Toyota S engine

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Toyota S engine
Toyota 3S-GE (longitudinal) 001.JPG
Overview
ManufacturerToyota Motor Corporation
Production1980–2007
Combustion chamber
ConfigurationInline-four engine
Chronology
SuccessorToyota AZ engine
Toyota AR engine
 
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Toyota S engine
Toyota 3S-GE (longitudinal) 001.JPG
Overview
ManufacturerToyota Motor Corporation
Production1980–2007
Combustion chamber
ConfigurationInline-four engine
Chronology
SuccessorToyota AZ engine
Toyota AR engine

The Toyota S Series engines are a family of straight-4 engines with displacement from 1.8 L to 2.2 L produced by Toyota Motor Corporation from January 1980 to August 2007. The series has cast iron engine blocks and alloy cylinder heads.

Table of S-block engines[edit]

S block engines
CodeYearsBoreStrokeCompr.Displ.PowerTorqueNotes
1S[1]82-8880.5 mm90.0 mm9:11,832 cc90 PS (66 kW; 89 bhp) at 5,200/5,400 rpm142 N·m (105 lb·ft) at 3,400 rpmCamry (SV10 export)
1S-L[2]80.5 mm90.0 mm9:11,832 cc68 kW (92 PS) at 5,200 rpm142 N·m (105 lb·ft) at 3,400 rpmCorona (ST150) (New Zealand, Latin America)
1S-U
1S-LU
82-8680.5 mm90.0 mm9:11,832 cc100 PS (74 kW; 99 bhp) at 5,400 rpm152 N·m (112 lb·ft) at 3,400 rpmCarina RWD (SA60)
Carina FF (ST150)
Celica (SA60)
Mark II/Chaser (SX6x/SX7x)
Corona (ST140)
Corona FF (ST150)
Camry/Vista (SV10)
1S-iLU[3]83-8680.5 mm90.0 mm9:11,832 cc105 PS (77 kW; 104 bhp) at 5,400 rpm157–160 N·m (116–118 lb·ft) at 2,800-3,000 rpmCarina (ST150)
Carina ED (ST160)
Corona FF (ST150)
Camry/Vista (SV10)
1S-iL8680.5 mm90.0 mm9:11,832 cc90 PS (66 kW; 89 bhp) at 5,200 rpm142 N·m (105 lb·ft) at 3,400 rpmEU
1S-E84-8780.5 mm90.0 mm?1,832 cc??Cressida/MKII/Chaser (SX6x)
1S-ELU[3]83-8680.5 mm90.0 mm9:11,832 cc115 PS (85 kW; 113 bhp) at 5,400 rpm164 N·m (121 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpmCorona FF (ST150)
1S-EL8680.5 mm90.0 mm9:11,832 cc100 PS (74 kW; 99 bhp) at 5,200 rpm154 N·m (114 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpmEU
2S84-84.0 mm90.0 mm-1,995 cc??-
2S-C83-8584.0 mm90.0 mm8.7:11,995 cc73 kW (99 PS; 98 bhp) at 5,200 rpm157 N·m (116 lb·ft) at 3,200 rpmCorona (ST141) (Australia)
Celica (SA6x) (US)
2S-E82-8784.0 mm90.0 mm8.7:11,995 cc92 bhp (69 kW; 93 PS) at 4,200 rpm153 N·m (113 lb·ft) at 2,400 rpm-
2S-E8684.0 mm90.0 mm8.7:11,995 cc97 bhp (72 kW; 98 PS)-US (but not Canadian) Camrys; The extra power is related to new timing, which is now electronically controlled.
2S-E8684.0 mm90.0 mm9:11,995 cc107 PS (79 kW; 106 bhp)-Carina II ST151
2S-ELU8684.0 mm90.0 mm8.7:11,995 cc120 PS (88 kW; 118 bhp) at 5,400 rpm173 N·m (128 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpmCamry/Vista (SV10)
2S-EL84-8684.0 mm90.0 mm9:11,995 cc107 PS (79 kW; 106 bhp) at 5,200 rpm166–173 N·m (122–128 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpmCamry (SV11), EU
Toyota Corona (ST151), NZ
2S-ELU8684.0 mm90.0 mm9:11,995 cc98 bhp (73 kW; 99 PS) at 5,400 rpm160 N·m (118 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpmUS
2S-E8684.0 mm90.0 mm8.7:11,995 cc100 PS (74 kW; 99 bhp) at 5,400 rpm161 N·m (119 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpmCamry SV11
3S-FC[4]87-9186.0 mm86.0 mm9.8:11,998 cc115 PS (85 kW; 113 bhp) at 5,600 rpm
82 kW (111 PS; 110 bhp) at 5,600 rpm (Aus)
166 N·m (122 lb·ft) at 3,200 rpmCatalyzed
Camry (SV21)
Holden Apollo (JK/JL)
3S-FE87-9086.0 mm86.0 mm9.8:11,998 cc90 kW (122 PS; 121 bhp) at 5,600 rpm169 N·m (125 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpmCelica SSI (ST202)
3S-FE87-9486.0 mm86.0 mm9.8:11,998 cc115 PS (85 kW; 113 bhp) at 5,600 rpm162 N·m (119 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpmEquipped with catalytic converter
