Trenton dates back at least to June 3, 1719, when mention was made of a constable being appointed for Trenton, while the area was still part of Hunterdon County. Boundaries were recorded for Trenton Township as of March 2, 1720, a courthouse and jail were constructed in Trenton around 1720 and the Freeholders of Hunterdon County met annually in Trenton. Trenton became New Jersey's capital as of November 25, 1790, and the City of Trenton was formed within Trenton Township on November 13, 1792. Trenton Township was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. Portions of the township were taken on February 22, 1834, to form Ewing Township. On April 10, 1837, Trenton Township was dissolved and became part of Trenton city. A series of annexations took place over a 50-year period, with the city absorbing South Trenton borough (April 14, 1851), portions of Nottingham Township (April 14, 1856), both the Borough of Chambersburg Township and Millham Township (both on March 30, 1888), as well as Wilbur Borough (February 28, 1898).
The first settlement which would become Trenton was established by Quakers in 1679, in the region then called the Falls of the Delaware, led by Mahlon Stacy from Handsworth, Sheffield, England. Quakers were being persecuted in England at this time and North America provided the perfect opportunity to exercise their religious freedom.
By 1719, the town adopted the name "Trent-towne", after William Trent, one of its leading landholders who purchased much of the surrounding land from Stacy's family. This name later was shortened to "Trenton".
Trenton became the state capital in 1790, but prior to that year the Legislature often met here. The town was incorporated in 1792.
During the War of 1812, the primary hospital facility for the U.S. Army was at a temporary location on Broad Street.
Throughout the 19th Century, Trenton grew steadily, as Europeans came to work in its pottery and wire rope mills. In 1837, with the population now too large for government by council, a new mayoral government was adopted, with by-laws that remain in operation to this day.
Trenton is located in almost the exact geographic center of the state (the official geographic center is 5 miles (8.0 km) southeast of Trenton). Due to this, it is sometimes included as part of North Jersey and as the southernmost city of the Tri-State Region. Others consider it a part of South Jersey and thus, the northernmost city of the Delaware Valley.
Trenton has long been part of the Philadelphia television market. However, following the 2000 United States Census, Trenton was shifted from the Philadelphia metropolitan statistical area to the New York metropolitan statistical area. With a similar shift by the New Haven, Connecticut, area to the New York area, they were the first two cases where metropolitan statistical areas differed from their defined Nielsen television markets. However, Mercer County constitutes its own metropolitan statistical area, formally known as the Trenton-Ewing MSA. Locals consider Trenton to be a part of ambiguous Central Jersey, and thus part of neither region. They are generally split as to whether they are within New York or Philadelphia's sphere of influence. While it is geographically closer to Philadelphia, many people who have recently moved to the area commute to New York City, and have moved there to escape the New York region's high housing costs.
According to the Köppen climate classification, Trenton lies in the transition from a humid subtropical (Cfa) to a humid continental climate (Dfa), with four seasons of approximately equal length and precipitation fairly evenly distributed through the year. Winters are cold and damp: the daily average temperature in January is 31.1 °F (−0.5 °C), and temperatures at or below 10 °F (−12 °C) occur on 3.9 nights annually, while there are 16−17 days where the temperature fails to rise above freezing. Summers are hot and humid, with a July daily average of 75.7 °F (24.3 °C); temperatures reaching or exceeding 90 °F (32 °C) occur on 15−16 days. Extremes in temperature have ranged from −14 °F (−26 °C) on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) as recently as July 22, 2011. However, temperatures reaching 0 °F (−18 °C) or 100 °F (38 °C) are uncommon.
