Toyota Land Cruiser

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Toyota Land Cruiser
ManufacturerToyota
Production1951–present
ClassOff-road vehicle (1951–present)
Full-size SUV (1954–present)
 
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Toyota Land Cruiser
ManufacturerToyota
Production1951–present
ClassOff-road vehicle (1951–present)
Full-size SUV (1954–present)

The Toyota Land Cruiser (Japanese: トヨタ ランドクルーザー Toyota Rando-kurūzā?) is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles produced by the Japanese car maker Toyota Motor Corporation. The Land Cruiser series is the longest running series in Toyota history.[1]

Development of the first generation Land Cruiser began in 1951 as Toyota's version of a Jeep-like vehicle and production started in 1954. The Land Cruiser has been produced in convertible, hardtop, station wagon, and utility truck versions. The Land Cruiser's reliability and longevity has led to huge popularity, especially in Australia where it is the best-selling full-size, body-on-frame, four-wheel drive vehicle.[2] Toyota also extensively tests the Land Cruiser in the Australian outback — considered to be one of the toughest operating environments in both temperature and terrain.[3][4][5] Main rivals include the Range Rover, Land Rover Discovery, Mitsubishi Pajero and Nissan Patrol.

Contents

Chronology

In 1941 the Imperial Japanese Army occupied the Philippines, where they found an old Bantam Mk II, and promptly brought it to Japan. The Japanese military authorities commanded Toyota to make a similar vehicle but to not model the appearance on the American Jeep. The prototype was called the Model AK and was formally adopted by The Japanese Imperial Army as the Yon-Shiki Kogata Kamotsu-Sha (小型貨物 type 4 compact cargo-truck).

Later in 1941 the Japanese government asked Toyota to produce a light truck for the Japan military campaign. Toyota developed a ½ ton prototype called the AK10 in 1942. The AK10 was built using reverse-engineering from the Bantam GP. There are no known surviving photographs of the AK10. The only known pictorial representations are some rough sketches. The truck featured an upright front grille, flat front wheel arches that angled down and back like the FJ40, headlights mounted above the wheel arches on either side of the radiator and a folding windshield.

The AK10 used the 2259 cc, 4-cylinder Type C engine from the Toyota Model AE sedan with a three-speed manual transmission and two-speed transfer gearbox connected to it. There is no mechanical relationship between the AK10 and the postwar Toyota "Jeep" BJ. Most of the AK10's were not actively used (unlike the U.S. Jeep) and there are almost no photographs of it in the battlefield.

BJ and FJ

BJ and FJ
Production1951–1955
AssemblyToyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style2-door Softtop
LayoutFR layout
EnginePetrol:
3.4 L I6 B petrol
3.9 L I6 F petrol
Wheelbase2,650 mm (104.3 in)

20 Series

20 Series
Production1955–1960
AssemblyToyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body style2-door Softtop
2-door Hardtop
2-door pickup truck
4-door Station wagon
LayoutFR layout
EnginePetrol:
3.4 L I6 B petrol
3.9 L I6 F petrol
Wheelbase2,285 mm (90.0 in)
2,430 mm (95.7 in)
2,650 mm (104.3 in)

40 Series

40 Series
Also calledToyota Bandeirante (Brazil) — Toyota Macho (Venezuela)
Production1960–1984
AssemblyToyota City, Japan
Cumana, Venezuela
Body style2-door Softtop
2-door Hardtop
2-door pickup truck
4-door Station wagon
LayoutFront engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Engine

Petrol:
3.9 L F I6[10]
4.2 L 2F I6[10]

Diesel:
3.0 L B diesel I4[10]
3.2 L 2B diesel I4
3.4 L 3B diesel I4
3.6 L H diesel I6[10]
4.0 L 2H diesel I6
Wheelbase2,285 mm (90.0 in)
2,430 mm (95.7 in)
2,650 mm (104.3 in)
2,950 mm (116.1 in)
Length3,840.5 mm (151.2 in)
Width1,666.2 mm (65.6 in)
HeightSofttop 1,950.7 mm (76.8 in)
Hardtop 2,000 mm (78.8 in)
Curb weightSofttop 1,480 kg (3,263 lb)
Hardtop 1,554 kg (3,427 lb)

