Toyota 4Runner

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Toyota 4Runner
2010 Toyota 4Runner SR5 -- 11-23-2009.jpg
Overview
ManufacturerToyota
Production1984–present
Body and chassis
ClassCompact SUV (1984–2002)
Mid-size SUV (2002–present)
LayoutFront engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Chronology
PredecessorToyota Trekker
 
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Toyota 4Runner
2010 Toyota 4Runner SR5 -- 11-23-2009.jpg
Overview
ManufacturerToyota
Production1984–present
Body and chassis
ClassCompact SUV (1984–2002)
Mid-size SUV (2002–present)
LayoutFront engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Chronology
PredecessorToyota Trekker

The Toyota 4Runner is a mid-size sport utility vehicle (SUV) produced by the Japanese manufacturer Toyota and sold throughout the world from 1984 to present. In Japan it was known as the Toyota Hilux Surf. The original 4Runner was a compact SUV and little more than a Toyota pickup truck with a fiberglass shell over the bed, but the model has since undergone significant independent development into a cross between a compact and a mid-size SUV. All 4Runners have been built at Toyota's Tahara plant in Tahara, Aichi, Japan, or at Hino Motors' Hamura, Japan plant, and in Brazil. Its mid-size crossover SUV counterpart is the Toyota Highlander.

First generation (1984–1989)[edit]

First generation
1st Toyota 4Runner -- 01-07-2012.jpg
Overview
Also calledToyota Hilux Surf
Production1984–1989
Model years1984–1989
AssemblyTahara, Aichi, Japan
Body and chassis
ClassCompact SUV
Body style2-door pickup
RelatedToyota Pickup
Powertrain
Engine2.0 L 3Y I4 (1984–1989)
2.4 L 22R/22R-E I4 (1984–1989)
2.4 L 22R-TE turbo I4 (1986–1988)
3.0 L 3VZ-E V6 (1988–1989)
2.4 L 2L diesel I4 (1984–1989)
2.4 L 2L-T turbodiesel I4 (1985–1989)
Transmission4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase103.0 in (2,616 mm)
Length174.6 in (4,435 mm)
Width66.5 in (1,689 mm)
Height66.1 in (1,679 mm)
Curb weight3,720–3,760 lb (1,687–1,706 kg) (approx.)

The Toyota pickup (upon which the 4Runner was originally based) underwent a major redesign in 1983 for the 1984 model year. Many other automakers were introducing mid-size SUVs in the mid-1980s (e.g., Ford Bronco II, Chevrolet S-10 Blazer, Nissan Pathfinder) and the pressure mounted on Toyota to develop a competing model. Instead of developing an entirely new vehicle, Toyota took their existing short-bed pickup frame, made some simple modifications, and added an open one-piece body with a removable fiberglass top (much like the full-size Ford Bronco and Chevrolet K5 Blazer), and removable rear seat.

1987–1989 Toyota 4Runner SR5 (Australia)

Thus, the first generation 4Runner is nearly mechanically identical to the Toyota pickup. All first generation 4Runners had two doors and were indistinguishable from the pickups from the dashboard forward. Nearly all changes were to the latter half of the body; in fact, because the rear springs were not upgraded to bear the additional weight from the rear seats and fiberglass top, these early models tended to suffer from a sagging rear suspension.

The first 4Runners were introduced in 1984 as 1984½ models. For this first year, all models were equipped with black or white fiberglass tops. An SR5 trim package was offered that upgraded the interior: additional gauges, better fabrics, and a rear seat were standard with the package. All 1984 models were equipped with the carbureted 2.4 L 22R engine and were all available with a four-wheel- drive system that drove the front wheels through a solid front axle.

1985 saw the arrival of the electronically fuel-injected 2.4 L 22R-E also called 22R-EC I4 engine. This upped the horsepower numbers from 100 hp for the 22R, to 116 hp for the 22R-E Engine, though the carbureted engine remained available until 1988. Additionally, rear seats were available in all 1985 4Runner trim levels, not just the more upscale SR5.

