 2009/2010, Miller’s Guide P/L, Moonee Ponds
  12. ^ Ken McLean (2005). Designing Speed in the Racehorse. Russell Meerdink. p. 246. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  13. ^ "2013 Yılı At Yarışları Genel Hülümleri" (PDF) (in In Turkish). Jockey Club of Turkey. Retrieved 2013-07-11. 
  14. ^ "Kyoto: Orfevre going for Japanese Triple Crown | Daily Racing Form". Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  15. ^  By Nicholas Godfrey 11:33AM 17 OCT 2010  (2010-10-17). "JAPAN Apapane completes fillies' Triple Crown at Kyoto". Racing Post. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  16. ^ "Terrific line-up for Stewards' Cup : International Horse Breeding and Racing news updated daily,". 2006-01-20. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  17. ^ "Luen Yat Forever Wins Triple Crown". Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  18. ^ "Triple Crown familiar term around the world". 2012-06-16. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  19. ^ "Chilean star Matto Mondo joins Mandella stable". Thoroughbred Times. 2008-01-19. Retrieved 2012-06-21. 
  20. ^ "Stallions :: Sicotico". Rancho San Antonio. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  21. ^ a b c d e "Caribbean stakes series begins Saturday in Puerto Rico - Horse Racing - ESPN". 2008-12-06. Retrieved 2012-06-21. 
  22. ^ Thoroughbred Times Retrieved 2010-5-1
  23. ^ Win Streaks Retrieved 2010-11-9
  24. ^ "CONNECTIONS SALUTE INVINCIBLE INVASOR". Sporting Life. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  25. ^
  26. ^ "Sid Fernando commentary: Revenge of Bambera". Thoroughbred Times. 2011-04-19. Retrieved 2012-06-21. 

Williams, Guy St. John; Francis P. M. Hyland (1980). The Irish Derby 1866–1979. London and New York: J. A. Allen & Co Ltd. ISBN 0-85131-358-2.