Toyota 86

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Toyota 86
2013 Scion FR-S -- 2012 NYIAS.JPG
Scion FR-S (US & Canada)
Overview
ManufacturerSubaru (Fuji Heavy Industries)
Toyota Motor Corporation
Also calledToyota GT86
Scion FR-S
Subaru BRZ
ProductionJanuary 2012 – present
Model years2012 – present
AssemblyŌta, Gunma, Japan
Body and chassis
ClassSports car
Body style2-door coupé
LayoutFront-engine, rear-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine2.0 L 4U-GSE / FA20 boxer engine
Transmission6-speed manual
6-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,570 mm (101.2 in)
Length4,240 mm (166.9 in)
Width1,775 mm (69.9 in)
Height1,285 mm (50.6 in)
Curb weight1,190–1,298 kg (2,624–2,862 lb) (Toyota 86)
1,251–1,273 kg (2,758–2,806 lb) (Scion FR-S)
 
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Toyota 86
2013 Scion FR-S -- 2012 NYIAS.JPG
Scion FR-S (US & Canada)
Overview
ManufacturerSubaru (Fuji Heavy Industries)
Toyota Motor Corporation
Also calledToyota GT86
Scion FR-S
Subaru BRZ
ProductionJanuary 2012 – present
Model years2012 – present
AssemblyŌta, Gunma, Japan
Body and chassis
ClassSports car
Body style2-door coupé
LayoutFront-engine, rear-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine2.0 L 4U-GSE / FA20 boxer engine
Transmission6-speed manual
6-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,570 mm (101.2 in)
Length4,240 mm (166.9 in)
Width1,775 mm (69.9 in)
Height1,285 mm (50.6 in)
Curb weight1,190–1,298 kg (2,624–2,862 lb) (Toyota 86)
1,251–1,273 kg (2,758–2,806 lb) (Scion FR-S)

The Toyota 86 is a series of grand tourer sports coupés jointly developed by Japanese automobile manufacturers Toyota and Subaru. They feature a boxer engine, front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout and 2+2 seating. The 86 is sold under three different brands associated with its creators: Toyota (Toyota 86 in Asia, South Africa and Australia,[1] Toyota GT86 in Europe, both names in New Zealand, and Toyota FT86 in Jamaica), Subaru (Subaru BRZ) and Scion (Scion FR-S for the United States and Canada).

The name 86 (pronounced "eight-six" or Hachi-Roku (ハチロク), more commonly pronounced as "eighty-six") refers to the AE86 generation of rear-wheel drive sports coupes and hatchbacks sold as the Toyota Sprinter Trueno and Toyota Corolla Levin from 1983 to 1987. The 86 has been marketed as the spiritual successor to the AE86 by Toyota, with further referencing to a heritage tracing back to the Toyota 2000GT, a front engine, rear-drive sports car with a 2.0 litre engine, as well as the Toyota Sports 800, Toyota's first sports car.[2] The 86 "boxer" side badge appears on all Toyota and Scion versions of the car.

Development and early concepts[edit]

The 2009 Toyota FT-86 Concept

Initial layout and design elements for the 86 were first shown in 2007 on the Toyota FT-HS concept car. The FT-HS had a front engine, rear-wheel drive layout and 2+2 seating, but utilized a V6 engine with hybrid electric assistance. In 2008 Toyota bought 16.5% of Fuji Heavy Industries, parent to Subaru.[3] Toyota, led by project leader Tetsuya Tada,[4] offered Subaru involvement in their sport coupé project, co-developing a new boxer engine known as the D4-S,[5] but Subaru rejected plans for further development of a rear wheel drive sports coupe due to their vehicle line-up predominantly offering all-wheel drive. Subaru's balk led the project to a six month halt before Toyota invited journalist and Subaru engineers to test a developmental prototype to demonstrate the capabilities of the platform. Following the test, Subaru agreed to become further involved in development.[6]

