Tom Laughlin

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Tom Laughlin
Tom Laughlin 1978.jpg
Laughlin in 1978
BornThomas Robert Laughlin
(1931-08-10)August 10, 1931
Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
DiedDecember 12, 2013(2013-12-12) (aged 82)
Thousand Oaks, California, U.S.
Other namesTommy Laughlin, T.C. Frank, Don Henderson, Mary Rose Solti, Frank Laughlin, Frank Christina, Lloyd E. James
OccupationActor, film director, film producer, screenwriter, political activist, educator
Years active1955–2010
Spouse(s)Delores Taylor (m. 1954–2013) (his death); 3 children
Website
billyjack.com
 
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This article is about the actor. For the wrestler who shares the same real name, see Tommy Dreamer.
Tom Laughlin
Tom Laughlin 1978.jpg
Laughlin in 1978
BornThomas Robert Laughlin
(1931-08-10)August 10, 1931
Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
DiedDecember 12, 2013(2013-12-12) (aged 82)
Thousand Oaks, California, U.S.
Other namesTommy Laughlin, T.C. Frank, Don Henderson, Mary Rose Solti, Frank Laughlin, Frank Christina, Lloyd E. James
OccupationActor, film director, film producer, screenwriter, political activist, educator
Years active1955–2010
Spouse(s)Delores Taylor (m. 1954–2013) (his death); 3 children
Website
billyjack.com

Thomas Robert "Tom" Laughlin (August 10, 1931 – December 12, 2013) was an American actor, director, screenwriter, author, educator and political activist.

Laughlin was best known for his series of Billy Jack films. He was married to actress Delores Taylor from 1954 until his death. Taylor also co-produced and acted in all four of the Billy Jack films. His unique promotion of The Trial of Billy Jack (TV trailers during national news and an "opening day" nationwide release) was a major influence on the way films are marketed.[1]

In the early 1960s, Laughlin put his film career on hiatus to start a Montessori preschool in Santa Monica, California; it became the largest school of its kind in the United States. In his later years, he sought the office of President of the United States in 1992, 2004, and 2008. He also was involved in psychology and domestic abuse counseling, writing several books on Jungian psychology and developing theories on the causes of cancer.[citation needed]

Early life and career (1931–1960)[edit]

Laughlin was born in Minneapolis, and reared in Milwaukee, where he attended Washington High School.[2][3] While in high school, he was involved in an athletic controversy that made headlines throughout the city. The controversy involved Laughlin being forced to attend another school for a brief period, making him ineligible to play football at his previous school upon his return.[4] Laughlin first attended college at the University of Wisconsin and later at Marquette University, playing football for both schools.[5]

While at Marquette he played both safety and halfback.[6] He decided to become an actor after seeing a production of A Streetcar Named Desire.[7] According to a 1956 newspaper profile, he became involved in the theater program at Marquette after encouragement by a university professor, Father John J. Walsh.[8] While a student he also formed a stock group and directed and starred in a production of Arthur Miller's All My Sons.[9] He later transferred to the University of South Dakota where he majored in radio acting, directing and producing.[8]

While a student at South Dakota, he met his future wife Delores Taylor. He wrote the original screenplay for the film Billy Jack in 1954 after witnessing the treatment of Native Americans in her hometown, Winner, South Dakota.[10][11] The two wed on October 15, 1954.[8]

He began his on-screen acting career in the 1955 television series Climax!.[8] From there he went on to appear in several feature films including: These Wilder Years, Lafayette Escadrille, Tea and Sympathy[8] and South Pacific.[12]

He appeared in several episodes of various television series throughout the late 1950s. In 1959, he was cast as young Tom Fowler in the episode "The Fight Back" of the NBC western series, Riverboat. In the story line, Fowler has made himself the boss of Hampton, a corrupt river town near Vicksburg, Mississippi. He blocks farmers from shipping their crops to market. In a dispute over a wedding held on the river vessel, the Enterprise, a lynch mob led by Fowler comes after Captain Grey Holden (series star Darren McGavin). Also appearing in this episode are John Ireland as Chris Slade and Karl Swenson as Ansel Torgin.[13]