3S-FE95-9886.0 mm86.0 mm9.8:11,998 cc130 PS (96 kW; 128 bhp) at 6,000 rpm178 N·m (131 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpmRefined valve timing and ECU settings, introduced with Carina E (T19) model
3S-FE1998–200086.0 mm86.0 mm9.8:11,998 cc94 kW (128 PS; 126 bhp) at 6,000 rpm178 N·m (131 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpmSlightly less power with better torque characteristics. Stricter pollution control. Introduced with the new Avensis (T22) model
3S-FSE2001-2003(?)86.0 mm86.0 mm9.8:11,998 cc110 kW (150 PS; 148 bhp) at 6,000 rpm192 N·m (142 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpmD-4 (Direct injection), VVT-i (only available in EU/Japan markets?)
3S-GE85-8986.0 mm86.0 mm9.2:11,998 cc103 kW (140 PS; 138 bhp) at 6,200 rpm175 N·m (129 lb·ft) at 4,800 rpmCelica 2.0 GT-i 16, GT-R (ST162)
3S-GE89-9386.0 mm86.0 mm10.0:11,998 cc115 kW (156 PS; 154 bhp) at 6,600 rpm186 N·m (137 lb·ft) at 4,800 rpmCelica 2.0 GT-i 16, GT-R (ST182/ST183), MR2 (SW20)
3S-GE94-9886.0 mm86.0 mm10.3:11,998 cc132 kW (179 PS; 177 bhp) at 7,000 rpm192 N·m (142 lb·ft) at 4,800 rpmCelica GT, SS-II (ST202), MR2 (SW20)
3S-GE1997-199886.0 mm86.0 mm11.0:11,998 cc147 kW (200 PS; 197 bhp) at 7,000 rpm210 N·m (155 lb·ft) at 6,000 rpmCelica (ST202), MR2 (SW20)
3S-GE1997-199886.0 mm86.0 mm10.5:11,998 cc140 kW (190 PS; 188 bhp) at 7,000 rpm210 N·m (155 lb·ft) at 6,000 rpmRAV4 (SXA10), Caldina (ST210)
3S-GE1997–200586.0 mm86.0 mm11.5:11,998 cc156 kW (212 PS; 209 bhp) at 7,500 rpm220 N·m (162 lb·ft)Altezza, Caldina GT
3S-GT (503E)1987-199?89.0 mm86.0 mm7.0:12,140 cc560 PS (412 kW; 552 bhp) at 8,500 rpm471 lb·ft (639 N·m) at 5,500 rpm87C, 88C, Eagle HF89, Eagle Mk III
3S-GT (503E)1987–198989.0 mm86.0 mm7.0:12,140 cc680 PS (500 kW; 671 bhp) at 8,500 rpm471 lb·ft (639 N·m) at 5,500 rpm87C, 88C (Le Mans setup with CT26R turbocharger)
3S-GT (503E)1995–199689.0 mm86.0 mm7.0:12,140 cc680 PS (500 kW; 671 bhp) at 8,500 rpm?Supra GT JZA80 (Le Mans setup, Garrett turbocharger with 55.9 mm restrictor)
3S-GT (503E)199786.0 mm86.0 mm7.0:11,998 cc480 PS (353 kW; 473 bhp) at 6,800 rpm471 lb·ft (639 N·m) at 4,500 rpmSupra GT JZA80 (JGTC setup with 45.3 mm restrictor)
3S-GTE86-8986.0 mm86.0 mm8.5:11,998 cc185 PS (136 kW; 182 bhp) at 6,000 rpm250 N·m (184 lb·ft) at 3,600 rpmCelica GT-Four (ST165)
3S-GTE90-9386.0 mm86.0 mm8.8:11,998 cc224 PS (165 kW; 221 bhp) at 6,000 rpm304 N·m (224 lb·ft) at 3,200 rpmCelica GT-Four (ST185), MR2 (SW20)
3S-GTE94-9986.0 mm86.0 mm8.5:11,998 cc245 PS (180 kW; 242 bhp) at 6,000 rpm304 N·m (224 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpmCelica GT-Four (ST205), MR2 (SW20)
3S-GTE1999–200786.0 mm86.0 mm9.0:11,998 cc260 PS (191 kW; 256 bhp) at 6,200 rpm324 N·m (239 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpmCaldina GT-T (ST215w), Caldina GT-Four (ST246w)
4S-Fi87-9182.5 mm86.0 mm9.3:11,838 cc105 PS (77 kW; 104 bhp) at 5,600 rpm149 N·m (110 lb·ft) at 2,800 rpmSingle point fuel injection
4S-FE[5]89-9882.5 mm86.0 mm9.5:11,838 cc115 PS (85 kW; 113 bhp) at 5,600 rpm157 N·m (116 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpmCorona (ST170)
4S-FE95-9882.5 mm86.0 mm9.5:11,838 cc125 PS (92 kW; 123 bhp) at 6,000 rpm162 N·m (119 lb·ft) at 4,600 rpmMKII/Chaser (SX8x)
Vista Etoile (SV-30)
5S-FE1990-9287.1 mm90.9 mm9.5:12,164 cc132 PS (97 kW; 130 bhp) at 5,400 rpm145 lb·ft (197 N·m) at 4,400 rpmCelica ST184 (5th Gen) Australia, MR2 (SW21), Toyota Camry
5S-FE1993–200187.1 mm90.9 mm9.5:12,164 cc137 PS (101 kW; 135 bhp) at 5,400 rpm145 lb·ft (197 N·m) at 4,400 rpmCelica ST204 (6th Gen) Australia, MR2 (SW21), Toyota Camry
5S-FE1997–199987.1 mm90.9 mm-2,164 cc135 PS (99 kW; 133 bhp) at 5,200 rpm147 lb·ft (199 N·m) at 4,400 rpmCamry (4th Gen) U.S spec 1st semester styling
5S-FE2000–200187.1 mm90.9 mm-2,164 cc138 PS (101 kW; 136 bhp) at 5,200 rpm150 lb·ft (203 N·m) at 4,400 rpmCamry (4th Gen) U.S spec 2nd semester styling