The new collaboration produced a new concept car in October 2009 at the Tokyo Motor Show, the FT-86. Smaller than the FT-HS, the design of the FT-86 was further refined by Toyota's ED2 design studio while the hybrid V6 engine was replaced by the new D4-S boxer. Subaru provided the chassis and gearbox for the concept car, basing it on a Impreza. The concept was painted Shoujyouhi Red, based on the backside of a Japanese Macaque.[7]

The following year, Toyota launched their G Sports line of aftermarket accessories, and showed the FT-86 G Sports fitted with G Sports performance parts. These included carbon fibre panels, a vented bonnet, rear wing, 19 in (48 cm) wheels, Recaro race seats, and an interior rollcage.[8] The D4-S engine also added a turbocharger.[9]

In 2011, Toyota and Subaru unveiled five near-production concept cars to show their progress with the project. The first, known as the FT-86 II Concept, was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2011. ED2 refined the design of the initial FT-86, developing new front and rear fascias, and increasing the dimensions of the car by several millimeters.[10] At the same show Subaru unveiled a transparent silhouette concept car to show off the new D4-S boxer engine and display the "Boxer Sports Car Architecture".[11] Scion followed next in April at the New York Auto Show with the FR-S Sports Coupe Concept, co-developed with aftermarket tuner Five Axis.[12] Another semi-transparent Subaru, known as the BRZ Prologue, was shown at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September,[13] followed in November at the Los Angeles International Auto Show by the BRZ Concept STI, the first full mock-up of Subaru's version of the 86 with input from Subaru Tecnica International.[14]

Toyota FT-86 G Sports 
Toyota FT-86 II 
Subaru BRZ Prologue 
Scion FR-S Sports Coupe 
Subaru BRZ Concept STI 

Production[edit]

The first production Toyota 86 debuted at the 2011 Tokyo Auto Show. All variants are built at Subaru's Gunma Main Plant,[15] with the first cars assembled on 2 February before sales began in March and deliveries in April. 7,000 orders were placed for the Toyota 86 in the first month of production,[16] while Subaru took in 3,500 orders.[17]

In the United States, Scion were allocated 10,000 units for the 2013 model year,[18] while Subaru was limited to only 6,000 units.[19]

Engineering[edit]

The 86's engine, known by the Toyota code 4U-GSE and Subaru code FA20, is a naturally aspirated four-cylinder engine that uses Subaru's horizontally opposed boxer engine layout that runs on 98 RON (premium unleaded) fuel. Toyota added their D-4S injection system which uses both direct and port injection. The engine has a 12.5:1 compression ratio and a bore and stroke of 86 mm (3.4 in) that results in 200 horsepower (149 kW; 203 PS) at 7,000 rpm and 151 lb·ft (205 N·m) of torque at 6,000 rpm.[20] As part of the 86's low-weight design, the car utilizes an aluminum hood, a solid roof, and a trunk as opposed to a hatchback.[21][22] The boxer engine sits as far back and as low as possible in the engine bay for a weight distribution of 53% in front and 47% in the rear. The low-sitting engine provides a lower center of gravity, allowing the engine to sit lower than the Nissan GTR and just 0.6 inches higher than the Lexus LFA.[21]

The FR-S, 86 and BRZ are offered with two 6-speed transmissions built by Aisin, a manual gearbox and an automatic transmission which is modified from the Lexus IS-F, minus two gears. The automatic uses a traditional wet torque converter design, but its software has been engineered to mimic the response of a dual-clutch gearbox. The automatic transmission uses three different modes: Sport, Snow, and Normal. A torque sensing limited slip differential is standard on most models.

The vehicles are offered with 16 in (41 cm) and 17 in (43 cm) diameter wheels. The wheels are lightweight and wrapped in Michelin Primacy HP tyres with a diameter and width of 215/45. All three cars feature optional ventilated disc brakes at all four corners with two piston-opposed calipers in the front and single caliper design in the rear, and are equipped with MacPherson suspension in the front and double wishbones in the rear.