55 Series

55

1979 FJ55 (US)
ManufacturerToyota Motor Corporation
Production1967–1980
AssemblyToyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Successor60 Series
Body style4-door station wagon
LayoutFront engine, four-wheel drive
EnginePetrol:
3.9 L I6 F[10] petrol
4.2 L I6 2F[10] petrol
Transmission3 or 4-speed manual (J30, H41 or H42)
Wheelbase2,700 mm (106.3 in)
Length4,675 mm (184.1 in)
Width1,735 mm (68.3 in)
Height1,865 mm (73.4 in)

The Land Cruiser 55 was produced from 1967 to 1980. Toyota refers to the FJ55G and FJ55V as the first "real" station wagon in the Land Cruiser series, thus marking the beginning of the station wagon branch. It was the first Land Cruiser to have fully enclosed box frame members. Of all the Land Cruiser wagons sold in the U.S., including the FJ45, it is the only one to not have hatch & tailgate in the rear, but rather a tailgate only with an electrically operated window that can be retracted into the tailgate.[11]

60 Series

60 Series
Also calledToyota Samurai (Venezuela)
Production1980–1990
AssemblyToyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Cumana, Venezuela
Body style4-door station wagon
LayoutFront engine, four-wheel drive
EnginePetrol:
4.2 L I6 2F petrol (FJ60)
4.0 L I6 3F petrol (FJ62)
Diesel:
3.4 L I4 3B diesel (BJ60)
4.0 L I6 2H diesel (HJ60)
Turbodiesel:
4.0 L I6 12H-T diesel turbo (HJ61)
Transmission4-speed manual H41F or H42F
4-speed automatic A440F
5-speed manual H55F (non-US)
Wheelbase2,730 mm (107.5 in)
Length4,675 mm (184.1 in)
Width1,800 mm (70.9 in)
Height1,750 mm (68.9 in)

The Land Cruiser 60 series was produced from 1980 through 1990 for most markets but the Cumana Plant in Venezuela continued until 1992 for their local market. It is a front engine, four door wagon which can seat five to eight[citation needed] people. Like all Land Cruiser generations, it is well known in the off-road world for its off-road abilities but was somewhat limited by its awkward departure angles.[citation needed] The 60 series was available in the following solid exterior colors: Alpine White, Brown, Desert Beige, Freeborn Red, Royal Blue; and in the following metallic exterior colors: Charcoal Gray, Cognac, Gray-Blue, Rootbeer, Sky Blue, Stardust Silver.

Toyota Land Cruiser post-facelift (US)  
1981–1987 Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ60; Australia)  
1987–1990 Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ62RG) GX (Australia)  

70 Series

70 Series
Also calledToyota Machito (Venezuela)
Production1984–present
AssemblyToyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Cumana, Venezuela
Body style2-door pickup truck
2-door softtop / hardtop / troopie
4-door van
LayoutFront engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
EnginePetrol:
2.4 L 22R petrol I4
4.0 L 3F petrol I6
4.5 L 1FZ petrol I6
Diesel:
2.4 L 2L diesel I4
3.4 L PZ diesel I5
4.0 L 2H diesel I6
4.2 L 1HZ diesel I6
Turbodiesel:
2.4 L 2L-T turbodiesel I4
2.5 L VM HR588 TD I5 (Italy)[12]
3.0 L 1KZ-T turbodiesel I4
3.4 L 13B-T turbodiesel I4
4.2 L 1HD turbodiesel I6
4.5 L 1VD turbodiesel V8
Transmission5-speed manual
Wheelbase2,310 mm (90.9 in)
2,600 mm (102.4 in)
2,730 mm (107.5 in)
2,980 mm (117.3 in)
3,180 mm (125.2 in)
Length4,995 mm (196.7 in)
Width1,870 mm (73.6 in)
Height2,070 mm (81.5 in)
BJ74 Mid wheelbase FRP-top 3.4D-T LX (Japan)  
HZJ75LV Troop Carrier 4.2D  
HZJ79R Cab-chassis 4.2D  
New South Wales Rural Fire Service Toyota Land Cruiser Personnel carrier  

80 Series

80 Series
Also calledLexus LX 450
Toyota Land Cruiser Autana (COL, VEN)
Production1989–1997
AssemblyToyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Cumaná, Venezuela
Body style4-door SUV
LayoutFront engine / four-wheel drive
Engine

