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The Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987 (the "UCO 1987") is a Statutory Instrument, applying in England and Wales, that specifies various "Use Classes" for which planning permission is not required for a building or other land to change from one use within that class to another use within that same class. The UCO 1987 was made by the Secretary of State under authority granted by sections 22 and 287 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1971, which have subsequently been replaced by sections 55 and 333 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990.
The UCO 1987 came into force on 1 June 1987, and was introduced by Statutory Instrument 1987 No. 764. The UCO 1987 revoked The Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1972, which was a previous version of the legislation.
Since it came into force, the UCO 1987 has been amended by a number of subsequent Statutory Instruments. In 1999, the functions of the Secretary of State under various sections of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 (including sections 55 and 333), so far as exercisable in relation to Wales, were transferred to the National Assembly for Wales. This means that, since 1999, the UCO 1987 has been amended by some Statutory Instruments that apply in relation to England only and some that apply in relation to Wales only, resulting in different versions of the UCO 1987.
With respect to England, the government Planning Portal website does not appear to provide a list of amendment Statutory Instruments for the UCO 1987, although it provides a page that summarises the Use Classes in their "revised" form. The Planning Jungle website refers to 11 amendment Statutory Instruments.
The website www.legislation.gov.uk, which is delivered by the National Archives, provides the original ("as made") version of the UCO 1987, but states that UK Statutory Instruments are not carried in their "revised" form on the website.
The Schedule of the UCO 1987 specifies the Use Classes for which planning permission is not required for a building or other land to change from one use within that class to another use within that same class.
The following table shows the Use Classes in relation to England in their "revised" form, as summarised on the government Planning Portal website. References have been added to indicate those Use Classes that are different in relation to Wales. This table also shows the relevant permitted changes of use in relation to England from the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order 1995.
|Title of Use Class:||Description of Use Class:||Permitted changes of use:|
|Shops, retail warehouses, hairdressers, undertakers, travel and ticket agencies, post offices (but not sorting offices), pet shops, sandwich bars, showrooms, domestic hire shops, dry cleaners, funeral directors and internet cafes.||Permitted change to A1 and up to 2 flats.|
Financial and professional services
|Financial services such as banks and building societies, professional services (other than health and medical services) including estate and employment agencies and betting offices.||Permitted change to A1 (if display window).|
Permitted change to A1 and up to 2 flats (if display window).
Permitted change to A2 and up to 2 flats.
Restaurants and cafes
|For the sale of food and drink for consumption on the premises - restaurants, snack bars and cafes.||Permitted change to A1.|
Permitted change to A2.
|Public houses, wine bars or other drinking establishments (but not night clubs).||Permitted change to A1.|
Permitted change to A2.
Permitted change to A3.
Hot food takeaways
|For the sale of hot food for consumption off the premises.||Permitted change to A1.|
Permitted change to A2.
Permitted change to A3.
|Offices (other than those that fall within A2), research and development of products and processes, light industry appropriate in a residential area.||Permitted change to B8 (if floor space ≤500m2).|
Permitted change to a state-funded school.
Permitted change from B1(a) to C3.
|Use for industrial process other than one falling within class B1 (excluding incineration purposes, chemical treatment or landfill or hazardous waste).||Permitted change to B1.|
Permitted change to B8 (if floor space ≤500m2).
Storage or distribution
|This class includes open air storage.||Permitted change to B1 (if floor space ≤500m2).|
|Hotels, boarding and guest houses where no significant element of care is provided (excludes hostels).||Permitted change to a state-funded school.|
|Residential care homes, hospitals, nursing homes, boarding schools, residential colleges and training centres.||Permitted change to a state-funded school.|
Secure Residential Institution
|Use for a provision of secure residential accommodation, including use as a prison, young offenders institution, detention centre, secure training centre, custody centre, short term holding centre, secure hospital, secure local authority accommodation or use as a military barracks.||Permitted change to a state-funded school.|
|C3(a) covers use by a single person or a family (a couple whether married or not, a person related to one another with members of the family of one of the couple to be treated as members of the family of the other), an employer and certain domestic employees (such as an au pair, nanny, nurse, governess, servant, chauffeur, gardener, secretary and personal assistant), a carer and the person receiving the care and a foster parent and foster child.|
C3(b) covers up to six people living together as a single household and receiving care e.g. supported housing schemes such as those for people with learning disabilities or mental health problems.
C3(c) allows for groups of people (up to six) living together as a single household. This allows for those groupings that do not fall within the C4 HMO definition, but which fell within the previous C3 use class, to be provided for i.e. a small religious community may fall into this section as could a homeowner who is living with a lodger.
|Permitted change to C4.|
Houses in multiple occupation
|Small shared houses occupied by between three and six unrelated individuals, as their only or main residence, who share basic amenities such as a kitchen or bathroom.||Permitted change to C3.|
|Clinics, health centres, crèches, day nurseries, day centres, schools, art galleries (other than for sale or hire), museums, libraries, halls, places of worship, church halls, law court. Non residential education and training centres.||Permitted change from a state-funded school to the previous lawful use.|
Assembly and leisure
|Cinemas, music and concert halls, bingo and dance halls (but not night clubs), swimming baths, skating rinks, gymnasiums or area for indoor or outdoor sports and recreations (except for motor sports, or where firearms are used).||Permitted change to a state-funded school.|
|Sui generis||Certain uses do not fall within any use class and are considered 'sui generis'. Such uses include: theatres, houses in multiple occupation, hostels providing no significant element of care, scrap yards. Petrol filling stations and shops selling and/or displaying motor vehicles. Retail warehouse clubs, nightclubs, launderettes, taxi businesses, amusement centres and casinos.||Permitted change from casino to D2.|
Permitted change from an agricultural use to a "flexible" use.