1S[edit]

The 1.8 L (1,832 cc) 1S is the first version of the S-series engine. It is a member of Toyota's Lasre engine family (Lightweight Advanced Super Response Engine). Bore and stroke are 80.5 x 90.0 mm. The engine was first seen in 1981, and was fitted to a wide range of Toyotas, in both RWD and FWD applications.

1S (1S-U)[edit]

Original 1S engine, designed for longitudinal, rear-wheel-drive applications. Designated 1S-U with Japanese emissions controls.

1S-L (1S-LU)[edit]

Adaption of the 1S engine, designed for transverse, front-wheel-drive applications. Designated 1S-LU with Japanese emissions controls.

1S-iL (1S-iLU; 1S-i)[edit]

Adaption of the 1S-L engine, with added central injection (Ci). Designated 1S-iLU with Japanese emissions controls.

Later versions renamed 1S-i. Sometimes labelled 1S-Ci in marketing material.

1S-EL (1S-ELU; 1S-E)[edit]

Adaption of the 1S-L engine, with added multiport fuel injection. Designated 1S-ELU with Japanese emissions controls.

Later versions renamed 1S-E.

2S[edit]

The 2S is a 2.0 L (1,995 cc) four-cylinder engine with an iron block and an alloy head. Bore and stroke are 84.0 x 90.0 mm.[1] This was to be the last of the S engine family not to be equipped with twincams.