Petrol:
4.0 L I6 3F-E petrol
4.5 L I6 1FZ petrol
Diesel:
4.2 L I6 1HZ diesel

Turbodiesel:
4.2 L I6 1HD diesel turbo
Transmission4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Wheelbase2,850 mm (112.2 in)
Length4,780 mm (188.2 in) (1990-94)
4,820 mm (189.8 in) (1995-97)
Width1,830 mm (72.0 in) (1990-91)
1,930 mm (76.0 in) (1992-97)
Height1,785 mm (70.3 in) (1990-91)
1,860 mm (73.2 in) (1992-94)
1,870 mm (73.6 in) (1995-97)
Curb weight2,084 kg (4,594 lb) (1990-92)
2,159 kg (4,760 lb) (1993-97)

The Land Cruiser 80 series was introduced in late 1989. It had swing-out back doors, which were replaced by a winch door in 1994. The Land Cruiser was nicknamed the Burbuja (Bubble) in Colombia and Venezuela due to its roundness, but it was officially released as Land Cruiser Autana in both countries. The name is a reference to the Tepui mesa Autana, a spectacular plateau & cave system along the Guiana Shield craton. Land Cruiser sales reached 2 million vehicles.

Pre-facelift Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ80R) GXL, Australia  
Facelift Toyota Land Cruiser (FZJ80R) GXL, Australia  
Facelift Toyota Land Cruiser, US  
Facelift Toyota Land Cruiser (HZJ80R) GXL, Australia  
Land Cruiser with swing-out back-doors (HZJ81V), Japan  

90 Series

90 Series
Also calledToyota Merú (Venezuela 2-Door), Toyota Land Cruiser SUMO (Colombia 2-door), Toyota Land Cruiser Colorado UK[13]
Production1996–2002
AssemblyJapan, Sofasa Colombia
EnginePetrol:
3.4 L V6 5VZ petrol
2.7 L I4 3RZ petrol
Diesel:
3.0 L I4 1KZ turbodiesel
3.0 L I4 5L diesel

100 Series

100 Series

Pre-facelift Toyota Land Cruiser (US)
Also calledLexus LX 470
Toyota Land Cruiser Amazon (UK 1998-2003)
Production1998-2007
AssemblyJapan: Toyota City (ARACO)
Body style4-door wagon
EnginePetrol:
4.7 L V8 2UZ petrol
4.5 L I6 1FZ petrol
Diesel:
4.2 L I6 1HZ diesel
Turbodiesel:
4.2 L I6 1HD-T diesel turbo
4.2 L I6 1HD-FTE diesel turbo
Transmission4-speed automatic
5-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Wheelbase2,850 mm (112.2 in)
Length4,890 mm (192.5 in)
Width1,941 mm (76.4 in)
Height1,849 mm (72.8 in)
Curb weight2,320 kg (5,115 lb)

In January 1998, the 100 series Land Cruiser was introduced to replace the 8-year-old 80 series. The 100 series was previewed in October 1997 as the "Grand Cruiser" at the 32nd Tokyo Motor Show. Development began in 1992, with final design being approved in mid-1994.[14]

Pre-facelift Toyota Land Cruiser GXL (FZJ105; Australia)

There are two distinct versions of the 100-series, the 100 and the 105. The two versions look very similar, but there are significant differences under the bodywork. Despite these differences and official model names, both the 100 and 105 are collectively known as the 100 series.

The 105 carried over the majority of its chassis and powertrain from the 80-series with coil suspended solid axles front and rear, and straight-6 petrol and diesel engines. These models were only sold in African, Australian, Russian and South American markets.

The 100 models were fitted with a slightly wider chassis, independent front suspension (IFS) and two new engines. The change to IFS was a first for a Land Cruiser, and was made (in combination with rack-and-pinion steering) to improve on-road handling. However it also limited the vehicle’s off-road capability and durability, hence the decision to offer the solid axle 105 models alongside the IFS 100 models in some markets. The table below identifies the range of 100 and 105 models and their worldwide availability.

Although the 100 and 105 bodies are identical, there are some exterior visual indications between the two. The most obvious is the front end of the vehicle often appearing lower than the rear on the 100 models, due to the IFS. The other indicator is the design of the wheels. The 100 models have almost flat wheel designs, while he 105 models have dished wheels. This difference allows the two versions to retain similar wheel tracks, even though the 100 has a significantly wider axle track to allow for the IFS system.

Facelift Toyota Land Cruiser (US)

The introduction of a V8 engine was also a first for a Land Cruiser, and was specifically intended to improve sales in the North-American market, where it was the only engine available. In Australia, the 100 V8 was initially only available in the range-topping GXV model, while entry and mid-range models were the 105 powered by the 1FZ-FE I6 petrol, or 1Hz diesel engines. The new 1HD-FTE turbo-diesel 100 was added to the Australian range in October 2000 after being available in Europe and the UK since launch in 1998. The 4WD media in Australia were critical of Toyota’s decision to offer the acclaimed 1HD-FTE engine only in combination with IFS. Australian 4WD Monthly magazine said "We will never forgive Toyota for going independent at the front with the mighty 4.2 turbo-diesel".

