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The Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, often shortened to Triple Crown, comprises three races for three-year-old Thoroughbred horses. Winning all three of these Thoroughbred horse races is considered the greatest accomplishment of a Thoroughbred racehorse. The term originated in mid-19th century England and different nations where thoroughbred racing is popular each have their own Triple Crown series.
Churchill Downs, home of the Kentucky Derby, has an account of the origin of the "Triple Crown" name in the United States. On May 30, 2014, the Kentucky Derby Twitter feed posted a picture of Gallant Fox and said that a Daily Racing Form reporter originated the name. They expanded on the comment on the Kentucky Derby Facebook page writing, "Did you know? The phrase 'Triple Crown' was not associated with the three-race series until 1930, when Daily Racing Form writer Charles Hatton coined it in describing the sweep of races by Gallant Fox, the second horse to win all three races."
In the United States, the three races that make up the Triple Crown are:
|1919||Sir Barton||Johnny Loftus||H. Guy Bedwell||J. K. L. Ross||John E. Madden|
|1930||Gallant Fox||Earl Sande||Jim Fitzsimmons||Belair Stud||Belair Stud|
|1935||Omaha||Willie Saunders||Jim Fitzsimmons||Belair Stud||Belair Stud|
|1937||War Admiral||Charley Kurtsinger||George H. Conway||Samuel D. Riddle||Samuel D. Riddle|
|1941||Whirlaway||Eddie Arcaro||Ben A. Jones||Calumet Farm||Calumet Farm|
|1943||Count Fleet||Johnny Longden||Don Cameron||Fannie Hertz||Fannie Hertz|
|1946||Assault||Warren Mehrtens||Max Hirsch||King Ranch||King Ranch|
|1948||Citation||Eddie Arcaro||Horace A. Jones||Calumet Farm||Calumet Farm|
|1973||Secretariat||Ron Turcotte||Lucien Laurin||Meadow Stable||Meadow Stud|
|1977||Seattle Slew||Jean Cruguet||William H. Turner, Jr.||Karen L. Taylor||Ben S. Castleman|
|1978||Affirmed||Steve Cauthen||Laz Barrera||Harbor View Farm||Harbor View Farm|
The following horses won the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness but did not win the Belmont:
|1932||Burgoo King||Did not start (unknown reason)|
|1936||Bold Venture||Did not start (injury)|
|1944||Pensive||2nd to Bounding Home|
|1958||Tim Tam||2nd to Cavan|
|1961||Carry Back||7th to Sherluck|
|1964||Northern Dancer||3rd to Quadrangle|
|1966||Kauai King||4th to Amberoid|
|1969||Majestic Prince||2nd to Arts and Letters|
|1971||Canonero II||4th to Pass Catcher|
|1979||Spectacular Bid||3rd to Coastal|
|1981||Pleasant Colony||3rd to Summing|
|1987||Alysheba||4th to Bet Twice|
|1989||Sunday Silence||2nd to Easy Goer|
|1997||Silver Charm||2nd to Touch Gold|
|1998||Real Quiet||2nd to Victory Gallop|
|1999||Charismatic||3rd to Lemon Drop Kid|
|2002||War Emblem||8th to Sarava|
|2003||Funny Cide||3rd to Empire Maker|
|2004||Smarty Jones||2nd to Birdstone|
|2008||Big Brown||DNF to Da' Tara|
|2012||I'll Have Another||Did not start (injury)|
|2014||California Chrome||4th to Tonalist|
The following horses won two of three races in the triple crown but did not win either the Kentucky Derby or Preakness Stakes:
|1877||Cloverbrook||Did not start in Derby|
|1878||Duke of Magenta||Did not start in Derby|
|1880||Grenada||Did not start in Derby|
|1881||Saunterer||Did not start in Derby|
|1895||Belmar||Did not start in Derby|
|1920||Man o' War||Did not start in Derby|
|1922||Pillory||Did not start in Derby|
|1923||Zev||12th to Virgil, Preakness|
|1931||Twenty Grand||2nd to Mate, Preakness|
|1939||Johnstown||5th to Challedon, Preakness|
|1940||Bimelech||2nd to Gallahadion, Derby|
|1942||Shut Out||5th to Alsab, Derby|
|1949||Capot||2nd to Ponder, Derby|
|1950||Middleground||2nd to Hill Prince, Preakness|
|1953||Native Dancer||2nd to Dark Star, Derby|
|1955||Nashua||2nd to Swaps, Derby|
|1956||Needles||2nd to Fabius, Preakness|
|1963||Chateaugay||2nd to Candy Spots, Preakness|
|1967||Damascus||3rd to Proud Clarion, Derby|
|1972||Riva Ridge||4th to Bee Bee Bee, Preakness|
|1974||Little Current||2nd to Cannonade, Derby|
|1976||Bold Forbes||3rd to Elocutionist, Preakness|
|1984||Swale||7th to Gate Dancer, Preakness|
|1988||Risen Star||3rd to Winning Colors, Derby|
|1991||Hansel||10th to Strike the Gold, Derby|
|1994||Tabasco Cat||6th to Go for Gin, Derby|
|1995||Thunder Gulch||3rd to Timber Country, Preakness|
|2001||Point Given||5th to Monarchos, Derby|
|2005||Afleet Alex||3rd to Giacomo, Derby|
There is also a national Triple Tiara (formerly known as the Filly Triple Crown):
Thus far, only one filly has won the national Filly Triple Crown:
From 1957 to 2002 and 2007 to 2009 the New York Triple Tiara consisted of the Acorn Stakes, the Mother Goose Stakes, and the Coaching Club American Oaks (all three stakes races are run at Belmont Park in New York).