Design[edit]

The optional upgraded interior of a North American Subaru BRZ, equipped with leather and alcantara seats, push-button start, and automatic climate control

The 86 was designed around a front-mounted boxer engine, rear-wheel drive configuration, inspired by the AE86. The flat architecture of the boxer engine allows it to be mounted low, dropping the center of gravity down, resulting in sporty handling characteristics.[2] The exterior design of the 86 was inspired by the Toyota 2000GT's extremely low-to-the-ground profile and long, sleek hood. According to the 86's designers, "The goal was to create an authentic rear-wheel drive sports car with compelling style, exceptionally balanced performance and handling, flexible utility and surprising MPG."[2] When asked about the TRD version of the car, the lead engineer Mr. Tada said "There is definitely going to be a more TRD oriented variant down the line. However any of the parts that would be standard on the TRD model will fit on your current Toyota 86 so there is no need to wait."[23]

Interior[edit]

The interior features a 2+2 seating configuration, which utilizes low mounted front seats. The rear seats fold down enabling increased storage space for larger items.[21] Three interior variations exist, the FR-S has cloth seats with all black interior trim that features a patterned dash trim, while the shift boot features red stitching. The BRZ has two available interiors, one identical to the FR-S but with silver dash trim, a red stitched parking brake boot, black gauge faces instead of white and a touch-screen navigation head unit; the second option upgrades to leather and Alcantara heated seats, automatic HVAC controls, and a push-button start.

Performance[edit]

Versions[edit]

Toyota 86 and GT86[edit]

An Australian-specification Toyota 86 GTS

The Toyota 86 is available in Japan from Toyota's Netz Store line of dealerships. Four trim levels are offered, with the RC model being the base. This model comes unpainted bumpers and mirrors, steel wheels, simpler interior trim components, and no stereo or air conditioning. The RC also lacks the option of an automatic transmission. Outside of Japan, the RC trim level is only available in New Zealand. The G trim level adds all the interior components missing from the RC model, plus a fully painted exterior. GT level 86s add high intensity discharge headlights, fog lamps, automatic climate control, keyless start, 17 inch wheels, and white tachometer face. The GT Limited adds leather and Alcantara seating and a rear spoiler.

In the United Kingdom, all GT86s are equivalent to Japan's 86 GT trim level.

In Australia, the GT is the base model. The upper level GTS model adds 17 inch wheels, LED daytime running lights, leather and Alcantara seats, silver interior trim, keyless entry, push button start, and dual zone climate control over the base model. On introduction, all models had a limited slip differential, except for the automatic GT model.[28] In the August 2013 production update, the automatic GT gained LSD and the GTS gained a boot lid spoiler as standard.[29]

Subaru BRZ[edit]

A North American-specification Subaru BRZ Limited

The BRZ's name comes from three elements: Boxer engine, Rear-wheel drive, and Z standing for the zenith.[30] The Subaru BRZ differs from the 86's design in the front fascia, with a different grill and headlight assembly, as well as a different front fender vent. The BRZ's grill is hexagonal in shape, compared to the Toyota's trapezoid. The BRZ features a wraparound of LED parking lights in the headlight assembly, while daytime running lights are integrated into the bumper. The suspension setup of the Subaru is different from the Toyota.[31] Like the Japanese Toyota 86, Subaru offers an RA base model lacking most interior comforts and utilizing 16 inch steel wheels, with the only difference from the 86 RC being that the BRZ RA's bumpers are painted the same color as the body. Two main trim levels are offered: R trim, known as Premium in North America, and S trim, known as Limited in North America. European and Australian BRZs offer a Toyota stereo unit, while Japanese and North American vehicles use a Subaru unit.

