Title

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For other uses, see Title (disambiguation).

A title is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name in certain contexts. It may signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may be inserted before a last name (for example, Graf in German, Cardinal in Catholic usage or clerical titles such as Archbishop). Some titles are hereditary.

Types[edit]

Titles include:

Titles in English-speaking areas[edit]

The following titles are the default titles:

Auntie or Uncle may be used as titles by nieces and nephews or by children to adults who they know.

Other titles are used for various reasons, such as to show aristocratic status or one's role in government, a religious organization, or a branch of the military.

Legislative and executive titles[edit]

Some job titles of members of the legislature and executive are used as titles.

Aristocratic titles[edit]

In the United Kingdom, "Lord" and "Lady" are used as titles for members of the nobility. Unlike titles such as "Mr" and "Mrs", they are not used before first names except in certain circumstances, for example as courtesy titles for younger sons etc. of peers.

Male versionFemale versionRealmAdjectiveLatinExamples
EmperorEmpressEmpireImperial

Imperial and Royal (Austria)
Imperator (Imperatrix)Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Russia, First and Second French Empire, Austria, Mexican Empire, Empire of Brazil, German Empire (none left in Europe after 1918), Empress of India (ceased to be used after 1947 when India was granted independence from the British Empire), Japan (the only remaining enthroned emperor in the world).
KingQueenKingdomRoyalRex (Regina)Common in larger sovereign states
ViceroyVicereineViceroyaltyViceroyalProconsulHistorical: Spanish Empire (Peru, New Spain, Rio de la Plata, New Granada), Portuguese Empire, (India, Brazil), British Empire
Grand DukeGrand DuchessGrand duchyGrand DucalMagnus DuxToday: Luxembourg; historical: Lithuania, Baden, Finland, Tuscany et al.
ArchdukeArchduchessArchduchyArchducalArci DuxHistorical: Unique only in Austria, Archduchy of Austria; title used for member of the Habsburg dynasty
PrincePrincessPrincipality, Princely statePrincelyPrincepsToday: Monaco, Liechtenstein, Asturies, Wales;[1] Andorra (Co-Princes). Historical: Albania, Serbia
DukeDuchessDuchyDucalDuxDuke of Buccleuch, Duke of York, Duke of Devonshire et al.
CountCountessCountyComitalComesMost common in the Holy Roman Empire, translated in German as Graf; historical: Portugal, Barcelona, Brandenburg, Baden, numerous others
BaronBaronessBaronyBaronialBaroThere are normal baronies and sovereign baronies, a sovereign barony can be compared with a principality, however, this is an historical exception; sovereign barons no longer have a sovereign barony, but only the title and style
PopeThere is no formal feminine of Pope (Popess) Note 1PapacyPapalPapaMonarch of the Papal States and later Sovereign of the State of Vatican City

The title of a character found in Tarot cards based upon the Pope on the Roman Catholic Church. As the Bishop of Rome is an office always forbidden to women there is no formal feminine of Pope, which comes from the Latin word papa (an affectionate form of the Latin for father). Indeed the Oxford English Dictionary does not contain the word.[2]
The mythical Pope Joan, who was reportedly a woman, is always referred to with the masculine title pope, even when her female identity is known. Further, even if a woman were to become Bishop of Rome it is unclear if she would take the title popess; a parallel might be drawn with the Anglican Communion whose female clergy use the masculine titles of priest and bishop as opposed to priestess or bishopess.
Nonetheless some European languages, along with English, have formed a feminine form of the word pope, such as the Italian papessa, the French papesse, and the German Päpstin.

Titles used by knights, dames, baronets and baronetesses[edit]

These do not belong to the nobility.

"Sir" and "Dame" differ from titles such as "Mr" and "Mrs" in that they can only be used before a person's first name, and not immediately before their surname.

Judicial titles[edit]

Historical[edit]

Ecclesiastical titles (Christian)[edit]

Titles are used to show somebody's ordination as a priest or their membership in a religious order. Use of titles differs between denominations.

Religious[edit]

Priests[edit]

Christian priests often have their names prefixed with a title similar to The Reverend.

Used for deceased persons only[edit]

Other[edit]

Academic titles[edit]

Main article: Titles in academia

Military titles[edit]

Military ranks are used before names.

Ranks of other organizations[edit]

The names of police officers may be preceded by a title such as "Officer" or by their rank.

Unofficial use[edit]

Some titles are used to show one's role or position in a society or organization.

Some titles are used in English to refer to the position of people in foreign political systems

Non-English speaking areas[edit]

Default titles in other languages[edit]

FrenchGermanDutchSpanish
MaleMonsieurHerrMeneerSeñor
FemaleMadameFrauMevrouwSeñora
Unmarried femaleMademoiselleFräuleinMejuffrouwSeñorita

Academic[edit]

Religious[edit]

Honorary titles[edit]

Rulers[edit]

Historical titles for heads of state[edit]

The following are no longer officially in use, though some may be claimed by former regnal dynasties.

Appointed[edit]
Elected or popularly declared[edit]
Hereditary[edit]

When a difference exists below, male titles are placed to the left and female titles are placed to the right of the slash.

Aristocratic[edit]

Historical[edit]

Russian:

German:

Spanish:

others

Fictional titles[edit]

Other[edit]

Historical[edit]

Post-nominal letters[edit]

Members of legislatures often have post-nominal letters expressing this:

University degrees[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Prince of Wales is a title granted, following an investiture, to the eldest son of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom – he is not a monarch in his own right.
  2. ^ "?". 

References[edit]