1987–1989 Toyota 4Runner SR5 (Australia)

In 1986, all American-market Toyota pickup trucks (and the 4Runner) underwent a major design change as the suspension was changed from a solid front axle to an independent front suspension. Track width was also increased by three inches. These changes made the trucks more comfortable on-road, and improved stability and handling. However, this change arguably decreased the truck's off-road capabilities. Outside the US, the Hilux Surf (similar to the 4Runner) also gained the new independent suspension design, marketed as Hi-Trac. The pickups in those markets retained the more rugged and capable, if less refined, solid axle configuration. The 4Runner grille changed from the three segment type to the two segment grille on all 4Runners in 1986. Tops were color-matched on blue, red and some gold 4Runners, while other body colors were still sold with white or black tops. During 1984–1986 many 4Runners were imported to the US without rear seats. With only two seats the vehicle could be classified as a truck (rather than a sport vehicle) and could skirt the higher customs duties placed upon sport and pleasure vehicles. Most had aftermarket seats and seat belts added by North American dealers after they were imported.

A turbocharged version of the 22R-E engine (the 22R-TE) was also introduced in 1986, although this engine is significantly rarer than the base 22R-E. It appears that all turbocharged 4Runner models sold in the US were equipped with an automatic transmission, though a five-speed manual could still be ordered in the turbocharged pickups. Most Turbo 4Runners were equipped with the SR5 package, and all turbo trucks had as standard a heavier rear differential later used in the V6 model. Low-option models had a small light in the gauge cluster to indicate turbo boost, while more plush vehicles were equipped with an all-digital gauge cluster that included a boost gauge. Turbocharged and naturally aspirated diesel engines were also available in the pickups at this time as well, but it appears that no diesel-powered 4Runners were imported to the United States.

In 1987, the 22R-E engine was joined by an optional 3.0 L V6 engine, the 3VZ-E. This engine was significantly larger and more powerful although not as reliable than the original 4-cylinder offering. Trucks sold with the V6 engine were equipped with the same heavy duty rear differential that was used in the turbocharged trucks, as well as a completely new transmission and transfer case; the transfer case was chain driven, although considered less rugged, created less cab noise than the old gear-driven unit used behind the four-cylinder engine.

An engine which was not used in the US market and rarely in the Japanese domestic market pickups was the 3Y engine, which was used in place of the 22R engine in New Zealand models, followed more rarely by the 4Y 2.2 petrol in later versions. This was a decision by Toyota New Zealand to reduce parts required to be stocked by dealers as no other Toyotas sold in New Zealand at the time utilised the R series engines.

Small cosmetic and option changes were made in 1988, but the model was left largely untouched in anticipation of the replacement model then undergoing final development.

Second generation (1989–1995)[edit]

Second generation
92-95 Toyota 4Runner.jpg
Overview
Also calledToyota Hilux Surf, Toyota Hilux SW4 (Brazil)
Production1989–1995
Model years1990–1995
AssemblyTahara, Aichi, Japan
Body and chassis
ClassCompact SUV
Body style3-door wagon
5-door wagon
RelatedToyota Pickup
Toyota Hilux
Toyota Tacoma
Toyota Land Cruiser
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
Toyota T100
Powertrain
Engine2.0 L 3Y I4
2.4 L 22R-E I4
3.0 L 3VZ-E V6
2.4 L 2L-TE turbodiesel I4
2.8 L 3L diesel I4
3.0 L 1KZ-T/TE turbodiesel I4
2.2 L 4Y I4
Transmission4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase103.3 in (2,624 mm)
Length1990 & 1994-95: 176.0 in (4,470 mm)
1991-93: 176.8 in (4,491 mm)
Width66.5 in (1,689 mm)
Height66.1 in (1,679 mm)
Curb weight3,760 lb (1,706 kg) (approx.)
1990–1991 Toyota 4Runner (US)
1990-1991 Toyota 4Runner V6 with two-door bodywork (VZN130; US)
1991–1996 Toyota 4Runner (LN130R; Australia)

The 1990 model year 4Runner represented a fundamental departure from the first-generation model. Instead of an enhanced pickup truck, the new 4Runners featured a freshly designed body mounted on an existing frame. The difference is easily seen when comparing pickups and 4Runners of similar vintage: a 1984 4Runner looks remarkably similar to a 1984 Toyota pickup, whereas a 1990 4Runner shares only subtle styling details with the 1990 pickup.

Nearly all second generation 4Runners were four-door models; however, from 1989 to 1993, a two-door model was also produced. These models are similar to the four-door models of the time in that the bodies were formed as a single unit, instead of the fiberglass tops used in the first-generation 4Runners. Two-door 4Runners of the second generation are extremely rare, probably due to higher importation duties and owner insurance costs. US sales ended in August 1992, but it continued to be available in the Canadian market through 1993.