In 2013 Subaru unveiled a BRZ tS model for the Japanese market, tuned by Subaru Tecnica International. The tS model features an improved suspension setup, 18 inch silver BBS wheels, STI bodykit and front spoiler, a larger drive shaft, and Brembo brakes, along with interior changes to include a new steering wheel, front seat, gauges, and Alcantara accents.[32] A further tS GT Package includes Recaro seats, black BBS wheels, and an adjustable carbon fibre rear wing. The tS is limited to 500 units in total, with a maximum of 250 of them being the GT package.[33]

Scion FR-S[edit]

A Scion FR-S

The Scion FR-S is exclusive to the United States and Canada. Its name is derived from a description of the platform: Front-engine, Rear-wheel drive, Sport.[12] Unlike all other 86 variants, the Scion has no trim levels, although certain elements of higher level 86s are available as options. Scion's own BeSpoke stereo systems are offered with the FR-S. As part of Scion's 10th anniversary, a Sc10n Series FR-S was offered in Silver Ignition paint in a limited run of 2500 units. The Sc10n Series adds items which are not available on the standard FR-S: HID headlights, automatic climate control, and push button start. The Sc10n Series also has illuminated front and rear badges and shifter knob.[34]

Later concepts[edit]

During the November 2012 SEMA expo, Scion unveiled three tuned versions of the FR-S. Chris Basselgia's Minty FReSh won the challenge.[35] At the January 2013 Tokyo Auto Salon, Subaru unveiled a Premium Sport Package Concept featuring various Subaru Tecnica International parts as well as 19 inch BBS wheels and a carbon fiber roof. Toyota showed four concepts at the show. Gazoo Racing produced the 86×style cb features a completely remodeled exterior and was designed for female drivers,[36] while their 86 Modellista features numerous interior and exterior styling additions to make the car appear more sophisticated.[37] Toyota Racing Development brought their Griffon concept which uses extensive use of carbon fibre and removes unnecessary items to shed 227 kg (500 lb) of weight from the car, while not modifying the engine.[38] Racing tuner TOM'S unveiled their N086V concept, which replaces the Boxer engine with a GR V6 engine rated at 298 kW (400 hp).[39]

The Toyota FT-86 Open Concept, a convertible version of the 86

The FT-86 Open concept was a convertible concept vehicle based on Toyota 86. It included electrically operated multi-layered fabric roof with glass, high-contrast white and navy blue interior and exterior designed by Toyota Boshoku Milan Design (TBMD) to capture the spirit and atmosphere of Milan, white body colour, yellow-gold stitching in the floor mats and seats. It was first shown at the March 2013 Geneva Motor Show,[40][41] followed in October 2013 by theTokyo Motor Show (with Flash Red body colour and electrically operated soft top)[42][43] However, Subaru brand chief Yasuyuki Yoshinaga has said that a convertible 86 would need a complete redesign to meet safety standards and that it is unlikely to happen.[44]

Marketing[edit]

As part of the Subaru BRZ market launch, a 2-part movie documenting the vehicle's development was produced.[45] In Canada, a TV commercial titled Scorched was produced by OMD, with creative from DDB. The execution was handled by DDB PR with Juxta Productions working on the interior. The commercial was shot at Queen and McCaul St. in Toronto.[46][47][48][49]

As part of Subaru BRZ launch in Australia, the Subaru BRZ was the first car ever to be sold new by a manufacturer online, orders opening on 16 July 2012. According to Subaru the concept has been a success, selling their entire 2012 Australian allocation of 201 cars in under 3 hours. The first buyer was able to secure their car in less than 20 minutes from the site going live. The process was implemented as a reaction to the 86's popularity and has come under scrutiny since it was first suggested as a solution by Subaru.