The average precipitation is 46.4 inches (1,180 mm) per year, which is fairly evenly distributed through the year. The driest month on average is February, with 2.31 in (59 mm) of precipitation on average, while the wettest month is July, with 4.95 in (126 mm) of rainfall on average. The all-time single-day rainfall record is 7.25 in (184.2 mm) on September 16, 1999, during the passage of Hurricane Floyd. The all-time monthly rainfall record is 14.55 in (369.6 mm) in August 1955, due to the passage of Hurricane Connie and Hurricane Diane. The wettest year on record was 1996, when 67.90 in (1,725 mm) of precipitation fell. On the flip side, the driest month on record was October 1963, when only 0.05 in (1.3 mm) of rain was recorded. The 28.79 in (731 mm) of precipitation recorded in 1957 were the lowest ever for the city.
Snowfall can vary even more year-to-year. The average snowfall is 23.4 inches (59.4 cm), but has ranged from as low as 2 in (5.1 cm) in the winter of 1918–19 to as high as 76.9 in (195.3 cm) in 1995–96, which included the greatest single-storm snowfall, the Blizzard of January 7–8, 1996, when 24.2 inches (61.5 cm) of snow fell.
Climate data for Trenton, New Jersey (1981−2010 normals)
There were 28,578 households, of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.1% were married couples living together, 28.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.9% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.40.
In the city, 25.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 32.5% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.6 years. For every 100 females there were 106.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.2 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $36,601 (with a margin of error of +/- $1,485) and the median family income was $41,491 (+/- $2,778). Males had a median income of $29,884 (+/- $1,715) versus $31,319 (+/- $2,398) for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,400 (+/- $571). About 22.4% of families and 24.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.3% of those under age 18 and 17.5% of those age 65 or over.
There were 29,437 households, 32.4% of which had children under the age of 18 living with them. 29.0% were married couples living together, 27.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.38.
In the city the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 31.9% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, and 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $31,074, and the median income for a family was $36,681. Males had a median income of $29,721 versus $26,943 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,621. About 17.6% of families and 21.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 19.5% of those age 65 or over.
Top 10 ethnicities reported during the 2000 Census by percentage:
Trenton was a major manufacturing center in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. One relic of that era is the slogan "Trenton Makes, The World Takes", which is displayed on the Lower Free Bridge (just north of the Trenton–Morrisville Toll Bridge). The city adopted the slogan in 1917 to represent Trenton's then-leading role as a major manufacturing center for rubber, wire rope, ceramics and cigars.
Along with many other United States cities in the 1970s, Trenton fell on hard times when manufacturing and industrial jobs declined. Concurrently, state government agencies began leasing office space in the surrounding suburbs. State government leaders (particularly governors William Cahill and Brendan Byrne) attempted to revitalize the downtown area by making it the center of state government. Between 1982 and 1992, more than a dozen office buildings were constructed primarily by the state to house state offices. Today, Trenton's biggest employer is still the state of New Jersey. Each weekday, 20,000 state workers flood into the city from the surrounding suburbs.
Urban Enterprise Zone
Portions of Trenton are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate at eligible merchants (versus the 7% rate charged statewide).
The city of Trenton is home to numerous neighborhoods and sub-neighborhoods. The main neighborhoods are taken from the four cardinal directions (North, South, East, and West). Trenton was once home to large Italian, Hungarian, and Jewish communities, but since the 1950s demographic shifts have changed the city into a relatively segregated urban enclave of middle and lower income African Americans. Italians are scattered throughout the city, but a distinct Italian community is centered in the Chambersburg neighborhood, in South Trenton. This community has been in decline since the 1970s, largely due to economic and social shifts to the more prosperous, less crime-ridden suburbs surrounding the city. Today Chambersburg has a large Latino community. Many of the Latino immigrants are from Mexico, Guatemala and Nicaragua. There is also a significant and growing Asian community in the Chambersburg neighborhood primarily made up of Burmese and Bhutanese/Nepali refugees.