Because the drive train was still developed from the same source, the available engines were identical: The same 2.4 L four-cylinder (22R-E) and 3.0 L V6 (3VZ) engines were available in rear-wheel-drive and four-wheel-drive layouts. The new 4Runner used the independent front suspension that had been developed on the previous generation. The older style gear driven transfer case was phased out, and both engines now had chain driven cases, probably to cut down cab noise and vibration.

The Hilux Surf version for the Japanese market was also available with a range of diesel engines, including a 2.4 L turbodiesel 2L-TE I4 up to 1993, followed by a 3.0 L turbodiesel 1KZ-TE I4. A small number were also made with a normally aspirated 2.8 L diesel 3L I4. A small number were also produced with a 2.0 L 3Y I4 naturally aspirated gasoline engine. A common modification for normally aspirated diesel engines (e.g. 2.8L) is the retrofiting of a turbo (with or without intercooler kit), which can significantly improve performance.

Most other full-body SUVs produced at the time (e.g. Nissan Pathfinder, Ford Explorer) featured tailgates that opened upward with the glass closed. In contrast, the second generation 4Runner carried over the retractable-glass tailgate from the first generation. Opening these tailgates requires first retracting the rear window into the tailgate and then lowering the tailgate much like as on a pickup truck.

In 1991 for the 1992 model year, the 4Runner received minor cosmetic updates, including modular headlamps instead of the increasingly outdated rectangular sealed beams. Additional cosmetic changes occurred between 1993 and 1995, the last year of the second generation.

Safety[edit]

Both the first and second generation 4Runners became targeted as unsafe SUVs. 1980s and early-1990s US crash regulations were not very strict for light trucks, and all early model 4Runners were fitted with doors that offered little protection in the event of a side collision. In most areas, there was little more than two pieces of sheetmetal and the window to keep incoming vehicles from impacting passengers. The crash test rating for the second generation 4Runner was one star for the driver's side in a frontal collision although the passenger side got a 4 star rating. Later, more stringent crash regulations mandated doors that offered as much protection as passenger car doors.

The most common accusations, however, were that 4Runners (and other narrow-track SUVs of the time) were prone to rollovers. Many light SUVs of the time featured comparatively high centers of gravity and, given the right situations, could be flipped over. Whether or not this is a serious road hazard is dependent on many parameters, including the speed of the vehicle, the tires fitted to the vehicle, the road surface, and the driver's ability to predict and correct for situations that may result in a rollover. Third generation 4Runners were designed with a wider track, but it is unclear if this was directly in response to increased pressure from safety groups, or if it was simply a product engineering decision.

Airbags for both the driver and passenger were added in 1995 (1996 model year).

Third generation (1995–2002)[edit]

Third generation
1996-1998 Toyota 4Runner .jpg
Overview
Also calledToyota Hilux Surf
Toyota Hilux SW4 (Argentina)
Production1995–2002
Model years1996–2002
AssemblyTahara, Aichi, Japan
Hamura, Tokyo, Japan
Body and chassis
ClassCompact SUV
Body style5-door wagon
RelatedToyota Land Cruiser Prado
Toyota Hilux
Toyota Tacoma
Toyota T100
Powertrain
Engine2.7 L 3RZ-FE I4
3.4 L 5VZ-FE V6
3.0 L 1KZ-TE turbodiesel I4
Transmission4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase105.3 in (2,675 mm)
Length1996-98: 178.7 in (4,539 mm)
1999–2000: 183.2 in (4,653 mm)
2001-02: 183.3 in (4,656 mm)
Width2WD: 66.5 in (1,689 mm)
Limited: 70.9 in (1,801 mm)
Height1999–2002: 67.5 in (1,714 mm)
1999–2002 Limited: 68.5 in (1,740 mm)
1996-98: 66.5 in (1,689 mm)
1996-98 Limited: 68.7 in (1,745 mm)
Curb weight3,930 lb (1,783 kg) (approx.)

In 1995 (for the 1996 US model year) marked another significant redesign of the then aging 4Runner. Whereas the transition to the second generation 4Runner was one that kept the build quality and options roughly on par with the rest of the mid-size SUV market, the changes made in the third generation turned the 4Runner into a more luxury-oriented vehicle. This move paralleled the changes to the 1996 Nissan Pathfinder, but moved the 4Runner into a distinctly different class from its older competitors, the Ford Explorer, Chevrolet Blazer, and Isuzu Rodeo. The third generation 4Runner did, however, look very similar to the second generation.

This similarity largely ended with its looks. It carried over the basic design and concept, but executed it differently with an all-new body shell on an all-new chassis. This time, it shared virtually nothing with the pickup it had originally evolved from, and had more in common with the Land Cruiser, as it shared its chassis with that of the Land Cruiser Prado.