2S-E, 2S-EL, 2S-ELU, 2S-ELC[edit]

The 2S-E is the same as the 2S except it uses EFI. This particular engine was used in the Camry and in the Celica ST161. It was fitted with hydraulic lash adjusters.

The 2S-EL, 2S-ELU and 2S-ELC are the same as the 2S-E except they are transversely mounted (as fitted to the V10 Camry). The 2S-ELU has Japanese emission controls and the 2S-ELC has US emission controls.

3S[edit]

The 3S is a 2.0 L (1,998 cc) inline-four engine with an iron block and an alloy head. While based on the 2S engine of very similar displacement, Toyota went through the trouble of changing the long stroke dimensions of the 2S, giving it a 2 mm wider bore and a 4 mm shorter stroke,[3] allowing for the fitment of larger valves and enabling higher power outputs.[6] First introduced in May 1984,[7] the 3S remained in production until 2007.

3S-FC[edit]

Two-barrel carburettor version of the 3S-FE. This engine is found in lower-specification variants of the 1986–1992 Toyota Camry and its Holden Apollo twin (SL and SLX versions). Power is 82 kW (111 PS) at 5,600 rpm, with max torque of 166 N·m (122 lb·ft) at 3,200 rpm.[4]

3S-FE[edit]

The Toyota 3S-FE is a 16-valve 2.0 L twin camshaft, single cam gear engine built by Toyota from 1986 to 2000. European version produces 128 PS (94 kW)(126hp) at 5,600 rpm and 179 Nm (132ft-lbs) at 4,400 rpm.[8] It is commonly used in the Camry 1987–1992 model, the Celica T160/T180/T200, Carina 1987–1992, Carina 1988–2001, Caldina 1992–2002, Carina ED 1990–1992 and E 1993–1998 models, Corona T170/T190 as well as Avensis 1997–2000 models and RAV4, 1994–2000 and Picnic/Ipsum 1996–2002. The 3S-FE was also used in some MR2 Mk2 cars due to its torque band being suitable for the automatic models. The 3S-FE is fitted with EFI.

3S-GE[edit]

The Toyota 3S-GE (originally titled 3S-GELU' in transversely-mounted applications with Japanese emission controls), is an in-line 4 cylinder engine in the S engine family, manufactured by Toyota and designed in conjunction with Yamaha. While the block is iron, the cylinder head is made of aluminium alloy. The pent-roof combustion chambers are complemented by a cross-flow intake and exhaust layout.[7] The spark plug is located in the center of the combustion chamber. The firing order is 1-3-4-2, with cylinder number 1 adjacent to the timing belt. The 3S-GE was designed to be light, the first iteration 3S-GELU weighing in at a low 143 kg (315 lb).[6]

The crankshaft, located within the crankcase, rotates on five aluminium alloy bearings and is balanced by eight weights. Oil holes are located in the middle of the crankshaft to provide oil to the connecting rods, bearing, pistons and other moving components. The intake manifold has four independent ports and benefits from inertia build up to improve engine torque at low and medium speeds.

A single timing belt drives the intake and exhaust camshaft. The cam journals are supported on five points between the valve lifters of each cylinder and on the front of the cylinder head, and are lubricated by an oiler port located in the middle of the camshaft.

The pistons are made from an aluminium alloy, designed to withstand high temperatures. An indentation is incorporated into the piston head to prevent the pistons from hitting the valves, should the timing belt break (this is not true of the later BEAMS - an acronym which stands for Breakthrough Engine with Advanced Mechanism System - motors). This is commonly referred to as a "non-interference" engine. Piston pins holding the pistons in place are locked by snap rings. The "Outer Shim Type System" allows for the replacement of the shims without the need to remove the camshaft. To adjust the valve clearance, adjust the shims above the valve lifters.

The first compression ring and the oil ring are made of steel, the second compression ring is made of cast iron. Compression rings 1 and 2 prevent exhaust leakage from the combustion chamber while the oil ring works to clear oil off the cylinder walls, preventing excessive oil from entering the combustion chamber. An oil pan baffle is used to ensure that there is sufficient oil available in the oil pan.