In 1959, Laughlin appeared in the film Gidget as "Lover Boy". However, he failed to make any money in the early years, having told People magazine in 1975, "We were living on $5 a week and eating Spam. I stole Christmas cards from a church so I could write home saying how well we were, but then I couldn't afford the stamps."[14]

Laughlin's first starring role was in Robert Altman's 1957 film The Delinquents, in which he played Scotty White, a teenager who gets mixed up with a gang when he is told he can no longer see his girlfriend.[8] Despite the film's low budget, it became a cult film, with Alfred Hitchcock among its fans.[15] However, Laughlin and Altman did not get along well,[16] having sharply differing views on acting; Altman later describing Laughlin as "an unbelievable pain in the ass."[16]

Laughlin made his directorial debut later that year with The Proper Time,[17] though the film wasn't released until 1960. The film was a romantic drama set on the campus of University of California, Los Angeles. Laughlin shot the film on the campus in six days[18][19] working with a $20,000 budget.[20]

Laughlin wrote, directed, and starred in The Young Sinner. Originally filmed in 1960, and shot in Milwaukee over a period of 14 days,[21] it is the story of a star high school athlete who falls deeper and deeper into trouble after being caught in bed with his girlfriend. The film was intended to be the first of a trilogy entitled We Are All Christ.[22] It premiered in 1963 under the original title Among the Thorns,[23] which was changed to The Young Sinner upon its 1965 re-release.[24] In 1960, Laughlin planned to make a film, Poison in Our Land, based on the true story of a Texas couple affected by atomic radiation, but the project was never realized.[25]

Leaving Hollywood (1961–1966)[edit]

In 1959, Laughlin and his wife founded a Montessori preschool in Santa Monica, California.[5] By 1961, Laughlin had left the film business to devote all of his time to the school, which by 1964 had become the largest school of its kind in the United States. It was profiled by Time magazine in July of that year.[26] However, by 1965, the school had gone bankrupt.[14] One of his students was Christian Brando, son of Laughlin's friend, Marlon Brando.[27]

Billy Jack years (1967–1977)[edit]

In 1965, Laughlin told the Milwaukee Sentinel that he planned to make a film on the life of a noted Catholic priest, Father William DuBay.[28] However, the film did not get past the planning stages. Two years later, in 1967, he wrote, directed (as T. C. Frank) and starred in the motorcycle-gang exploitation film The Born Losers.[29] This was the first film in which the character of Billy Jack appeared. It was a box-office hit.[30] The film featured a late-career appearance by Jane Russell.[31]

After The Born Losers, Laughlin was set to begin a film project with backing from such figures as Marlon Brando, Jack Lemmon, Candice Bergen, and director Robert Wise. The film was to be a documentary on the issues facing African Americans in the 1960s and would have focused greatly on the life of Martin Luther King, Jr. followed by a discussion of race.[32] However, the film was never made.

He followed this up with the sequel to The Born Losers, Billy Jack, in 1971. Although he made the film, like all of his films, independently and with his own money, several studios agreed to distribute it. American International Pictures refused to release the film unless many of the political references – as well as frontal nudity – were cut. This led the Laughlins to withhold the sound reels of the film, which in effect made it a silent film.[7][33][34] Eventually, Warner Bros. released it, but Laughlin, upset with the studio's marketing of the film, sued to get it back, and re-released the film himself.[5] The film's re-release was successful but controversial. Roger Ebert, in his review of the film, wrote, "Billy Jack seems to be saying that a gun is better than a constitution in the enforcement of justice. Is democracy totally obsolete, then? Is our only hope that the good fascists defeat the bad fascists?"[35]

However, the film was embraced by much of America's youth,[citation needed] leading Laughlin to claim in 1975 that "The youth of this country have only two heroes, Ralph Nader and Billy Jack."[7] When adjusted for inflation, it is, as of 2007, the highest-grossing independent film of all time.[11] The film was also among the first to introduce martial arts, especially hapkido to American audiences and also contained elements of Jungian psychology, and fictional depictions of American Indian beliefs, depicting a tribe that does not exist, the "Nishnobie."[36] As part of the film's promotion, Bong Soo Han, who was in charge of the martial arts choreography for the film,[37] toured the United States giving hapkido demonstrations.[38]