The 100 series formed the basis for the Lexus LX 470, which was also sold in Japan as the Toyota Cygnus.

The 100 series was called the Toyota Land Cruiser Amazon in the UK and Ireland from 1998 to 2007.

In 2000, Toyota celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Land Cruiser with commemorative models offered in several countries. Total global production to date was 3.72 million vehicles.

The 100 series remained in production until late 2007, with several minor facelifts such as headlights, taillights, front grill, rear spoiler and specification changes introduced over the years.

Variants

DesignationEnginePowerTorqueAvailability
HZJ1051HZ 4.2 L diesel I696 kW (131 PS; 129 hp) at 3,800 rpm271 N·m (200 lb·ft) at 2,200 rpmAfrica, Asia, Australia, Middle East, South America
FZJ1051FZ-FE 4.5 L petrol I6158 kW (215 PS; 212 hp) at 4,600 rpm373 N·m (275 lb·ft) at 3,200 rpmAfrica, Asia, Australia, Middle East, South America
FZJ1001FZ-FE 4.5 L petrol I6158 kW (215 PS; 212 hp) at 4,600 rpm373 N·m (275 lb·ft) at 3,200 rpmMiddle East
UZJ1002UZ-FE 4.7 L petrol V8170 kW (231 PS; 228 hp) at 4,800 rpm410 N·m (302 lb·ft) at 3,400 rpmAfrica, Asia, Australia, Europe, Japan, Middle East, North America, UK
HDJ10011HD-T 4.2 L turbodiesel I6123 kW (167 PS; 165 hp) at 3,600 rpm352 N·m (260 lb·ft) at 2,000 rpmAfrica, South America
HDJ10021HD-FTE 4.2 L turbodiesel I6150 kW (204 PS; 201 hp) at 3,400 rpm430 N·m (317 lb·ft) at 1,400 rpmAustralia*, Europe, Japan, UK

*This engine not released in Australia until 2000.

Known problems and issues

The 100-series is generally considered a durable and reliable vehicle, however there have been three known issues identified, generally for vehicles operating in harsh conditions:

First facelift Toyota Land Cruiser GXL (HDJ100; Australia)  
Second facelift Toyota Land Cruiser Sahara (UZJ100; Australia)  

120 Series

Land Cruiser Prado 120
ManufacturerToyota
Also calledLexus GX (USA)
Production2002-2009
Assembly

Tahara, Aichi, Japan
Envigado, Colombia

Bangalore, India
Santa Rosa City, Laguna, Philippines
ClassMid-size SUV
PlatformJ120
RelatedToyota 4Runner

The 120 series was for the 2002 to 2009 Land Cruiser Prado.

First appearing in 2002, this model included a re-designed front suspension to address reliability concerns of the previous generation, and a new body designed at Toyota's ED2 design studio in France.

Engines include the 2.7 L (2693 cc) straight-4 3RZ-FE, 3.4 L (3378 cc) V-6 5VZ-FE and 3.0 L (2982 cc) straight-4 Turbo diesel 1KD-FTV. In countries like China, a newly developed engine 1GR-FE V6 is available. Because the 120-series is a luxury-type SUV in some markets, burglary is common. For this purpose, the engine immoblizer became standard equipment in some markets.

In August 2004, the 3RZ-FE was replaced by 2.7 L (2694 cc) 2TR-FE and in July 2005, 5VZ-FE was replaced by 4.0 L (3955 cc) V6 1GR-FE with 5-speed automatic transmission available in late 2005. In North America, this model is known as the Lexus GX 470 with the 4.7 L (4663 cc) V8 2UZ-FE engine.