There are five generations of the 3S-GE, which were used in the Toyota Celica, MR2, Caldina, RAV4, and Altezza. All 3S-GE engines had a displacement of 2.0 L (1,998 cc). Additionally, the turbocharged 3S-GTE engines are based on the 3S-GE platform.

Generation 1[edit]

The first-generation 3S-GE was produced from May 1984[7] to 1989, arriving in both Northern American versions, as well as In Japan as a second variation. The Northern American engine was slightly less powerful, producing around 135 bhp (101 kW). This engine was the only 3S-GE to come to North America, in the Celica GT-S (ST162). Among other things, the Japanese market version sported a more aggressive ECU and lacked the EGR valve system, pushing the output to somewhere around 160 PS (118 kW) at 6,400 rpm and 19.0 kg·m (186 N·m) of torque. The engine was originally available only in the Toyota Camry/Vista Twin Cam 2000 (3S-GELU for V10s, 3S-GE for V20s).[7]

Generation 2[edit]

The second generation was produced from 1990 to 1993, receiving a slight boost in output to 165 PS (121 kW), 156 PS (115 kW) in European markets. Peak torque went to 19.5 kg·m (191 N·m). It also proved to be a slightly more reliable engine. The second generation also did away with the T-VIS system, which was replaced by the ACIS (Acoustic Control Induction System), proving to be much more efficient. T-VIS was, however, retained on the second-generation 3S-GTE, the turbocharged counterpart.

Generation 3[edit]

The third-generation 3S-GE was produced from 1994 to 1999. Power output for the Japanese market was increased to 180 PS (132 kW; 178 hp) as the compression ratio was increased to 10.3:1, while motors for other markets received a minor revision in 1996 for emissions (EGR) which reduced power output slightly to 170 PS (125 kW; 168 hp) at 7,000 rpm. Torque remains the same for both at 19.5 kg·m (191 N·m).

Generation 4[edit]

The fourth-generation 3S-GE, also known as the 'Red Top BEAMS' 3S-GE began production in 1997. BEAMS is an acronym which stands for Breakthrough Engine with Advanced Mechanism System.

The first version was equipped with VVT-i and produced 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) at 7,000 rpm when coupled to a manual transmission. The automatic version produced 190 PS (140 kW; 187 bhp) at 7000 rpm; this is believed to be an ECU restriction implemented by Toyota due to gearbox limitations. It was available in a few models sold only in Japan: the MR2 G and G-Limited, the Celica ST202 SS-II and SS-III and the Caldina.

The second version generation 4 3S-GE, the 'Grey Top BEAMS' 3S-GE, was an available engine option in the RAV4 and second-generation Caldina Active Sports GT in Japan. Even though the valve cover on this engine is black, it is referred to as the "Grey Top", taking its name from the grey intake plenum colouring. This naming is as such to differentiate it from the fifth-generation Dual-VVTi "Black Top" in the Altezza. Power output is 180 PS (132 kW; 178 hp) at 6,600 rpm in the RAV4 and 190 PS (140 kW; 187 hp) in the Caldina GT.

Generation 5[edit]

BEAMS 3S-GE 5th-generation engine ("Black Top")

In 1998, the fifth version of the 3S-GE was released, found only in the Japanese-delivered Altezza RS200. The 'Black Top' as it came to be referred to as, was fitted with a dual VVT-i system that adjusted timing on both intake and exhaust camshafts and came in two different spec levels dependent on which transmission it was coupled to.

The MT version that came equipped with the J160 6-speed manual transmission featured larger diameter titanium intake valves measuring 35mm, larger exhaust valves measuring 29.5mm also made from titanium, a larger 33mm bucket and a compression ratio of 11.5:1. It made 210 PS (154 kW; 207 hp) at 7,600 rpm and 22.0 kg·m (216 N·m) at 6,400 rpm.

Compared to the MT version, the 5-speed AT version came equipped with the A650E Tiptronic automatic transmission and had a lower compression ratio of 11.1:1, a less aggressive cam profile, smaller steel-alloy valves and smaller 31mm buckets. This engine made 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) at 7,000 rpm and 22.0 kg·m (216 N·m) at a considerably lower 4,800 rpm. Externally, the AT model can be identified by differences in the wiring loom and the lack of an acoustic blanket on the intake plenum.

