- See Tišritum for the Babylonian month.
Tishrei or Tishri (pron.: /ˈtɪʃriː/ or /ˈtɪʃreɪ/; Hebrew: תִּשְׁרֵי or תִּשְׁרִי, Standard: Tišre (Tišri), Tiberian: Tišrê (Tišrî); from Akkadian tašrītu "Beginning", from šurrû "To begin") is the first month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) in the Hebrew calendar. The name of the month is Babylonian. It is an autumn month of 30 days. Tishrei usually occurs in September–October on the Gregorian calendar.
In the Hebrew Bible, before the Babylonian Exile, the month is called Ethanim (Hebrew: אֵתָנִים - 1 Kings 8:2).
Edwin R. Thiele has concluded, in The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, that the ancient Kingdom of Judah counted years using the civil year starting in Tishrei, while the Kingdom of Israel counted years using the ecclesiastical new year starting in Nisan. Tishrei is the month used for the counting of the epoch year - i.e., the count of the year is incremented on 1 Tishrei.
Holidays in Tishrei
1-2 Tishrei - Rosh Hashanah
3 Tishrei - Tzom Gedaliah – (Fast Day) - On Tishrei 4 when Tishrei 3 is Shabbat
10 Tishrei - Yom Kippur – (Fast Day)
15–21 Tishrei - Sukkot
- 21 Tishrei - Hoshanah Rabbah
22 Tishrei - Shemini Atzeret & Simchat Torah - Also the 23 Tishrei outside of Israel
Tishrei in Jewish history
1 Tishrei - (3760 BCE(gregorian calendar), 2 AM(Hebrew Calendar))Adam & Eve were created
- On Tishrei 1, which corresponds to the sixth day of creation -- "God said: 'Let us make Man in Our image, after Our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth...'" (Genesis 1:26).
1 Tishrei - (3760 BCE, 2 AM)First Sin & Repentance
- On the same day man was created, man also committed the first sin of history, transgressing the divine commandment not to eat from the "Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil". Adam and Eve were banished from the Garden of Eden, and humanity became subject to death, labor and moral confusion. But also on that day, the first persons also repented their sin, introducing the concept and opportunities of teshuvah ("return").
1 Tishrei - (2106 BCE, 1657 AM) - Dove's 3rd Mission
- On the 1st of Tishrei, (the 307th day of the Great Flood), Noah dispatched a dove from the ark, for the third time. When the dove returned carrying an olive branch, this is how Noah knew that the flood was drained from the earth. On that day, Noah removed the roof of the ark; but Noah and his family, and all the animals, remained in the ark for another 57 days, until the 27th of Cheshvan, when the surface of the earth was completely dry and God commanded them to leave the ark and resettle and repopulate the earth.
1 Tishrei - (1678 BCE, 2084 AM) - Binding of Isaac; Sarah's Passing
- Abraham's test of faith—his binding of Isaac in preparation to sacrifice him as per God's command, occurred on the 1st of Tishrei of the Hebrew year 2084 (1678 BCE), and is recalled each Rosh Hashanah with the sounding of the shofar (ram's horn, for the reason that a ram was sacrificed in Isaac's place when an angel revealed that the command to sacrifice Isaac was a divine test). The Torah's account of the event is publicly read in the synagogue on the 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah. On the day of Isaac's binding, the Talmud tells that his mother, Sarah, died at age 127, and was then buried in the Machpelah Cave in Hebron.
1 Tishrei - (1923 AD, 5684 AM) - Daf Yomi
- The "Daf Yomi" a daily regimen of Talmud study (in which the participant studies one folio a day to complete the entire Talmud in seven years) initiated by Rabbi Meir Shapiro of Lublin, was launched on Rosh Hashanah of 1923.
3 Tishrei - (582 BCE, 3180 AM) - Assassination of Gedaliah (Fast of Gedalia)
- 3rd Tishrei is a fast day which mourns the assassination of the Jewish Royal Gedaliah ben Achikam, governor of the Land of Israel for a short period following the destruction of the First Temple. Gedaliah's killing spelled the end of the small remnant of the Jewish community that remained in Israel after its destruction, which then subsequently fled to Egypt. (According to many opinions, the assassination actually occurred on Rosh Hashanah, but the commemoration of the event is postponed to the day after the festival).
5 Tishrei - (134 AD, 3795 AM) - Rabbi Akiva murdered
- The great Talmudic sage, Rabbi Akiva, was taken captive by the Romans on the 5th of Tishrei, of the year 3894 from creation (134 CE). His subsequent torture and execution ("martyred") is recalled in the Eleh Ezkerah poem of the Yom Kippur service.
8 Tishrei - (826 BCE, 2936 AM) - Temple dedicated
- The 14-day dedication festivities, which celebrated the completion of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem built by King Solomon, started on the 8th of Tishrei of the Hebrew year, 2935 (826 BCE). The First Temple served as the centre of Jewish national and spiritual life for 410 years, until it was destroyed by the Babylonians in 423 BCE.
10 Tishrei - (1313 BCE, 2449 AM) - 2nd Tablets; Day of Forgiveness (Yom Kippur)
- On the 10th of Tishrei of the Hebrew year, 2449, (which was 82 days after the people of Israel betrayed their new covenant with God by worshipping a Golden Calf and after Moses twice spent 40 days atop Mount Sinai pleading on their behalf), "God restored His goodwill with the Israelite people gladly and wholeheartedly, saying to Moses 'I have forgiven, as you ask', and gave him the Second Tablets", which established that as a day of atonement, forgiveness and teshuvah for them and all future generations.
13 Tishrei - (1837 AD, 5598 AM) - Passing of Rabbi Akiva Eiger
- Passing of Rabbi Akiva Eiger (1761–1837), a notable Talmudist and Halachic authority.
13 Tishrei - (1882 AD, 5643 AM) - Passing Shmuel Schneersohn of Lubavitch- The Rebbe MaHaRaSh
15 Tishrei - (4 BCE, 3758 AM) - Jesus born
18 Tishrei - (1810 AD, 5571 AM) - Passing of Rabbi Nachman of Breslov
19 Tishrei - (1797 AD, 5558 AM) - Passing of Rabbi Elyahu The Vilna Gaon
- Passing of Rabbi Elyahu ben Shlomo Zalman, The Vilna Gaon, tha GRA- a prominent Talmudist and Kabbalist (1720–1797).
25 Tishrei - (1810 AD, 5571 AM) - Passing of Rabbi Levi Yitzchak of Berditchev
25 Tishrei - (1839 AD, 5700 AM) - Passing of the Chatam Sofer
- Tishrei 25th is the yahrtzeit (anniversary of the passing) of Rabbi Moses Sofer of Pressburg (1762–1839), known as "Chatam Sofer" after his work of Rabbinic respona. Sofer was a Halachic authority, and advocated against various reformist Jewish movements of his time.
29 Tishrei (273 BCE, 3489 AM) - Passing of Simeon HaTzaddik
29 Tishrei - (1508 AD, 5269 AM) - Passing of Rabbi Don Isaac Abravanel
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it
- Tishrīn (Arabic: تشرين) is the name of two Gregorian months in the Levant:
- Tishrīn al-Awwal (Arabic: تشرين الأول, literally "First Tishrin"): October. The 1973 Yom Kippur War is generally known by the name Ḥarb Tishrīn ("October War") in Syria and Lebanon, and among the Palestinians, following the Arab custom of naming the Arab-Israeli wars by months or years.
- Tishrīn al-Thāni (Arabic: تشرين الثاني, literally "Second Tishrin"): November.