The third generation 4Runner also featured new engines that are also installed in the first generation Toyota Tacoma pickup trucks. :

In 1996 the 4Runner was dropped from sale in the UK, to be replaced by the Toyota Land Cruiser Prado, which was badged as the Toyota Land Cruiser Colorado.

Significant changes from the second generation models include a larger body on a longer wheelbase, increased interior space, increased cargo space, dual airbags, ABS, lift-up tailgate, coil-spring suspension all round, rack and pinion steering, and aerodynamic contour designed glass headlights. Additionally, Hilux Surf versions immediately moved to 16-inch wheels and gained a center differential, enabling the use of four-wheel drive on hard surfaces without complication for the first time. The prior system was retained to give on-the-fly shifting between rear- and four-wheel drive as before. The new 4Runner was also available with a factory installed selectable electric locker in the rear differential, a first for the 4Runner but available since 1993 in the Toyota Land Cruiser.

1997 Models received a few minor updates, including the addition of a color keyed cargo cover.

1998 remained largely unchanged, save for a few changes in the electronics. More ergonomic switch control panels and a newly designed 4 spoke steering wheel, which also necessitated a redesign of the air bag system.

1999 Toyota 4Runner (US)

1999 Models received both major cosmetic and interior enhancements. A new "fat lip" bumper was designed to allow for an extended crush zone on the front of the frame, as well as new multi-parabola style headlights, projector style fog lamps, and updated side marker lights and front turn signals. Vehicles with "Limited" and "Highlander" (later called "Sport Edition") trim received color-keyed running boards, front and rear bumpers, mud flaps and flares. The ergonomics of the interior was completely changed, moving all the controls to the center of the dash for the rear window, and defrost. The Limited trucks also received a brand-new electronic temp control, and upgraded stereo. The multimatic transmission became available as an option for 4WD 4Runners in 1999, giving the option of AWD operation.

2001–2002 Toyota 4Runner (US)

2001 Models received new transparent tail lights and new front grille design. The wheels were also changed to a five-spoke design rim. Limited models received newly designed five spoke wheels as well, however different from SR5 and base model. Also included was a new, sleeker side view mirror design. SR5 and base model 4Runners also have redesigned climate control units utilizing 3 knobs and 2 buttons, contrary to the 1999 model's 2 sliders and 2 knobs. 2001 models were equipped with Vehicle Stability Control standard, and 4WD models came standard with the multimatic transmission. The optional e-locker for the rear differential was dropped in 2001.

Fourth generation (2002–2009)[edit]

Fourth generation
03-05 Toyota 4Runner SR5.jpg
Overview
Also calledToyota SW4[1]
Toyota Hilux Surf
Production2002–2009
Model years2003–2009
AssemblyTahara, Aichi, Japan
Hamura, Tokyo, Japan
Body and chassis
ClassMid-size SUV
Body style5-door wagon
RelatedLexus GX
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
Toyota FJ Cruiser
Toyota Hilux
Toyota Hilux Surf
Toyota Tacoma
Toyota Fortuner
Powertrain
Engine4.0 L 1GR-FE V6
4.7 L 2UZ-FE V8
3.0 L 1KZ-TE I4 turbodiesel (Latin America)
3.0 L 1KD-FTV I4
Transmission5-speed automatic Aisin A7xx Series
Dimensions
Wheelbase109.8 in (2,789 mm)
Length2003-05: 189 in (4,801 mm)
2006–present: 189.2 in (4,806 mm)
Width2003-05: 73.8 in (1,875 mm)
2006–present: 75.2 in (1,910 mm)
Height2003-05 SR5: 68.9 in (1,750 mm)
2003-05: 71.6 in (1,819 mm)
2006–present SR5: 69.3 in (1,760 mm)
2006–present Sport: 71.3 in (1,811 mm)
2006–present Limited: 71.1 in (1,806 mm)
Curb weight4,280 lb (1,941 kg) (approx.)