Eight fillies won the original New York Triple Tiara:
In 2010 the NYRA changed the configuration of the new Betfair TVG Triple Tiara it now consists of the Acorn Stakes run at Belmont Park, the Coaching Club American Oaks, and the Alabama Stakes both run at Saratoga Race Course.
Thus far, no filly has won the reconfigured Betfair TVG Triple Tiara.
Since the 2,000 Guineas was first run in 1809, only fifteen horses (including three winners of substitute races at Newmarket during World War I) have ever won the English Triple Crown, including Nijinsky in 1970. Nijinsky is still the only winner of the English Triple Crown since World War II. For many years, it was considered unlikely that any horse would ever win the English Triple Crown again. In the winter of 2006/2007, however, trainer Jim Bolger was training his unbeaten colt Teofilo for the Triple Crown and bookmaker William Hill plc was offering odds of only 12/1 against Teofilo winning the 2007 Triple Crown. However, the horse was withdrawn from the 2000 Guineas two days before the race after suffering a setback and never raced again.
Since Nijinsky, only Nashwan (1989), Sea the Stars (2009), and Camelot (2012) have won both the Guineas and the Derby. Between Reference Point in 1987 and Camelot in 2012, no Derby winner (not even the potential Triple Crown winners Nashwan and Sea the Stars) even entered the St. Leger. This reluctance to compete in the St. Leger is said to be due to the impact it would have on a horse's stud value in a market where speed is preferred to stamina.
For a list of the annual individual race winners, see English Triple Crown race winners.
Triple Crown Champions:
|1853||West Australian||Frank Butler||John Scott||John Bowes|
|1865||Gladiateur||Harry Grimshaw||Tom Jennings, Sr.||Frédéric de Lagrange|
|1866||Lord Lyon||Harry Custance||James Dover||Richard Sutton|
|1886||Ormonde||Fred Archer||John Porter||Duke of Westminster|
|1891||Common||George Barrett||John Porter||Sir Frederick Johnstone|
|1893||Isinglass||Tommy Loates||James Jewitt||Harry McCalmont|
|1897||Galtee More||Charles Wood||Sam Darling||John Gubbins|
|1899||Flying Fox||Morny Cannon||John Porter||Duke of Westminster|
|1900||Diamond Jubilee||Herbert Jones||Richard Marsh||Edward, Prince of Wales|
|1903||Rock Sand||Danny Maher||George Blackwell||Sir James Miller|
|1915||Pommern||Steve Donoghue||Charles Peck||Solly Joel|
|1917||Gay Crusader||Steve Donoghue||Alec Taylor, Jr.||Alfred W. Cox|
|1918||Gainsborough||Joe Childs||Alec Taylor, Jr.||Lady James Douglas|
|1935||Bahram||Freddie Fox and Charlie Smirke||Frank Butters||HH Aga Khan III|
|1970||Nijinsky||Lester Piggott||Vincent O'Brien||Charles W. Engelhard, Jr.|
The following horses won the 2000 Guineas and Derby but were beaten in the St Leger:
There is also a Fillies Triple Crown for a filly winning the 1,000 Guineas Stakes, Epsom Oaks and St. Leger Stakes. In the past, this was not considered a true Triple Crown as the best fillies would run in the Derby and Two Thousand Guineas. As this is no longer the case, the Fillies' Triple Crown would now be considered as comparable as the original. Winners of the Fillies Triple Crown are:
In Ireland, the Triple Crown, modelled on the English equivalent, is made up of
All three races are run at the Curragh.
For a list of the annual individual race winners, see Irish Triple Crown race winners.
Only two horses have won all three races since the Irish Two Thousand Guineas was first run in 1921:
In Canada the three races that comprise the Triple Crown are:
A total of five horses have won the Australian Triple Crown:
|2013||It's a Dundeel|
The Two Year Old Triple Crown (also known as the Two-year-old Grand Slam) consists of:
Only six horses have won the Australian Two Year Old Triple Crown:
In Germany, the Triple Crown (Dreifache Krone) consists of
In Switzerland, the Triple Crown series consists of:
Plus the series for fillies
One horse has won the Swiss Triple Crown
(Majofil's half-sister Singapore Creek (FR) captured the 2007 Swiss Oaks)
The three races that comprise the Indian Triple Crown are the Indian 2000 Guineas, the Indian Derby and the Indian St Leger, all run at Mahalaxmi Race Course in Bombay. The 2000 Guineas is run in December, and the Derby on the first Sunday of the following February. The St Leger is usually run in April—between 1970 and 1990 it was run at Pune.