The second sequel, The Trial of Billy Jack, released in late 1974, was a huge box office hit, while not registering as quite as big a critical success.[39] It is notable for its casting of Native American icons such as Sacheen Littlefeather and Rolling Thunder, as well as its strong criticism of the Kent State shootings.[11] However, Laughlin's unique promotion of the film was its real legacy. Unlike most films of the era which opened in only a few cities before gradually spreading across the country, The Trial of Billy Jack opened in cities nationwide on the same day and commercials were broadcast for it during the national news. This promotion forever changed the way films are marketed and has been called "the first blockbuster."[1][40]

In 1975, Laughlin released The Master Gunfighter, a western set in the 1840s, detailing the plight of the Chumash people. Laughlin grew a full beard for the film and his character fought with both a 12-shot revolver and a samurai sword.[14] Although it did reasonably well at the box office, critics were not pleased with the film.[41] He returned to the Billy Jack franchise in 1977. However, the fourth entry in the series, Billy Jack Goes to Washington was a failure because of distribution problems,[34] and it proved to be Laughlin's last film as a director. Laughlin blamed individuals within the United States government for the failure of the film, telling CNN's Showbiz Tonight in 2005:

At a private screening, Senator Vance Hartke got up, because it was about how the Senate was bought out by the nuclear industry. He got up and charged me. Walter Cronkite's daughter was there, [and] Lucille Ball. And he said, 'You'll never get this released. This house you have, everything will be destroyed.' "[42]

At the time of the film's release, Laughlin's company, Billy Jack Enterprises, had plans for a new Montessori school funded by his own foundation, a record label, an investigative magazine, books, a distribution company and more message-laden movies, including a special subsidiary to produce films for children.[43] He told People magazine at the time, "Three years from today, we'll be the new United Artists. Either that, or we'll be out on our butt on the street."[14] In 1976, Laughlin announced that he was more than $7 million in debt and blamed the financial troubles on unethical behavior by Warner Bros. Pictures, which he said had illegally sold the television rights to his films.[44]

Later career (1978–2010)[edit]

In the years after the failure of Billy Jack Goes to Washington, Laughlin played small roles in a couple of films, such as The Big Sleep in 1978 and his last acting role was The Legend of the Lone Ranger in 1981. In 1984, he purchased a series of twelve advertisements in Variety condemning various aspects of the film industry and its treatment of independent filmmakers. He created a blueprint for taking control of the home video distribution industry as a way for independent films to be seen.[45] This plan was a failure. In 1985, he made a fifth Billy Jack film, The Return of Billy Jack,[46] which featured the title character fighting child pornographers in New York City. However, he suffered a concussion and neck injury during the production, which led to the film being shut down.[47] In 2009, several scenes from this unfinished film were released on Laughlin's website. A notable incident occurred while he was filming in New York City, when he broke up a street fight on Manhattan's West Side, threatening to rip a man's arm off.[48] He garnered notoriety at this time for making a citizen's arrest of a man after an argument over Laughlin's driving.[49]

Laughlin had sought funding for a fifth Billy Jack film since at least 1996, when he spoke about it during a lawsuit against a man who had (Laughlin claimed) illegally changed his name to "Billy Jack",[50] and at one point Laughlin had plans to make a Billy Jack television series.[51] In 2004 he announced that the film would be entitled Billy Jack's Crusade to End the War in Iraq and Restore America to Its Moral Purpose; this was shortened to Billy Jack's Moral Revolution in 2006.