The North Ward, once a mecca for the city's middle class, is now one of the most economically distressed, torn apart by race riots following the assassination of Martin Luther King in 1968. Nonetheless, the area still retains many important architectural and historic sites. North Trenton still has a large Polish-American neighborhood that borders Lawrence Township, many of whom attend St Hedwig's Roman Catholic Church on Brunswick Ave. St. Hedwig's church was built in 1904 by Polish immigrants, many of whose families still attend the church. North Trenton is also home to the historic Shiloh Baptist Church—one of the largest houses of worship in Trenton and the oldest African American church in the city, founded in 1888. The church is currently pastored by Rev. Darrell L. Armstrong, who carried the Olympic torch in 2002 for the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. Also located just at the southern tip of North Trenton is the city's Battle Monument, also known as "Five Points". It is a 150 ft (46 m) structure that marks the spot where George Washington's Continental Army launched the Battle of Trenton during the American Revolutionary War. It faces downtown Trenton and is a symbol of the city's historic past.
South Ward is the most diverse neighborhood in Trenton and is home to many Latin American, Italian-American, and African American residents.
East Ward is the smallest neighborhood in Trenton and is home to the Trenton Train Station as well as Trenton Central High School. Recently, two campuses have been added, Trenton Central High School West and Trenton Central High School North, respectively, in those areas of the city. The Chambersburg neighborhood is within the East Ward, and was once noted in the region as a destination for its many Italian restaurants and pizzerias. With changing demographics, many of these businesses have either closed or relocated to suburban locations.
West Ward is the home of Trenton's more suburban neighborhoods.
The City of Trenton is governed within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council) system of municipal government by a Mayor and a seven-member city council. Three city council members are elected at-large, and four come from each of four wards. The mayor and council members are elected concurrently to four-year terms of office as part of the May municipal election.
Mayor and Council
As of 2014[update], the Mayor of Trenton is Eric Jackson. Members of the City Council are Phyllis Holly-Ward (At-Large), Alex Bethea (At-Large), Duncan Harrison, Jr. (At-Large), Zachary Chester (West Ward), Marge Caldwell-Wilson (North Ward), George Muschal (South Ward), and Verlina Reynolds-Jackson (East Ward), all serving terms of office ending June 30, 2018.
Interim mayor 2014
From February 7 to July 1, 2014 the acting mayor was George Muschal who retroactively assumed the office on that date due to the felony conviction of Tony F. Mack, who had taken office on July 1, 2010. Muschal, who was council president, was selected by the city council to serve as the interim mayor to finish the term.
Mayor's conviction and removal from office
On February 7, 2014, Mack and his brother, Raphiel Mack, were convicted by a federal jury of bribery, fraud and extortion, based on the details of their participation in a scheme to take money in exchange for helping get approvals to develop a downtown parking garage as part of a fictitious sting operation by law enforcement. Days after the conviction, the office of the New Jersey Attorney General filed motions to have Mack removed from office, as state law requires the removal of elected officials after convictions for corruption. Initially, Mack fought the removal of him from the office but on February 26, a superior court judge ordered his removal and any actions taken by Mack between February 7 and the 26th could have be reversed by Muschal. Previously, Mack's housing director quit after it was learned he had a theft conviction. His chief of staff was arrested trying to buy heroin. His half-brother, whose authority he elevated at the city water plant, was arrested on charges of stealing. His law director resigned after arguing with Mack over complying with open-records laws and potential violations of laws prohibiting city contracts to big campaign donors.
Trenton is located in the 12th Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 15th state legislative district. Prior to the 2010 Census, Trenton had been split between the 4th Congressional District and the 12th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections.