Ten horses have won the Indian Triple Crown.
In the Turkish, the three races that compose the Triple Crown are:
Three old horses are eligible for the Turkish Triple Crown.
Champions of the Turkish Triple Crown are:
Japan has two sets of races referred to as Triple Crowns.
Japanese Triple Crown
Only seven horses have received the Japanese Triple Crown:
Japanese Fillies' Triple Crown
Only four horses have received the Japanese Fillies' Triple Crown:
The Triple Crown series at Hong Kong's Sha Tin Racecourse consists of three races at increasingly longer distances. Unlike most other Triple Crown events, these races are not confined to three-year-olds. They are:
In 1994, River Verdon became the first, and to date, only horse to win the Hong Kong Triple Crown.
The Triple Crown series consists in three races at increasingly longer distances.
In Makkah, the Macau Jockey Club introduced the Triple Crown Series in 2008, with three races all held in Taipa Racecourse, Macau:
In 2009 Macau Jockey Club changed the series for 4-year old horses:
In 2010, Luen Yat Forever become the first and, to date, only horse to win the Macau Triple Crown.
The three races that comprise the Triple Crown in Argentina are:
Winners of the Argentinian Triple Crown are:
The Mexican Triple Crown series consists of the Derby Mexicano (8 1/2 furlongs), Stakes Jockey Club Mexicano (8 furlongs) and the Gran Premio Nacional (8 1/2 furlongs). All three races are contested at Hippodromo de las Americas, in Mexico City.
Mexican Triple Crown winners:
The Mexican Fillies' Triple Crown series consists of the Clasico Rubi (7 furlongs), Clasico Esmeralda (8 furlongs) & Clasico Diamante (8 1/2 furlongs). All three races are contested at Hippodromo de las Americas, in Mexico City.
Mexican Filly Triple Crown winners:
The three races that comprise the Triple Crown in Chile are:
Winners of the Chilean Triple Crown are:
The winners of the Dominican Republic Triple Crown have been:
The winners of the Norwegian Triple Crown have been:
The winners of the Panamanian Triple Crown have been:
In Poland, the Triple Crown (Potrójna korona) consists of
The Triple Crown series at Puerto Rico's Camarero Racetrack consists of three races at increasingly longer distances. They are:
The Puerto Rico Triple Crown winners are:
The three races that comprise the Triple Crown in Uruguay are:
This combination of races received some publicity outside of Uruguay in 2006. The 2005 Triple Crown winner Invasor, after being sold to Sheik Hamdan bin Rashid Al Maktoum's Shadwell Racing and sent to be raced in the United States, went on to win three Grade I races in 2006 before winning that year's Breeders' Cup Classic. He finished the year as the top-ranked horse in the 2006 World Thoroughbred Racehorse Rankings, and won the 2007 Dubai World Cup before being retired to stud following a training injury.
Uruguayan Triple Crown winners are:
Ecuador has two sets of races referred to as Triple Crowns:
Ecuador Triple Crown
Ecuador Fillies' Triple Crown
In Ecuador, the Triple Crown consists of:
Triple Crown Champions:
|Capo Di Monte II|
|1967||Alcatraz||Estuardo Torero||Alcides Guerrero||Inginiero Miguel Salem Dibo|
|1971||Farsante||Estuardo Torero||Alcides Guerrero||Inginiero Miguel Salem Dibo|
Venezuela has two sets of races referred to as Triple Crowns:
Venezuelan Official Triple Crown Champions: (From 1956)
|1960||Gradisco||Manuel Camacaro||Leopoldo Márquez||Stud Rey-Gan|
|1972||El Corsario||José Luís Vargas||Eduardo Azpúrua||Stud El Corsario|
|1985||Iraquí||Juan Vicente Tovar (+)||Daniel Pérez||Stud Chivacoa|
|1992||Catire Bello||Douglas Valiente(+)||Iván Calixto||Stud Ilusión|
|2005||Polo Grounds||Emisael Jaramillo||Carlos Regalado||Stud Black Label|
|2007||Taconeo||Emisael Jaramillo||Gustavo Delgado||Stud Paula C|
|2008||El Gran Cesar||Santiago González||Antonio Machado||Stud Agrop. Los Alelíes|
|2010||Water Jet||Emisael Jaramillo||Gustavo Delgado||Stud El Fantasma|
The following horses won their Triple Crown when still undefeated. Those marked with an asterisk retired undefeated.
Only two jockeys have won the Triple Crown with different horses (i.e., rode horses to Triple Crowns in different years):
At least one other jockey is known to have won all three of a country's Triple Crown races in the same year on different horses:
One trainer is known to have accomplished the same feat as Contreras:
Don Seymour (Canada)
Javier Santiago (Puerto Rico)
Winston Grifiths - Jamaica (5)
Alexis Feliciano - Puerto Rico (3)
Emisael Jaramillo - Venezuela (3)