In 2008, the film's title was changed to Billy Jack for President.[5] It was re-titled Billy Jack and Jean. Laughlin claimed it would be a "new genre of film" and a great deal of social commentary on politics, religion, and psychology will be discussed,[52] and a debate will take place between Billy Jack and President George W. Bush via computer manipulation of archived speeches.[42] In 2009, Laughlin released plot details of this film on a video on his website. The video contained several scenes from the film.[53]

In 2010, Frank, Chris, and Theresa Laughlin, founded Billy Jack Rights, LLC, which manages the rights to all of Tom Laughlin's films, including the Billy Jack franchise.[54]

Other work[edit]

Politics[edit]

In his later years, Laughlin turned his attention to politics. In 1992, as a protest[11] he sought the Democratic Party nomination for U.S. President.[5] He told the Milwaukee Sentinel, "I am the least qualified person I know to be President, except George Bush."[55]

He appeared on the primary ballots in New Hampshire[56] and Louisiana. He campaigned on a platform of a tax cut for "ordinary Americans", term limits, an overhaul of public education, universal health care, and nuclear disarmament.[57][58] While campaigning for the Iowa caucus he said of fellow candidate and Iowan, U.S. Senator Tom Harkin: "I think he's a sleazebag. I despise him."[59]

Excluded from debates by party officials who did not consider him a serious candidate, Laughlin received 1,986 votes in the New Hampshire primary.[60][61] He blamed the results on lack of cooperation by the Democratic Party, which allowed him and other candidates only five minutes to speak at the state's convention while giving the five front-runners 20 minutes each. He participated in the Independent presidential candidates Debate on March 25, 1992, along with former U.S. Senator Eugene J. McCarthy and others who had been excluded from the major debates.[62] However, he was seen by much of the press as a "fringe candidate."[63][64]

Laughlin later protested at being excluded from the primary ballot in his home state of Wisconsin at the same time that David Duke, the former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan was included.[65] After dropping out of the race, he worked as an advisor to the campaign of Ross Perot.[66]

He ran for president again in 2004,[67] this time as a Republican.[68] Campaigning as an opponent of the Iraq War, he received 154 votes in the New Hampshire primary against U.S. President George W. Bush.[69] He again was not allowed to participate in the debates.[70] He ran again for President in 2008[71] as a Democrat, getting 47 votes in the New Hampshire primary.[72]

Laughlin was an outspoken critic of the Iraq War[73][74] and President George W. Bush.[75] His website presented several writings calling the Iraq conflict worse than the Vietnam War, in addition to pieces on what he called "realistic exit strategies."[76] He also devotes several pages of the Billy Jack website to reasons that he feels justify an impeachment of George W. Bush[77] and also repeatedly stated the need for a viable, mainstream third political party. In addition, he criticized what he called the "Christian right", which he called "false Evangelicals", "false prophets",[78] and the "Christo-fascist movement."[74] He released several videos and writings during the 2008 election.[79]

Psychology and counseling[edit]

Although not a professionally trained psychologist, Laughlin had an interest in psychology, having studied the subject independently.[74] A 1975 profile of Laughlin in People magazine mentioned his deep interest in psychology and mentioned that he had a personal "dream secretary" to whom Laughlin told his recollections of his dreams. They were written down to be analyzed later.[14]

Laughlin lectured on Jungian psychology at universities and colleges throughout the United States since the 1970s,[80] including Yale University and Stanford University[81] In 1995, because of his background in football and psychology, he was brought in to counsel University of Nebraska football player Lawrence Phillips after Phillips' suspension from the team. He said of Phillips at the time, "He should not be rewarded by being allowed to play unless there is real substantive change. I don't mean surface change. But if he does change, then he's not only going to not batter this girl, he's not going to batter the girl he marries at 30 and 35. If he just pretends to change, of course he should not be allowed to play, but Lawrence has already been sanctioned in ways other batterers on this campus are not".[81]

Laughlin wrote several books on psychology including The Psychology of Cancer; Jungian Psychology vol. 2: Jungian Theory and Therapy, published in 1980; 9 Indispendable Ingredients to Writing a Hit (1999), which details the psychology involved in the box office and hit filmmaking, and The Cancer Personality (1998), in which he posited his theories about cancer.[82]

One of Laughlin's concerns was the issue of domestic abuse. He became involved in this after witnessing a neighbor, a police officer, beating his wife.[11] He blamed the murder of Nicole Brown Simpson on domestic abuse, saying:

O. J. Simpson was my neighbor up the street on Rockingham. He lived at 300 Rockingham Drive – across from Linda Ronstadt – while I lived at 100 Rockingham. I've known O.J. forever. This is one of the sickest, sorriest days in our culture, that he was found 'not guilty'. I've told him since 1985 he'd end up in jail. Eight times [Nicole] cried out and eight times, because it was O.J. and it was woman-battering, it was dismissed. But now, with the trivialization, people are afraid to call because they don't trust that the system will help them. The fact that [O.J.] was found not guilty is going to make that 10 times worse. If you can't get help, if there is no justice, if there is no legal system that will help them, where do you go? Who's going to call? Why call if you're not going to get help.[81]

Personal life[edit]

Laughlin married Delores Taylor in 1954. They had three children: Frank, Teresa, and Christina. His daughter Teresa (known by the family as T.C.) is a fashion designer.[83] He derived at least two of his pseudonyms from his children: Frank Laughlin, his son's name and the name he used to direct The Trial of Billy Jack and The Master Gunfighter, and T.C. Frank, which stood for Teresa Christina Frank.

In 2001, it was announced that Laughlin was suffering from a cancer of the tongue that was inoperable.[84] His website claimed the cancer was in remission. His book, The Psychology of Cancer, was about faith, attitude and other factors that might affect cancer.[82] On November 20, 2007, he posted a video on YouTube explaining that poor health had caused him to leave his BillyJack.com website in a dormant state. The site was later revived. Laughlin suffered from Celiac disease, an auto-immune disorder, and suffered a series of strokes.[85] In the video, he announced that he had his health issues under control, that he updated the website, and was planning a new Billy Jack film. However, that film was never made.[citation needed]

Death[edit]