Mercer County is governed by a County Executive who oversees the day-to-day operations of the county and by a seven-member Board of Chosen Freeholders that acts in a legislative capacity, setting policy. All officials are chosen at-large in partisan elections, with the executive serving a four-year term of office while the freeholders serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats up for election each year. As of 2014[update], the County Executive is Brian M. Hughes (D, term ends December 31, 2015; Princeton). Mercer County's Freeholders are Freeholder Chair Andrew Koontz (D, 2016; Princeton), Freeholder Vice Chair Samuel T. Frisby, Sr. (2015; Trenton), Ann M. Cannon (2015; East Windsor Township), Anthony P. Carabelli (2016; Trenton), John A. Cimino (2014, Hamilton Township), Pasquale "Pat" Colavita, Jr. (2015; Lawrence Township) and Lucylle R. S. Walter (2014; Ewing Township) Mercer County's constitutional officers are County Clerk Paula Sollami-Covello (D, 2015), Sheriff John A. Kemler (D, 2014) and Surrogate Diane Gerofsky (D, 2016).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 37,407 registered voters in Trenton, of which 16,819 (45.0%) were registered as Democrats, 1,328 (3.6%) were registered as Republicans and 19,248 (51.5%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 12 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 89.9% of the vote here (23,577 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 8.2% (2,157 votes) and other candidates with 0.5% (141 votes), among the 26,229 ballots cast by the city's 41,005 registered voters, for a turnout of 64.0%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 79.8% of the vote here (18,539 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 16.3% (3,791 votes) and other candidates with 0.4% (146 votes), among the 23,228 ballots cast by the city's 39,139 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 59.3.
In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 81.6% of the vote here (10,235 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 12.4% (1,560 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 2.4% (305 votes) and other candidates with 1.1% (135 votes), among the 12,537 ballots cast by the city's 38,345 registered voters, yielding a 32.7% turnout.
The city of Trenton is protected on a full-time basis by the city of Trenton Fire and Emergency Services Department (TFD), which has been a paid department since 1892 after having been originally established in 1747 as a volunteer fire department. The TFD operates out of seven fire stations and operates a fire apparatus fleet of 7 engines, 3 ladders, and one rescue, along with two HAZMAT units, a mobile command unit, one fireboat, and numerous other special, support and reserve units.
The Trenton Public Schools serve students in kindergarten through twelfth grade. The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide, which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority. The Superintendent runs the district and the school board is appointed by the Mayor. The school district has undergone a 'construction' renaissance throughout the district. Trenton Central High School is Trenton's only traditional public high school.
Trenton Community Music School is a not-for-profit community school of the arts. The school was founded by executive director Marcia Wood in 1997. The school currently operates at Blessed Sacrament Catholic Church (on Tuesdays) and the Copeland Center for the Performing Arts (on Saturdays).
Trenton is home to Al-Bayaan Academy, which opened for preschool students in September 2001 and added grades in subsequent years.
In 2005, there were 31 homicides in Trenton, which at that time was the largest number in a single year in the city's history. The city was named the 4th "Most Dangerous" in 2005 out of 129 cities with a population of 75,000 to 99,999 ranked nationwide. In the 2006 survey, Trenton was ranked as the 14th most dangerous "city" overall out of 371 cities included nationwide in the 13th annual Morgan Quitno survey, and was again named as the fourth most dangerous "city" of 126 cities in the 75,000–99,999 population range. Homicides went down in 2006 to 20, but back up to 25 in 2007. In September 2011, the city fired 108 police officers due to budget cuts; this constituted almost one-third of the Trenton Police Department and required 30 senior officers to be sent out on patrols in lieu of supervisory duties.
In 2013, the city set a new record with 37 homicides.
Riots of 1968
The Trenton Riots of 1968 were a major civil disturbance that took place during the week following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King in Memphis on April 4. Race riots broke out nationwide following the murder of the civil rights activist. More than 200 Trenton businesses, mostly in Downtown, were ransacked and burned. More than 300 people, most of them young black men, were arrested on charges ranging from assault and arson to looting and violating the mayor's emergency curfew. In addition to 16 injured policemen, 15 firefighters were treated at city hospitals for smoke inhalation, burns, sprains and cuts suffered while fighting raging blazes or for injuries inflicted by rioters. Denizens of Trenton's urban core often pulled false alarms and would then throw bricks at firefighters responding to the alarm boxes. This experience, along with similar experiences in other major cities, effectively ended the use of open-cab fire engines. As an interim measure, the Trenton Fire Department fabricated temporary cab enclosures from steel deck plating until new equipment could be obtained. The losses incurred by downtown businesses were initially estimated by the city to be $7 million, but the total of insurance claims and settlements came to $2.5 million.