Scion made a similar decision in the United States, creating the 'First 86' program to allow 86 buyers to take delivery of their cars before the general public sales. On 12 January users had eight hours and six minutes to submit their requests to a program website. Winners were required to take their confirmation number and $500 to a dealer within 96 hours to claim their cars.[50] Scion produced a commercial called Close Call featuring Ken Gushi avoided collision with a deer while driving Scion FR-S in Mt. Diablo State Park in Northern California.[51]

A British Toyota GT86 commercial titled The Real Deal was banned for encouraging motorists to drive irresponsibly.[52]

Awards[edit]

The Toyota 4U-GSE/Subaru FA20 was named one of Ward's 10 Best Engines in 2013

In Europe, the GT86 was named the car of the year by Top Gear magazine.,[53] while Autocar named it the best driver's car,[54] and Auto Express gave it their performance car award.[55] Australia's Drive gave the 86 the Car of the Year award, Best Performance Car under A$60,000 and won the People's Choice vote.,[56] while the 86 and BRZ shared Carsguide's Car of the Year.[57] Top Gear Australia named the BRZ their car of the year.[58] New Zealand's Car of the Year went to the 86 in 2012.[59]

In the United States, US News declared the Scion FR-S as the best affordable sports car of 2012.[60] Car and Driver named both the BRZ and FR-S as one of the ten best cars of 2013[61]

The Subaru BRZ earned the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Top Safety Pick of 2012.[62] The Toyota-Subaru D4-S boxer engine was named one of Ward's 10 Best Engines in 2013.[63]

Motorsport[edit]

R&D Sport's Subaru BRZ silhouette currently competes in the Super GT Series
Gazoo Racing's Toyota 86 competing in the Super Taikyu Endurance Series

In 2011, with the unveiling of the Super BRZ Concept STI, Subaru also unveiled their latest entry in the Super GT series' GT300-category. R&D Sport would develop the BRZ GT300 to replace their Legacy for the 2012 season.[64] The BRZ GT300 does not utilize the production car's FA20 engine, instead opting for the Legacy's EJ20 engine.

Toyota, in partnership with Gazoo Racing, announced plans to develop the 86 for motorsport use in multiple disciplines. Toyota and Gazoo will support private teams in the Super Taikyu Endurance Series and All-Japan Rally Championship.[65] Gazoo Racing entered 86s in the 24 Hours Nürburgring, winning their SP3 class in 2012. Privateers Toyota Swiss Racing also claimed the V3 category in the same year.[66] In the United Kingdom, GPRM is developing a turbocharged version of the 86 for classification in the SRO Group's GT4 category for use in Europe. The engine developments are being carried out by Nicholson McLaren Engines.[67]

In the United States, Ken Gushi utilized a GPP Scion Racing FR-S built by GReddy Racing for the US Formula Drift championship. The FR-S features a turbocharged EJ25 boxer engine from a Subaru WRX STI[68] produced more than 450 kW (600 bhp).[69] Ryan Tuerck drives a 2013 model year Scion FR-S powered by a stroked 2JZ-GTE producing more than 520 kW (700 bhp) for Retaks Backpacks and Maxxis Tires in the US Formula Drift championship.[70] In 2013 the FR-S replaced the Scion tC for the Toyota Pro/Celebrity Race at the Grand Prix of Long Beach. The FR-S' were production units modified for racing safety and reliability.[71] Nobuhiro Tajima will enter a Toyota 86 silhouette in the Pikes Peak Hill Climb in 2013.[72]

86 Racing / BRZ RA Racing[edit]

In October 2012, Toyota Racing Development and Gazoo Racing announced a production racing model for the Toyota 86. The 86 Racing adds brake and oil cooler modifications, as well as a 4-point racing harness and rollcage. The stock 86 wheels are replaced by simple steel rims, while the exterior colour was only available in white.[73] Subaru followed in early 2013 with the BRZ RA Racing, featuring similar modifications. Both cars are only available in the Japanese market, and are eligible for a one-make racing series run by Gazoo Racing. Unlike the Toyota, the BRZ is available in any of the production car's colours.[74][75]

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  75. ^ Subaru readies BRZ RA Racing for Japanese trackdays

External links[edit]