Tom Laughlin died of complications from pneumonia on December 12, 2013 at Los Robles Hospital and Medical Center in Thousand Oaks, California.[86]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Maslin, Janet (September 30, 2004). "Hollywood's Attack of the Monster Releases". The New York Times. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  2. ^ Skalitzky, Lori (October 10, 1986). "Real-Life Drama brings Laughlin Home". The Milwaukee Sentinel. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  3. ^ Borsuk, Alan J. (October 21, 1991). "Washington High Alumni stroll down Memory Lane". The Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  4. ^ Letwin, Bill (June 6, 1949). "School Board Approves New Setup for Athletics". The Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2010. [not in citation given]
  5. ^ a b c d e Montgomery, Ben (August 19, 2007). "Is it Time for Billy Jack to Come Back?". The St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  6. ^ DeLong, Jack (October 25, 1950). "Marquette Coach Seeks to Replace Injured Regulars". Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c "The Two Faces of Tom". Time (magazine). October 6, 1975. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f Spiro, J.D. (August 26, 1956). "Milwaukee's Actin' Tom Laughlin". Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Stock Group will Play on Saturday". Milwaukee Sentinel. August 8, 1952. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  10. ^ Casuso, Jorge The Legend of Billy Jack, Billy Jack Enterprises, 1999
  11. ^ a b c d e "Interview with Tom Laughlin". Good Morning Sacramento (KMAX). January 22, 2001. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  12. ^ Winchell, Walter (August 8, 1952). "Walter Winchell's Broadway Beat". The Sarasota Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  13. ^ ""The Fight Back", Riverboat, October 18, 1959". Internet Movie Data Base. Retrieved February 27, 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Wilkins, Barbara (October 20, 1975). "It's Been a Cruel World for Tom Laughlin, but can Billy Jack Save It?". People. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  15. ^ Burr, Ty (March 5, 2006). "Hollywood Outsider Finally Receives his Due". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  16. ^ a b Stafford, Jeff. "Cult Movies Showcase: The Delinquents". Turner Classic Movies. TCM.com. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  17. ^ "Overview for The Proper Time (1960)". Turner Classic Movies. TCM.com. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  18. ^ Holley, Jannelle (December 23, 1959). "Collegiate Drama Joins Hotter-than-Ever Trends". The Florence Times Daily. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  19. ^ McDonald, Thomas (January 17, 1960). "Film Man with a Dream and 'The Proper Time'". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  20. ^ Bennett, Jerry (December 3, 1960). "Democrat Ladies 'Insulted'". The Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  21. ^ Means, Marianne (August 11, 1960). "Movie 'Shooting' Set Here Monday". Milwaukee Sentinel. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  22. ^ Krasfur, Richard P. (1997). The American Film Institute Catalog of Films Produced in the United States 1961–1970. University of California Press. p. 1259. ISBN 978-0-520-20970-1. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  23. ^ Bach, Erwin (March 14, 1963). "U of C to Offer Film Prizes". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  24. ^ Meyer, Kathleen (May 27, 1990). "You Asked.....". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  25. ^ Parsons, Louella (May 3, 1960). "Hard to Scare". Milwaukee Sentinel. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  26. ^ "Teaching: Montessori in the Slums". Time 84 (2). July 10, 1964. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  27. ^ Kunen, James (June 4, 1990). "Brando's Son Faces Murder Charge". People 33 (22). Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  28. ^ Herzog, Buck (July 1, 1965). "Laughlin Plans Second Film". Milwaukee Sentinel. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  29. ^ Pepan, Bea J. (August 20, 1967). "Producers 'on Location' for Holiday in Wisconsin". Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  30. ^ Smith, Richard Harland. "Biker Classics: The Born Losers". Turner Classic Movies. TCM.com. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  31. ^ "B6700 Born Losers (1967)". La Salle University. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  32. ^ Thomas, Bob (June 20, 1968). "Group to Produce Film about Plight of the Negro". Daytona Beach Morning Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  33. ^ Christina, Frank and Teresa (1973). Billy Jack. Avon Books. p. Introduction. 
  34. ^ a b Laughlin, Tom (September 27, 1999). Warners Destroys Billy Jack Negative. Archived from the original on October 12, 1999. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  35. ^ Ebert, Roger (August 2, 1971). "Billy Jack". The Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  36. ^ Forbes, David (Fall 1975). "An Interview with Bong Soo Han". Traditional Tae Kwon-Do. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  37. ^ "Bong Soo Han, 73, Orchestrator of Martial Arts Scenes". The New York Times. January 14, 2007. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  38. ^ Noth, Dominique Paul (May 22, 1971). "Karate Expert on Chop Chop Tour, with Hollywood Footing the Bill". Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  39. ^ "The Trial of Billy Jack - Box office Gross". The-numbers.com. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  40. ^ Gibron, Bill (June 5, 2007). "Billy Jack, the Original Blockbuster". PopMatters. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  41. ^ Ebert, Roger (January 1, 1975). "The Master Gunfighter". The Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  42. ^ a b "Showbiz Tonight (transcript)". CNN. September 27, 2005. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  43. ^ Scott, Vernon (November 27, 1975). "Laughlin: He Did it His Way". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved February 19, 2010. [dead link]