Trenton's Battle Monument neighborhood was hardest hit. Since the 1950s, North Trenton had witnessed a steady exodus of middle-class residents, and the riots spelled the end for North Trenton. By the 1970s, the region had become one of the most blighted and crime-ridden in the city, although gentrification in the area is revitalizing certain sections.
New Jersey State Prison
The New Jersey State Prison (formerly Trenton State Prison), which has two maximum security units, is located in Trenton. The prison houses some of the state's most dangerous individuals, which included New Jersey's death row population until the state banned capital punishment in 2007.
The following is inscribed over the original entrance to the prison.
Labor, Silence, Penitence. The Penitentiary House, Erected By Legislative Authority. Richard Howell, Governor. In The XXII Year Of American Independence MDCCXCVII That Those Who Are Feared For Their Crimes May Learn To Fear The Laws And Be Useful Hic Labor, Hic Opus.
Roads and highways
Route 1 through downtown Trenton, looking north from the East State Street overpass
City highways include the Trenton Freeway, which is part of U.S. Route 1, and the John Fitch Parkway, which is part of Route 29. Canal Boulevard, more commonly known as Route 129, connects US Route 1 and NJ Route 29 in South Trenton. U.S. Route 206, Route 31, and Route 33 also pass through the city via regular city streets (Broad Street/Brunswick Avenue/Princeton Avenue, Pennington Avenue, and Greenwood Avenue, respectively).
NJ 29 through downtown Trenton, with the Delaware River on the left
Trenton is served by two daily newspapers: The Times and The Trentonian, as well as a monthly advertising magazine: "The City" Trenton N.E.W.S.. Radio station WKXW is also licensed to Trenton. Defunct periodicals include the Trenton True American. A local television station, WPHY-CD TV-25, serves the entire Trenton area.'
As mentioned above, Trenton is part of the Philadelphia television market. While it is its own radio market, Philadelphia and New York stations are both easily receivable.
The Trenton City Museum located at the Ellarslie Mansion in Cadwalader Park
Because of Trenton's relative distance to New York City and Philadelphia, and because most homes in Mercer County receive network broadcasts from both cities, locals are sharply divided in fan loyalty between both cities. It is not uncommon to find Philadelphia's Phillies, Eagles, 76ers, Union and Flyers fans cheering (and arguing) right alongside fans of New York's Yankees, Mets, Nets, Knicks, Rangers, Jets, Red Bulls and Giants or the New Jersey Devils.
Trenton Battle Monument - Located in the heart of the Five Points neighborhood, the monument was built to commemorate the Continental Army's victory in the December 26, 1776, Battle of Trenton. The monument was designed by John H. Duncan and features a statue of George Washington atop a pedestal that stands on a granite column 148 feet (45 m) in height.
Trenton City Hall - The building was constructed based on a 1907 design by architect Spencer Roberts and opened to the public in 1910. The council chambers stand two stories high and features a mural by Everett Shinn that highlights Trenton's industrial history.
Trenton City Museum - Housed in the Italianate style 1848 Ellarslie Mansion since 1978, the museum features artworks and other materials related to the city's history.
Trenton War Memorial - Completed in 1932 as a memorial to the war dead from Mercer County during World War I and owned and operated by the State of New Jersey, the building is home to a theater with 1,800 seats that reopened in 1999 after an extensive, five-year-long renovation project.
^Krystal, Becky. "Trenton, N.J.: One for the history buffs", The Washington Post, February 10, 2011. Accessed January 10, 2012. "Back in the early 18th century, at least, the area was remote enough for Trent, a wealthy Philadelphia merchant, to build his summer home there near the banks of the Delaware River. And though it's dwarfed by its modern-day neighbors, at the time the home reflected its owner's 'ostentatious nature,' Nedoresow said. Further stroking his ego, he named the settlement he laid out 'Trent-towne,' which eventually evolved into the current moniker."
^Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, pp. 276-7. J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed July 15, 2013. "Trenton the capitol of the State, as well as the seat of justice of the county of Mercer, is beautifully located on the east bank of the Delaware, at the head of tide navigation. Here is located the State Capitol, built in 1793, enlarged in 1845 and 1865, and again in 1871. The State Prison, State Arsenal, State Normal and Model schools are also located here. The city has 7 wards. Its population in 1850, was 6,461; in 1860, 17,228; and in 1870, 22,874"
^Bruder, Jessica. "JERSEYANA; Trenton's Fighting Words", The New York Times, May 2, 2004. Accessed March 16, 2012. "Trenton Makes, the World Takes, reads the famous red neon sign that spans a bridge between the state Capitol and Morrisville, Pa., affectionately known by locals as the Trenton Makes bridge.... In its heyday, Trenton was a world-class producer of rubber, steel, wire rope, and pottery. The cables for three famous suspension bridges - the Brooklyn, George Washington and Golden Gate - were produced here at John A. Roebling's factory."
^Raboteau, Albert. "Diversifying city's economy a major goal for Trenton", The Times (Trenton), January 30, 2003. Accessed October 28, 2014. "Another large goal is to lure private companies whose employees, officials say, are likely to work later in the evening and have more money to spend than the 20,000 or so state workers who swell downtown during business hours, then commute home to other municipalities."
^Di Ionno, Mark. "Chambersburg", The Star-Ledger, July 17, 2007. Accessed March 16, 2012. "The difference between Chambersburg, the traditional Italian section of Trenton, and other city neighborhoods that have undergone 'natural progression' is that Chambersburg hung on so long."
^"NJ calls for convicted Trenton mayor Tony Mack to be removed", WPVI-TV, February 10, 2014. Accessed February 12, 2014. "The state Attorney General's Office filed a request Monday with a state Superior Court judge, asking that Tony Mack be kicked out of office, stripped of his pension and be barred from holding elected office again.... Under state law, people convicted of corruption cannot continue to hold public office. But since Mack has not resigned, the state is asking a judge to enforce the law."
^Historic Rider, Rider University. Accessed February 12, 2014. "Gradually growing in size and scope through the first half of the 20th century, Rider began its move to a more spacious, suburban campus in 1959, when the first offices and classes moved to a 280-acre tract of land on Route 206 in Lawrence Township, N.J."
^What are SDA Districts?, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed August 20, 2012. "SDA Districts are 31 special-needs school districts throughout New Jersey. They were formerly known as Abbott Districts, based on the Abbott v. Burke case in which the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that the State must provide 100 percent funding for all school renovation and construction projects in special-needs school districts.... The districts were renamed after the elimination of the Abbott designation through passage of the state’s new School Funding Formula in January 2008."
^Zdan, Alex. "Trenton police layoff plan to go into effect today", The Times (Trenton), September 16, 2011. Accessed January 10, 2012. "The 108 police officers slated to be terminated represent one-third of the force. Demotions affecting nearly 30 members will send current lieutenants and sergeants back to the street, depleting supervisor levels and the detective bureaus in an effort to keep patrols close to their current strength."
^History of State Fairgrounds, Grounds for Sculpture. Accessed March 16, 2012. As horses were replaced by automobiles for transportation, cars became the main attraction on the fairground's racetrack. 'Lucky' Teter and his Hell Drivers made the headlines in the 1930s; in the sixties it was midget car races and a 200-mile race for Indianapolis cars and drivers."
^About the 1719 Trent House, William Trent House. Accessed September 7, 2013. "William Trent built his country estate north of Philadelphia, in New Jersey, at the Falls of the Delaware River about 1719.... In 1720 Trent laid out a settlement, which he incorporated and named 'Trenton.'"
^McAuliff, Michael. "Alito Bit of GOP Love", Daily News (New York), January 10, 2006. Accessed January 25, 2011. "With two rows of his family sitting behind him, Alito recounted his Trenton upbringing, the lives of his immigrant parents, and the culture clash he felt when he went to Princeton University in the late '60s."
