Trichlorosilane

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Trichlorosilane
Trichlorosilane-2D-stereo.png
Trichlorosilane-3D-vdW.pngTrichlorosilane-3D-balls.png
Identifiers
CAS number10025-78-2 YesY
PubChem24811
ChemSpider23196 YesY
EC number233-042-5
UN number1295
RTECS numberVV5950000
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaHCl3Si
Molar mass135.45 g/mol
Appearancecolourless liquid
Density1.342 g/cm3
Melting point−126.6 °C; −195.9 °F; 146.6 K
Boiling point31.8 °C; 89.2 °F; 304.9 K
Solubility in waterhydrolysis
Hazards
MSDSICSC 0591
EU Index014-001-00-9
EU classificationHighly flammable (F+)
Harmful (Xn)
Corrosive (C)
R-phrasesR12, R14, R17, R20/22, R29, R35
S-phrases(S2), S7/9, S16, S26, S36/37/39, S43, S45
NFPA 704
Flash point−27 °C; −17 °F; 246 K
Autoignition temperature185 °C; 365 °F; 458 K
Explosive limits1.2–90.5%
Related compounds
Related chlorosilanesChlorosilane
Dichlorosilane
Dichloromethylsilane
Chlorodimethylsilane
Silicon tetrachloride
Related compoundsTrifluorosilane
Tribromosilane
Chloroform
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references
 
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Trichlorosilane
Trichlorosilane-2D-stereo.png
Trichlorosilane-3D-vdW.pngTrichlorosilane-3D-balls.png
Identifiers
CAS number10025-78-2 YesY
PubChem24811
ChemSpider23196 YesY
EC number233-042-5
UN number1295
RTECS numberVV5950000
Jmol-3D imagesImage 1
Properties
Molecular formulaHCl3Si
Molar mass135.45 g/mol
Appearancecolourless liquid
Density1.342 g/cm3
Melting point−126.6 °C; −195.9 °F; 146.6 K
Boiling point31.8 °C; 89.2 °F; 304.9 K
Solubility in waterhydrolysis
Hazards
MSDSICSC 0591
EU Index014-001-00-9
EU classificationHighly flammable (F+)
Harmful (Xn)
Corrosive (C)
R-phrasesR12, R14, R17, R20/22, R29, R35
S-phrases(S2), S7/9, S16, S26, S36/37/39, S43, S45
NFPA 704
Flash point−27 °C; −17 °F; 246 K
Autoignition temperature185 °C; 365 °F; 458 K
Explosive limits1.2–90.5%
Related compounds
Related chlorosilanesChlorosilane
Dichlorosilane
Dichloromethylsilane
Chlorodimethylsilane
Silicon tetrachloride
Related compoundsTrifluorosilane
Tribromosilane
Chloroform
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Trichlorosilane is an inorganic compound with the formula HSiCl3. It is a colourless, volatile liquid. Purified trichlorosilane is the principal precursor to ultrapure silicon in the semiconductor industry. In water, it rapidly decomposes to produce a silicone polymer while giving off hydrochloric acid. Because of its reactivity and wide availability, it is frequently used in the synthesis of silicon-containing organic compounds.[1]

Production[edit]

Trichlorosilane is produced by treating powdered ferrosilicon with blowing hydrogen chloride at 300 °C. Hydrogen is also produced, as described in the chemical equation:

Si + 3 HCl → HSiCl3 + H2

Yields of 80-90% can be achieved. The major byproducts are silicon tetrachloride (chemical formula SiCl4), hexachlorodisilane (Si2Cl6), and dichlorosilane (H2SiCl2), from which trichlorosilane can be separated by distillation.

Tank car of trichlorosilane (the blue diamond means "Dangerous when wet").

It is also produced from silicon tetrachloride:[2]

Si + 3 SiCl4 + 2 H2 → 4 HSiCl3

Applications[edit]

Trichlorosilane is the basic ingredient used in the production of purified polysilicons.

HSiCl3 → Si + HCl + Cl2

Via hydrosilylation, trichlorosilane is a precursor to other useful organosilicon compounds:

RCH=CH2 + HSiCl3 → RCH2CH2SiCl3

Some useful products of this or similar reactions include octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), perfluoroctyltrichlorosilane (PFOTCS), and perfluordecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS). These reagents used in surface science and nanotechnology to form Self-assembled monolayers. Such layers containing fluorine decrease surface energy and reduce sticking. This effect is usually exploited as coating for MEMS and microfabricated stamps for a nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and an injection molding tools.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lianhong Xu, Ravi Kurukulasuriya, "Trichlorosilane" Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, 2006. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rt213.pub2
  2. ^ Simmler, W. (2005), "Silicon Compounds, Inorganic", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a24_001 
  3. ^ Cech J, Taboryski R (2012). "Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools". Applied Surface Science 259: 538–541. doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.07.078. 

External links[edit]