Specifications[edit]

3S-GE Specifications
Gen 1Gen 2Gen 3Gen 4Gen 5 ATGen 5 MT
Capacity1,998 cc (2.0 L)
Bore x Stroke86 mm (3.39 in) x 86 mm (3.39 in)
Variable Performance MechanismT-VISACISVVT-iDual VVT-i
Compression Ratio9.2:110:110.3:111.1:111.1:111.5:1
Valve MaterialSteel-AlloyTitanium
Intake Valve Diameter33.5 mm (1.32 in)34.5 mm (1.36 in)33.5 mm (1.32 in)35 mm (1.38 in)
Exhaust Valve Diameter29.0 mm (1.14 in)29.5 mm (1.16 in)29.0 mm (1.14 in)29.5 mm (1.16 in)
Included Valve Angle44.5 °22.5 °

3S-GTE[edit]

The 3S-GTE is an in-line 4-cylinder 1998 cc engine from Toyota, based on the 3S-GE with the addition of under piston oil squirters and a reduced compression ratio to accommodate the addition of a turbocharger.

There are four generations of this engine, which started manufacture in 1986 and was built until 2007.

3S-GTE usage in Toyotas
GenerationYearModel
11986–1989Celica ST165
21990–1994Celica ST185(-1993), MR2 SW20 (MR2 Turbo)
31994–1999Celica ST205, MR2 SW20(1995+)
41997–2003, 2003–2007Caldina ST215 (GT-T), ST246 (GT-Four)

The turbochargers used in the 3S-GTE engines are Toyota designs. The first-generation Toyota CT26 utilized a single entry turbine housing and a single wastegate port design. The second-generation Toyota CT26 used a twin entry turbine housing with dual wastegate ports. The third-generation engine uses the (enthusiast-dubbed) Toyota CT20b turbo, which was of the same design as the second-generation but with a slightly improved turbine housing and larger compressor wheel. The fourth-generation engine uses a proprietary, and once again enthusiast-dubbed, CT20b turbocharger, whose exhaust housing is actually cast into the cylinder exhaust manifold, rather than the normal practice of a separate turbine housing after the cylinder exhaust manifold. The CT20b can be used on the second-generation 3S-GTE manifold, but it is not backwards compatible with the first-generation 3S-GTE. The (4th-generation) CT20b is backwards compatible with the third-generation 3S-GTE cylinder head only. All Toyota's turbochargers for the 3S-GTE generations use an internal wastegate design.

A second-generation 3S-GTE

Depending on where the engine was intended to be sold the exhaust turbine is either ceramic (Japan) or steel (US and Australia). It was fitted to the MR2, Toyota Celica GT-Four, and the Caldina. Its cylinders are numbered 1-2-3-4, cylinder number 1 is beside the timing belt. The Dual Over Head Cam (DOHC) 16-valve cylinder head designed by Yamaha is made of aluminum alloy. The pent-roof combustion chambers are complemented by a cross flow intake and exhaust layout. Spark plugs are located in the middle of the combustion chambers. A distributor based system is used to fire the cylinders in a 1-3-4-2 order.

On the first and third generations of Celicas, the intake charge was cooled by a water-to-air intercooler, while the second, third MR2, and fourth generations relied on an air-to-air system. Also, the second-generation rally homologation Celica (known as Group A Rallye in Australia, RC in Japan and Carlos Sainz Limited Edition in Europe) used the water-to-air intercooler.

In late 1997, the block casting was revised with added support around the head to prevent block cracking problems.[9]

The crankshaft, located within the crankcase, rotates on five aluminum alloy bearings and is balanced by eight weights. Oil holes are located in the middle of the crankshaft to provide oil to the connecting rods, bearing, pistons and various other components.

On the first two generations the intake manifold has 8 independent ports and benefits from the inertia build up to improve engine torque at low and medium speeds. Due to the design of the intake manifold, cylinder number 3 runs lean under normal operation. Various aftermarket solutions exist all of which require replacing the intake headers or manifold. The first two generations of 3S-GTE engines are equipped with T-VIS. The third-generation uses a normal 4-runner intake manifold, the fourth-generation had 4 runners but the throttle body was located on the end of the intake manifold instead of near the middle like the earlier generations.