^Phillips, Rashad. "MellowHype: Chordaroy Life", HipHopDX, July 15, 2011. Accessed March 30, 2012. "DX: Now as far as the L.A. scene, I read that you are actually from out East. Hodgy Beats: Yeah, I was born in East Lawrence, New Jersey and raised in Trenton until I was eight."
^Caldwell, Dave. "Sprinter Turned Driver Is a Quick Study in Acceleration", The New York Times, August 30, 2009. Accessed November 26, 2013. "Brown, a 33-year-old native of Chesterfield, N.J., could become the first African-American to win a major N.H.R.A. championship.... Brown lived in Trenton until he was 6. When his grandfather died, his family moved to his grandmother’s 10-acre farm in Chesterfield, in the rural part of Burlington County."
^Provizer, Norman. "RICHIE COLE BRINGS SAX APPEAL TO VARTAN", Rocky Mountain News, April 4, 1996. Accessed March 25, 2012. "On his current CD, Kush: The Music of Dizzy Gillespie, alto saxophonist Richie Cole spends most of his time in the company of a large brass section.... Instead, the Trenton, N.J. native will be in a quartet setting for a live recording on the Vartan Jazz label."
^Bohlen, Celestine. "THE NATION: David N. Dinkins; An Even Temper In the Tempest of Mayoral Politics", The New York Times, September 17, 1989. Accessed March 16, 2012. "From his childhood, which he spent divided between New York City and Trenton, David Dinkins has kept steady control of his emotions, friends and family members say. When he was 6 years old, his mother left his father in Trenton and moved to New York, taking her two children with her. Mr. Dinkins later returned to Trenton, where he attended elementary and high school."
^Strausbaugh, John. "Street Art That's Finding A New Address", The New York Times, March 7, 2010. Accessed March 20, 2012. "Mr. LeVine came to the movement the same way his artists did. He grew up in Trenton and earned a degree in sculpture, but he was less attracted to fine art than he was to underground comics, punk and hip-hop, 'anything subculture and edgy.' With a loan from his parents, he opened his first small art gallery in New Hope, Pa., in 2001."
^Stone, Sally. "Judith Light: Is best always better?", The Spokesman-Review, October 12, 1993. Accessed February 1, 2011. "Judith Light grew up in Trenton, New Jersey. After her junior year at St. Mary's Hall, a private girl's school, she enrolled in a summer drama program at St. Mary's Hall, a private girl's school, she enrolled in a summer program at Carnegie Tech..."
^Joe Holley, "Former Diplomat Sol Linowitz, 91, Dies", The Washington Post, March 18, 2005. Accessed March 20, 2012. "Sol Myron Linowitz was the eldest of four sons born to Joseph and Rose Oglenskye Linowitz, immigrants from a region of Poland under Russian rule. He was born in Trenton, N.J., in a multicultural neighborhood of Jews, Protestants and Catholics, as well as one African American family."
^Bianco, Anthony. "Joe Plumeri: The Apostle of Life Insurance", Business Week, March 30, 1998. Accessed February 12, 2014. "That would be the blue-collar precincts of North Trenton, N.J., just 15 miles from here. The cool-walking demonstration ended, Plumeri explains how he stumbled into a career on Wall Street by taking a menial job at a brokerage house that he had mistaken for a law firm."
^CEO Plumeri. Business Week. May 6, 2008. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
^Reichler, Joseph L., ed. (1979) . The Baseball Encyclopedia (4th edition ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing. ISBN0-02-578970-8.
^Host: Ty Treadway at the Wayback Machine (archived January 13, 2008), Merv Griffin's Crosswords. Archived as of January 13, 2008. Accessed March 20, 2012. "Ty Treadway was born Tyrus Richard Treadway on February 11 to Richard and Mary Lou Treadway. Ty joined six older siblings, and the family resided in Trenton, New Jersey."