The fourth-generation 4Runner incorporated serious changes to the chassis and body of the vehicle, but was targeted at approximately the same demographics as the third generation. Based on the Land Cruiser Prado 120 series, the new 4Runner retained the same basic exterior styling themes, and was still marketed as a mid-size semi-luxury SUV with off-road capabilities. Available trims are currently the SR5, Sport Edition, and Limited models. An all-new LEV certified 4.0 L 1GR-FE V6 which produces 245 hp (183 kW) and 282 lb·ft (382 N·m) of torque is standard, but for the first time, a V8 became available, the ULEV certified 4.7 L 2UZ-FE engine which in the US produced 235 hp (175 kW) and 320 lb·ft (434 N·m) in 2003 and 2004,[clarification needed] then, with the addition of VVT-i, 260 hp (194 kW) and 306 lb·ft (415 N·m) from 2005-2009.[clarification needed] Fuel economy is estimated at 17 mpg city, 20 mpg highway for the V6 and 15/19 mpg for the V8. Towing capacity is 5,000 lb (2,300 kg) on V6 models and 7,300 pounds (3,300 kg) on RWD V8 models (7000 pounds w/4WD). The 4Runner first entered dealer showrooms in October 2002 for the 2003 model year.[2] Three trims levels were offered, SR5, Sport Edition, and Limited. When it was first introduced the SR5 and Sport Edition models used gray plastic cladding and bumpers. Sport models also featured a non-functional hood scoop.

The front suspension used a double wishbone while the rear is a solid rear axle type. The 4runner continued to use a body on frame construction design and a solid rear axle for strength and durability compromising interior room and on-road handling. Toyota's other mid-size SUV, the Highlander is a crossover which is not designed for off-roading. The optional 4WD systems were full-time on V8 models while "Multi-Mode" or part-time on V6 models, both systems used a lockable Torsen center differential. A new suspension system, X-Relative Absorber System (X-REAS), became standard on the Sport Edition and optional for SR5 and Limited models, a rear auto-leveling height adjustable air suspension is included with this option on Limited models. The X-REAS system links the dampers diagonally by means of hydraulic hoses and fluid using a mechanical center valve which reduces body roll during hard cornering. All 4runners were equipped with skid plates for the engine, transfer case, and fuel tank to prevent damage during off-roading. The Hill-Start Assist Control (HAC) system prevents the 4runner from rolling backwards on inclines and a Downhill Assist Control (DAC, 4WD only) modulates the brakes and throttle automatically without driver inputs for smooth hill descents at very low speeds, both electronic aids are standard on 4WD models.

Major standard features included a tilt and telescoping steering wheel, remote keyless entry, single zone automatic climate control, power driver's lumbar support, power rear tailgate window, and on V8 models a tow hitch receiver bolted directly to the rear frame crossmember. Options included HomeLink, an electrochromic auto-dimming rearview mirror, power moonroof, third row seating, a DVD-based navigation system (loses in-dash CD changer), a 10-speaker JBL Synthesis stereo, and rear seat audio. An optional backup camera system on Limited models used two cameras mounted on the interiors D-pillars to give a wider view when backing up. Some trim levels get two mirrors mounted on the interior D-pillars just inside the rear hatch.

Safety[edit]

All 4Runners came with Toyota's Star Safety System which includes anti-lock brakes, electronic brakeforce distribution, brake assist, traction control and Vehicle Stability Control. Side torso airbags for the front rows as well as side curtain airbags for the front and rear rows were optional on 2003–2007 models and became standard on 2008 models.

The April 2007 Insurance Institute for Highway Safety report also shows the 4Runner to have one of the lowest death rates for all vehicles on the road at only 13 deaths per million registered vehicle years during calendar years 2002–2005. Only the Infiniti G35 and BMW 7 series had lower rates.[3] The IIHS rates the 4Runner as "Good" overall in the frontal offset crash test and "Good" overall in the side impact test on vehicles with side airbags, these scores rank the 4Runner as among the best truck based mid-size SUV's in crash tests. The 4runner received the "Good" rating in 13 of the 14 measured categories.[4]

NHTSA crash test ratings (2003):[5]
Frontal Driver:4/5 stars
Frontal Passenger:4/5 stars
Side Driver:5/5 stars
Side Rear Passenger:5/5 stars
Rollover:3/5 stars

TRD options[edit]

Toyota Racing Development

Model year changes[edit]

Facelifted Toyota 4Runner Sport Edition 4WD (US)

Later models offered a DVD Rear Seat Entertainment System (RSES) which used a nine-inch LCD screen and two wireless headphones.