A single timing belt drives the intake and exhaust camshaft along with the oil and water pumps. The cam journal is supported on 5 points between the valve lifters of each cylinder and on the front of the cylinder head. The cam journals are lubricated by oiler port located in the middle of the camshaft. To adjust the valve clearance, adjust the shims above the valve lifters (shim over bucket system). This allows for the replacement of the shims without the need to remove the camshaft.

The pistons are made from an aluminum alloy, design to withstand high temperatures. An indentation is incorporated into the pistons to prevent the pistons from "knocking" into the valves. The compression ratio is 8.5:1 for the first, third and fourth generation and 8.8:1 for the second generation. Piston pins holding the pistons in place are locked by snap rings.

The first compression ring and the oil ring is made of steel, the second compression ring is made of cast iron. Compression ring 1 and 2, prevents gas leakages from the combustion chamber while the oil ring works to clear oil off the cylinder walls, preventing any excessive oil from entering the combustion chamber.

3S-GTM[edit]

A modified version of the 3S-GT, known as the 3S-GTM, was used to power a number of Toyota sports prototype cars, including the Toyota 88C Group C entry and the All American Racers-built Eagle HF89/HF90 and Eagle MkIII IMSA Grand Touring Prototypes.[10] Stock production 3S-GT blocks were used, but the M variant was hand-built by Toyota Racing Development in Torrance, California and produced up to 800 horsepower.[11]

4S[edit]

The 4S is a 1.8 L (1,838 cc), a narrower bore version of the 3S (82.5 x 86.0 mm). This was essentially a multi-valve, twin cam replacement for the 1.8-litre 1S series, with parallel differences as those between the 2S and 3S. There were both 4S-Fi (central point fuel injection) and 4S-FE (multi-point fuel injection) versions.

5S[edit]

The 5S engine was essentially the same basic design as the 3S, but features a slightly increased bore and an increased stroke (87.1 x 90.9 mm). The total displacement was thus increased to 2.2 L (2,164 cc). It was only marketed in the American and Australian markets, and are used in the fifth- and sixth-generation Celica, the second-generation MR2, the third- and fourth-generation Camry, as well as the first-generation Camry Solara. Like the 3S, the 5S is of a non-interference design to prevent the pistons from striking the valves in case of a timing belt failure.

5S-FE[edit]

A 5S-FE Engine in a 1998 Toyota Celica GT

The 5S-FE was available in several variations each being distinguished by the valve cover design. The first gen, introduced in the 1990–1992 Celica GT/GT-S and MR2, had a power rating of 130 hp and 144 lbs-ft/torque. the second Gen was introduced in 1993 with the fifth Gen Celica ST184, and continued on throughout the sixth Gen Celica ST204. The second gen was also used in the MR2 (SW21) and Toyota Camry/Scepter (XV10) series and had a power output of 135 hp and 145 lbs-ft/torque. It had slightly less aggressive cams, no cold start injector, a knock sensor, and more aggressive tuning to give it slightly more power. In states that had adopted California state emissions the 5S-FE was rated at 130 hp and 145 lbs-ft/torque due mainly to emission equipment used in order to meet the emissions regulations of those states. The 3rd Gen was the last 5S-FE engine to be produced and was used in the 1997–2001 Camry XV20 and 1999–2001 Camry Solara; however, from 1996 onwards, the engine received a crank angle sensor instead of a cam angle sensor for a smoother idle. From 1997 to 1999 the engine produced 133 hp at 5,200 rpm and 147 lbs-ft/torque at 4,400 rpm. From 2000 to 2001, the engine received modest improvements to increase power output to 136 hp at 5,200 rpm and 150 lbs-ft/torque at 4,400 rpm. The 5S-FE was replaced in all applications by the 2.4 L 2AZ-FE.

U.S.

