Toppenish, Washington

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Toppenish, Washington
City
Location of Toppenish in Washington
Coordinates: 46°22′44″N 120°18′43″W / 46.37889°N 120.31194°W / 46.37889; -120.31194Coordinates: 46°22′44″N 120°18′43″W / 46.37889°N 120.31194°W / 46.37889; -120.31194
CountryUnited States
StateWashington
CountyYakima
Area[1]
 • Total2.09 sq mi (5.41 km2)
 • Land2.09 sq mi (5.41 km2)
 • Water0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation758 ft (231 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total8,949
 • Estimate (2012[3])9,017
 • Density4,281.8/sq mi (1,653.2/km2)
Time zonePST (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP code98948
Area code509
FIPS code53-71960[4]
GNIS feature ID1512732[5]
Websitewww.cityoftoppenish.us
 
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Toppenish, Washington
City
Location of Toppenish in Washington
Coordinates: 46°22′44″N 120°18′43″W / 46.37889°N 120.31194°W / 46.37889; -120.31194Coordinates: 46°22′44″N 120°18′43″W / 46.37889°N 120.31194°W / 46.37889; -120.31194
CountryUnited States
StateWashington
CountyYakima
Area[1]
 • Total2.09 sq mi (5.41 km2)
 • Land2.09 sq mi (5.41 km2)
 • Water0 sq mi (0 km2)
Elevation758 ft (231 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total8,949
 • Estimate (2012[3])9,017
 • Density4,281.8/sq mi (1,653.2/km2)
Time zonePST (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST)PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP code98948
Area code509
FIPS code53-71960[4]
GNIS feature ID1512732[5]
Websitewww.cityoftoppenish.us

Toppenish is a city in Yakima County, Washington, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 8,949.

History[edit]

Under the General Allotment Act of 1887 (known as the Dawes Act), Josephine Bowser Lillie was among Indians granted an 80-acre (320,000 m2) allotment of land. Of mixed Indian-European ancestry, she is known as "The Mother of Toppenish," as she platted the north 40 acres (160,000 m2) of her land. These tracts became the first deeded land to be sold on the Yakama Nation Reservation.

Prior to the act's implementation, all territory set aside by the Treaty of 1855 was held communally in the name of the tribe. None of the land was individually owned. The treaty of 1855 between the United States government, representatives from thirteen other bands, tribes, and Chief Kamiakin resulted in the Yakama Nation relinquishing 16,920 square miles (43,800 km2) of their homeland. Prior to their ceding the land, only Native Americans had lived in the area. It was not until the railroad was constructed in the area in 1883 that more white settlers arrived to join the ranchers in older settlements bordering the Columbia River.

The town is generally called Tẋápniš in the Sahaptin language of the Yakama. This is the likely source of the name Toppenish. The word means ‘protruded, stuck out’ and recalls a landslide that occurred on the ridge south of White Swan, Washington.[6] According to William Bright, the name "Toppenish" comes from the Sahaptin word /txápniš/, referring to a landslide, from /txá-/, "accidentally", /-pni-/, "to launch, to take forth and out", and /-ša/, "continuative present tense".[7]

Ensconced in the heart of the Yakima Valley in Washington State, the city lies inside the boundaries of the Yakama Nation's Reservation. Toppenish was officially incorporated on April 29, 1907, and founded by Johnny Barnes.

Geography[edit]

Toppenish is located at 46°22′44″N 120°18′43″W / 46.37889°N 120.31194°W / 46.37889; -120.31194 (46.378880, -120.311823).[8]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.09 square miles (5.41 km2), all of it land.[1]

Demographics[edit]

Historical populations
CensusPop.
19101,598
19203,12095.2%
19302,774−11.1%
19403,68332.8%
19505,26543.0%
19605,6677.6%
19705,7441.4%
19806,51713.5%
19907,41913.8%
20008,94620.6%
20108,9490%
Est. 20119,0951.6%
U.S. Decennial Census
2011 estimate

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 8,949 people, 2,237 households, and 1,900 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,281.8 inhabitants per square mile (1,653.2 /km2). There were 2,334 housing units at an average density of 1,116.7 per square mile (431.2 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 33.8% White, 0.7% African American, 8.0% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 52.6% from other races, and 4.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 82.6% of the population.

There were 2,237 households of which 62.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 19.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 10.1% had a male householder with no wife present, and 15.1% were non-families. 11.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.96 and the average family size was 4.22.

The median age in the city was 24.3 years. 37.5% of residents were under the age of 18; 13.7% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25% were from 25 to 44; 17.2% were from 45 to 64; and 6.7% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 51.3% male and 48.7% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 8,946 people, 2,275 households, and 1,874 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,762.7 people per square mile (1,837.3/km²). There were 2,440 housing units at an average density of 1,299.0 per square mile (501.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 31.48% White, 0.56% Black or African American, 7.90% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 55.95% from other races, and 3.72% from two or more races. 75.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino. There were 2,275 households out of which 52.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.1% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 17.6% were non-families. 14.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.88 and the average family size was 4.26.

In the city the age distribution of the population shows 38.8% under the age of 18, 11.7% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 14.2% from 45 to 64, and 7.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females there were 106.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $26,950, and the median income for a family was $28,228. Males had a median income of $22,264 versus $19,704 for females. The per capita income for the city was $9,101. About 29.2% of families and 32.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.1% of those under age 18 and 14.8% of those age 65 or over.

Education[edit]

Public schools are operated by the Toppenish School District, whose offices are located here. The Yakima Nation also operates the Yakama Nation Tribal School.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  3. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-01. 
  4. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ Beavert, Virginia and Hargus, Sharon Ichishkíin Sɨ́nwit Yakama = Yakima Sahaptin dictionary. Toppenish, Washington : Heritage University ; Seattle : in association with the University of Washington Press, 2009; p. 237. OCLC 268797329
  7. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American placenames of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 508. ISBN 978-0-8061-3598-4. Retrieved 11 April 2011. 
  8. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 

External links[edit]