Fifth generation (2009–present)[edit]

Toyota 4Runner
Toyota 4Runner -- 04-01-2011.jpg
Overview
Production2009–present
Model years2010–present
AssemblyTahara, Aichi, Japan
Body and chassis
ClassMid-size SUV
Body style5-door wagon
RelatedFJ Cruiser
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado / Lexus GX
Powertrain
Engine2.7 L 2TR-FE I4 (157 hp, 2WD, 2010 only)
4.0 L 1GR-FE V6 (270 hp)
Transmission4-speed automatic (I4, 2010 only)
5-speed automatic (V6)
Dimensions
Wheelbase109.8 in (2,789 mm)
Length189.9 in (4,823 mm)
Width75.8 in (1,925 mm)
Height71.5–74.2 in (1,816–1,885 mm)
Curb weight4,400–4,805 lb (1,996–2,180 kg)

The fifth generation 4Runner was unveiled at the Texas State Fair on September 24, 2009. It is available in 3 trim levels, 2 of which were available previously. The base SR5 trim as well as the top-of-the-line Limited trim are available as a 2WD or a 4WD. The new Trail Edition is only available as a 4WD. The SR5 and Trail Edition 4WDs will receive a part-time 4WD drive system, while the Limited will have full-time 4WD. All models will come with A-TRAC.[10] The new Trail Edition offers Toyota's Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System (KDSS) and Crawl Control which had previously only been available to premium Toyota vehicles, as well as a rear locking differential like the previous Trail Package.

Toyota 4Runner SR5, rear view

The 4.0-liter V6 adds Dual VVT-i which improves horsepower, torque and fuel economy, and comes standard in all models. A 2.7-liter I4 was available on 2WD models, but was discontinued after the 2010 model year. The 4.7-liter V8 from the previous generation was not carried-over to the fifth generation 4Runner.[11] The 4Runner is built on the same platform as the FJ Cruiser.[12]

In early 2014, the 4Runner received a facelift with Toyota badging on the front as well as an off-road package as part of the TRD Pro Series. The TRD new Pro Series 4Runner included TRD Bilstein shocks with remote reservoirs, TRD-tuned front springs and TRD front skid plate.[13]

All North American 2014 model year 4Runner models are powered by a 4.0-liter V-6 engine with intelligent Variable Valve Timing (VVT-i) that can develop 201 kW (270 bhp) and 377 N·m (278 ft·lb) of torque. It is mated to a five-speed automatic ECT transmission.[14]

Sales[edit]

Calendar yearUnited States
2000111,797[15]
200190,250[citation needed]
200277,026[16]
2003109,308[citation needed]
2004114,212[citation needed]
2005103,830[citation needed]
2006103,086[citation needed]
200787,718[citation needed]
200847,878[citation needed]
200919,675[17]
201046,531[17]
201144,316[18]
201248,755[18]
201351,625[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "SW4 Força e elegância" (in Spanish). Toyota Brazil. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  2. ^ Roca, Carrie. "2003 Toyota 4Runner". Autoweek.com. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  3. ^ "Status Report, Vol. 42, No. 4, April 19, 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  4. ^ "IIHS-HLDI: Toyota 4Runner". Iihs.org. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  5. ^ "Safercar.gov". Safercar.gov. Retrieved 2009-12-12. [dead link]
  6. ^ "Toyota 4Runner Road Test". Familycar.com. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  7. ^ "First Drive: 2003 Toyota 4Runner". CanadianDriver. 2002-09-30. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  8. ^ "Full Test: 2003 Toyota 4Runner Limited". Edmunds.com. 2003-01-03. Retrieved 2009-12-12. [dead link]
  9. ^ "First Drive: 2003 Toyota 4Runner". Edmunds.com. 2002-09-16. Retrieved 2009-12-12. [dead link]
  10. ^ "ebrochure for US 2010 model year" (PDF). 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-26. 
  11. ^ "2010 Toyota 4Runner Officially Revealed [Video]". Worldcarfans.com. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  12. ^ "2012 Toyota 4Runner". TechXreview.com. Retrieved 2012-06-13. 
  13. ^ Sandhu, Bobby (2014-02-20). "Toyota 4Runner TRD Pro Series 2015". thecarwallpapers.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. 
  14. ^ "2014 Toyota 4Runner Review". 2015carreviews.com. 2014-03-14. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 
  15. ^ "Toyota Sets Sales Record for Sixth Year in a Row". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  16. ^ "Toyota Announces Best Sales Year in Its 46-Year History, Breaks Sales Record for Eighth Year in a Row". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  17. ^ a b "Toyota Sales December 2010" (Press release). USA: Toyota. Retrieved 2013-01-01. 
  18. ^ a b "December 2012 and Year-End Sales Chart" (Press release). USA: Toyota. 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2013-01-04. 
  19. ^ "December 2013 and Year-End Sales Chart" (Press release). USA: Toyota. 2014-01-03. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 

External links[edit]