California specification 1994-1996 5S-FEs in the Celica and Camry used air-assisted, 250 cc injectors, and sequential fuel injection for reduced emissions over the grouped (2+2) firing scheme. The 1994-1995 MR2 did not receive this change, nor did Camrys/Celicas in federal emissions states.[citation needed]

Camry 5S-FEs have a counter-rotating balance shaft assembly to reduce noise, vibration, and harshness. They reduce the 2nd order vibrations common to 4-cylinder engines by spinning at two-times the crankshaft speed. The 1994-1999 Celica and 1991-1995 MR2 5S-FEs lack these balance shafts, so any 5S-FE engine with balance shafts likely came from a Camry.[citation needed]

In 1997, for the fourth-generation Camry, the 5S-FE was updated for the last time. The engine received a direct ignition system with external camshaft and crankshaft sensors. This system used a wasted-spark setup, and the coils were complete with integrated igniters. The engine did not use a typical coil-on-plug setup, but rather two coil/igniter assemblies mounted near cylinder four, and provided spark via normal high-tension cords ("spark plug wires"). This change means that the 1997-2001 Camry 5S-FE no longer had a distributor mounting hole and could be used with older 5S-FEs without swapping the heads.[citation needed]

The 1997-1999 Camry 5S-FE continued with the air-assisted, 250 cc injectors. The Camry 5S-FE also had a factory 4-to-1 header design - in Federal form, it had no pre-catalyst, although the California version did replace the collector design of the Federal version with a warm-up pre-catalyst for reduced cold start emissions.[citation needed]

For 2000 Toyota removed the air-assisted injectors and moved to superfine atomization (~50 micrometers), 12-hole, 235 cc injectors manufactured by Denso. They are of a different design, and required a change in the cylinder head casting.[citation needed]

For 2001 Toyota started fitting factory MLS (multi-layered steel) head gaskets and other metal gaskets layered with Viton to engines, including the 5S-FE. MLS head gaskets require cylinder head and cylinder block resurfacing on older engines to ensure proper sealing; consequently, MLS head gasket did not supersede the old composite head gasket.[citation needed]

The 1994-1999 Celica 5S-FE was not updated with these changes, and continued to be driven by a distributor and the older electronic control system and injectors. Any used engine marked as a 1997-2001 Camry 5S-FE with a distributor is a Celica 5S-FE or older Camry 5S-FE.[citation needed]


Stats:
Engine:
2,164 cc four EFI DOHC

Power:
1990–92 130 bhp (97 kW) at 5,400 rpm
1993–96 135 bhp (101 kW) at 5,400 rpm
1997–99 133 bhp (99 kW) at 5,400 rpm
2000–01 136 bhp (101 kW) at 5,400 rpm

Torque:
1990–92 144 lb·ft (195 N·m) at 4,400 rpm
1993–96 145 lb·ft (197 N·m) at 4,400 rpm
1997–99 147 lb·ft (199 N·m) at 4,400 rpm
2000–01 150 lb·ft (203 N·m) at 4,400 rpm

Bore:
87.1 mm (3.43 in)
Stroke:
90.9 mm (3.58 in)
Compression ratio:
9.5:1

Models with this engine:

5S-FNE[edit]

Essentially a CNG version of the 5S-FE. This engine was fitted to the XV20 Camry in California to fleet customers in 1999.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (March 10, 1983). Automobil Revue '83 78. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag, AG. p. 526. ISBN 3-444-06065-3. 
  2. ^ Corona (brochure), New Zealand: Toyota New Zealand Limited, May 1986, p. 11, SB004 
  3. ^ a b c World Cars 1985. Pelham, NY: The Automobile Club of Italy/Herald Books. 1985. pp. 391, 393, 395. ISBN 0-910714-17-7. 
  4. ^ a b Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (1990). Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1990 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. p. 337. 
  5. ^ Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1990, p. 1033
  6. ^ a b All About the Toyota Twin Cam, 2nd ed., Tokyo, Japan: Toyota Motor Company, 1984, p. 17 
  7. ^ a b c d Toyota Twin Cam, p. 16
  8. ^ Tekniikan Maailma magazine (in Finnish) (#13). 1989. 
  9. ^ "Toyota 3S-GTE Engine". JDM Spec Engines. Retrieved 2013-02-23. 
  10. ^ Eagle Toyota - John Starkey Cars
  11. ^ Zimmerman, J. Dan Gurney's Eagle Racing Cars: The Technical History of the Machines Designed and Built by All American Racers. David Bull Publishing, 2007.
  12. ^ Johnson, Erik (November 2008). "Toyota Camry CNG Hybrid Concept - Auto Shows". Car and Driver. Hachette Filipacchi Media. Retrieved 2010-06-15.