200 Series

200 Series
Also calledToyota Roraima (Venezuela)
Lexus LX570
ProductionSeptember 2007–present
Model years2008–present
AssemblyToyota Auto Body
Toyota City, Japan
Tahara, Aichi Japan
Tianjin China
Body style5-door SUV
LayoutFront engine / four-wheel drive
Engine

Petrol:
4.0 L V6 1GR-FE petrol
4.6 L V8 1UR-FE petrol[17]
4.7 L V8 2UZ-FE petrol[18]
5.7 L V8 3UR-FE petrol[19]
Turbodiesel:

4.5 L V8 1VD diesel turbo
Transmission6-speed automatic
5-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Wheelbase2,850 mm (112.2 in)
Length4,950 mm (194.9 in)
Width1,970 mm (77.6 in)
Height1,880 mm (74.0 in)
RelatedLexus LX

In 2002, a 5-year development plan on a successor to the 100-series platform commenced under Sadayoshi Koyari and Tetsuya Tada. By 2004, 10 years after the design selection of its predecessor in 1994, a final production design was settled on for the 2008 J200. Prototype related tests were conducted for over 2 years between 2004 and early 2007. The redesigned Toyota Land Cruiser was introduced in late 2007. Known as the 200 Series, it shares the Lexus LX 570's platform and overall design. The frame was new, derived from the second-generation Tundra[citation needed] but shortened and strengthened by 20 percent. Bigger brake rotors and calipers were added and the front suspension was made heavier duty than the Land Cruiser's first effort at IFS in the 100-series and this underbelly is also protected by skid plates. Also, the roof pillars were redesigned to better protect occupants in a rollover.

Toyota Land Cruiser (J200)

The 200 Series encountered some criticism due to its bland body restyling, with some[who?] claiming that Toyota has 'overdeveloped' the classic trademarked Land Cruiser identity in its efforts to fit the Land Cruiser into modern 21st century motoring and vehicle design. Nonetheless, the Land Cruiser remains the NATO vehicle of choice and remains a competent off-road vehicle.

The vehicle entered production in September 2007 and was available for sale from September or November, depending on country. It became available in Venezuela for sale early in November under the local nickname of "Roraima" (taken from Mount Roraima). Early reliability has proved to be excellent.

The 200 Series, offered numerous features and upgrades over its predecessor not limited to the cosmetic changes made to the body and interior, including:

Various driver assist technologies not offered on previous models, including:

Engine and transmission improvements include:

In Japan, the Land Cruiser had a minor change in 2009 when it received the 4.6 L V8 1UR-FE engine and the gearbox was replaced with a 6-speed automatic.[20] Although the new 4608 cc 1UR-FE is smaller than the old 4663 cc 2UZ-FE engine, the power has been increased from 212 to 234 kW (288 to 318 PS; 284 to 314 hp), torque increased from 448 to 460 N·m (330 to 339 lb·ft) and fuel consumption improved from 6.6 to 7.1 km/L (19 to 20 mpg-imp; 16 to 17 mpg-US) (Japan 10·15 mode measurement).

In the Middle East, the Land Cruiser 200 series was introduced in late 2007 as a 2008 model, for 2008 to 2010 there was three engine choices, 240 hp 4.0 L 1GR-FE petrol, 271 hp 2UZ-FE petrol and 217 hp-232 hp 1VD-FTV 4.5 L turbo diesel. Starting in 2011 the 362 hp 3UR-FE was offered along with the previous engines. For 2012 the 1GR-FE gained dual VVT-i which increased horsepower to 271 hp, the 4.7 L 2UZ-FE was dropped in favor of the new 304 hp 1UR-FE, and the 5.7 L and 4.5 L diesel were unchanged.[21]

In North America, the Land Cruiser 200 series is offered only with the 5.7 L 3UR-FE V8 petrol engine producing 284 kW (386 PS; 381 hp) and 401 N·m (296 lb·ft) of torque channeled through a six-speed automatic. Beige or gray leather is standard, as are 14-airbags and a 14 speaker JBL sound system. The only wheel choice is 18 in (460 mm) allowing a lot of sidewall so the vehicle can be driven off-road without modification though a more aggressive tread pattern is advised for deep mud. It comes in only one trim level with only one major option — which is the Upgrade Package, which adds a rear screen, small spoiler and heated rear seats among other minor items. There is no Active Height Control for longevity and no xenon headlights, so the lights can be repaired by the user. The KDSS suspension allows massive amounts of wheel articulation and with automatic sway bar disconnect the Land Cruiser is able to boast an RTI score (550) more than 12 times that of the same-year Ford Explorer (45).

In Oceania, the 200 Series is offered in four different levels of trim: GXL, VX, Sahara and the all new GX.