  44. ^ "New Tom Laughlin Drama - Billy Jack Goes Broke". The Lakeland Ledger. November 3, 1976. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  45. ^ Rhodes, Lucien (December 1, 1987). "The Return of Billy Jack". Inc. Magazine. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  46. ^ "Return of Billy Jack (1986)". The New York Times. 
  47. ^ "Actor Hurt During Filming". The Gainesville Sun. February 7, 1986. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  48. ^ United Press International (August 28, 1986). "Life Imitates Art: Billy Jack Saves Downtrodden—From Further Abuse". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  49. ^ "Billy Jack Character Lives, Makes Arrest". The Montreal Gazette. May 5, 1986. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  50. ^ Cave, Kathy (May 3, 1996). "Check the Sign, Mister". The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  51. ^ Laughlin, Tom. "New Film/New Studio". Archived from the original on October 13, 1999. 
  52. ^ Waxman, Sharon (June 20, 2005). "Billy Jack is Ready to Fight the Good Fight Again". The New York Times. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  53. ^ Laughlin, Tom (2009). "New Billy Jack Film: Billy Jack and Jean". Retrieved March 2, 2010. 
  54. ^ Laughlin, Frank (2010). "Billy Jack Rights, LLC: "How We Came to Own ‘Billy Jack’"". Retrieved August 30, 2012. 
  55. ^ "Laughlin Hates Politics, May Run". The Milwaukee Sentinel. September 12, 1991. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  56. ^ "New Hampshire – U.S. President- D. Primary". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved March 2, 2010. 
  57. ^ "rimaries: Who Needs Cuomo?". Time. January 13, 1992. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  58. ^ Laughlin, Tom (1991). "Two Americas". campaign literature. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  59. ^ Associated Press (November 27, 1991). "Tough Talk from Laughlin". The Iowa Daily Reporter. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  60. ^ "Eugene J. McCarthy Papers". University of Minnesota. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  61. ^ Associated Press (February 19, 1992). "'Billy Jack' Laughlin gets 1% of N.H. Vote". The Milwaukee Sentinel. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  62. ^ "Independent Presidential Candidates Debate". C-SPAN. March 25, 1992. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  63. ^ Baer, Susan (November 13, 1991). "From 'Messiah' to 'Billy Jack', Dozens Want Bush's Job". The Seattle Times. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  64. ^ Desenport, Ellen (November 29, 1991). "Fringe Dwellers Seek the White House". The St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  65. ^ "What About Billy Jack? State Court has made Travesty of Primary". The Milwaukee Sentinel. March 11, 1992. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  66. ^ Cheevers, Jack (November 1, 1992). "Poll of Perot Activists a Charade, Ex-Backers Say Politics: Texan runs the show, they assert, and is not just bowing to volunteers. Billionaire has spent heavily". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  67. ^ Laughlin, Tom (2003). "Laughlin for President: A Powerful New Voice to Give Real Power Back to All the People". billyjack.com. Archived from the original on February 14, 2004. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  68. ^ "'Billy Jack' Star Making Political Statement". Deseret News. February 3, 2004. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  69. ^ "New Hampshire Republican Primaries Results". The Green Papers. January 27, 2004. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  70. ^ Farrell, James (December 9, 2003). "Gore for Dean, and Debate Night". New Hampshire Primary. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  71. ^ Laughlin, Tom (November 15, 2007). "Laughlin for President Pt. 2- My Plan to End the Iraq War (video)". billyjack.com. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  72. ^ Montgomery, Ben (January 20, 2008). "Whatever happened to ... The 1970s Icon with a Conscience?". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  73. ^ Laughlin, Tom. "America has Lost its Moral Purpose and character". billyjack.com. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  74. ^ a b c Basham, Doug (May 11, 2005). "Interview with Tom Laughlin (audio)". dougbasham.com. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  75. ^ Laughlin, Tom (January 20, 2001). "The Case that George W. Bush is Not the Legally Elected President...the Overwhelming Proof". billyjack.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2001. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  76. ^ Laughlin, Tom. "New Exit Strategy from Iraq". billyjack.com. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  77. ^ Laughlin, Tom. "The Power of Impeachment". billyjack.com. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  78. ^ Laughlin, Tom. "Three Fanatic Groups". billyjack.com. Archived from the original on December 13, 2005. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  79. ^ "Tom Laughlin's YouTube Channel". Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  80. ^ "Tom Laughlin at UVA". The Cavalier Daily. November 2, 1978. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  81. ^ a b c "'Billy Jack' Continues Crusade Against Abuse and Violence". The University of Nebraska-Lincoln Scarlet. October 6, 1995. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  82. ^ a b Laughlin, Tom. "The Psychology of Cancer". billyjack.com. Retrieved February 21, 2010. 
  83. ^ "T.C. Laughlin website". tclaughlin.com. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  84. ^ "Tom Laughlin Diagnosed with Cancer". The Associated Press. October 8, 2001. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  85. ^ Waxman, Sharon (March 2, 2008). "Billy Jack, the Super Sequel". The Wrap. Retrieved February 21, 2010. 
  86. ^ Barrineau, Trey (2013-12-15). "'Billy Jack' star Tom Laughlin dies". USA Today. Retrieved 2013-12-15. 

External links[edit]