Sales numbers

Toyota Land Cruiser of the Rally Dakar, 1992 in Paris
Calendar yearUnited States
200015,509[22]
20017,591
20026,752[23]
20036,671
20046,778[24]
20054,870
20063,376[25]
20073,251
20083,801[26]
20092,261
20101,807[27]
20111,662[28]

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Autoweb Australia". Autoweb.com.au. http://www.autoweb.com.au/cms/A_51038/title_Toyota-Landcruiser-Celebrates-Snowy-Mountains-Anniversary/newsarticle.html. Retrieved 2010-10-30.
  3. ^ "SPY PHOTOS: More New Toyota LandCruiser". Worldcarfans.com. 2007-02-13. http://www.worldcarfans.com/10702135056/spy-photos-more-new-toyota-landcruiser. Retrieved 2010-01-16.
  4. ^ GoAutoMedia (2008-04-05). "Lexus LX LX570 5-dr wagon — First drive: LX570 is the lap of Lexus SUV luxury". GoAuto. http://www.goauto.com.au/mellor/mellor.nsf/story2/6A92D5E6237743F3CA25741E0004C020. Retrieved 2010-01-16.
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  6. ^ a b c The Story of Land Cruiser. Tokyo: 4×4 Magazine Co.. 1985. http://forum.ih8mud.com/fj25-owners-group/241941-toyota-historical-pictures-3.html.
  7. ^ "The Long Run — Toyota: The first 40 years in Australia", Pedr Davis, South Hurstville: Type Forty Pty Ltd, 1999, ISBN 0-947079-90-8, p24.
  8. ^ "Land Cruisers from Japan". The Age: p. 1. September 20, 1957.
  9. ^ O'Kane, Tony (January 18, 2010). "2010 Toyota Landcruiser 76 Series GXL Wagon Road Test and Review". The Motor Report. http://www.themotorreport.com.au/48703/2010-toyota-landcruiser-76-series-gxl-wagon-road-test-and-review/. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Toyota Vehicle Identification Manual", Toyota Motor Corporation, Overseas Parts Department, Catalog No.97913-84, 1984, Japan
  11. ^ "Land Cruiser — Model 55 Series". Toyota Motor Corporation Global Website. http://www.toyota-global.com/showroom/vehicle_heritage/landcruiser/collection/model_55_1.html. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
  12. ^ Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (1990) (in Italian). Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1990. Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. pp. 1340–1341.
  13. ^ [http://www.toyota.com.ve/cars/new_cars/land_cruiser_90 /index.asp "Toyota Merú"] (in Spanish). http://www.toyota.com.ve/cars/new_cars/land_cruiser_90 /index.asp. Retrieved 2010-01-10.
  14. ^ "New Land Cruiser gets V8 — Toyota Land Cruiser — includes related article on the Lexus LX450". Automotive Industries. 1998. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3012/is_n2_v178/ai_20301572/.
  15. ^ Pepper, Robert (July 2006). "LC100 Suspension Solutions". Overlander 4WD Magazine. http://www.overlander.com.au/equipment/index/full/68/LC100-Suspension-Solutions. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  16. ^ "2005 4×4 of the Year", Australian 4WD Monthly: 63–67, October 2005
  17. ^ "Toyota Japan Land Cruiser". Toyota.jp. http://toyota.jp/landcruiser/dynamism/engin/index.html. Retrieved 2010-10-30.
  18. ^ "Goo-net 2007 Land Cruiser". Goo-net.com. http://www.goo-net.com/catalog/TOYOTA/LAND_CRUISER/10043240/index.html. Retrieved 2010-10-30.
  19. ^ "Exterior Dimensions" (PDF). http://pressroom.toyota.com/pr/tms/toyota/document/2008LandCruiser_sfo.pdf. Retrieved 2010-10-30.
  20. ^ "Toyota Japan 2009 Land Cruiser press release". Toyota.co.jp. 2009-04-16. http://www.toyota.co.jp/jp/news/09/Apr/nt09_026.html. Retrieved 2010-10-30.
  21. ^ "Toyota Land Cruiser 2012 5 Door 5.7L in UAE: New Car Prices, Specs, Reviews & Photos | YallaMotor". YallaMotor.com. http://uae.yallamotor.com/new-cars/toyota/land-cruiser/2012/5-door-5-7l?utm_source=wiki&utm_medium=ref&utm_content=landcruiser&utm_campaign=backlink.
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  23. ^ "Toyota Announces Best Sales Year in Its 46-Year History, Breaks Sales Record for Eighth Year in a Row". Theautochannel.com. http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2004/01/05/175869.html. Retrieved 2009-12-12.
  24. ^ "Toyota Reports 2005 and December Sales". Theautochannel.com. 2006-01-04. http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2006/01/04/205039.html. Retrieved 2009-12-12.
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External links