In its ophthalmic form (brand names Timoptol in Italy; Timoptic), it is used to treat open-angle and occasionally secondary glaucoma by reducing aqueous humour production through blockage of the beta receptors on the ciliary epithelium. The pharmacological mechanism by which it actually does this is still unknown. First beta-blocker approved for topical use in treatment of glaucoma in the USA (1978). With monotherapy, depresses IOP 18-34% below baseline within first few treatments. However, there are short-term escape and long-term drift effects in some patients. That is, tolerance develops. May reduce extent of diurnal IOP curve up to 50%. IOP higher during sleep. 5-10x more potent beta-blocker than propranolol. Light sensitive; preserved with 0.01% benzalkonium Cl (and also comes BAC free). Can also be used in adjunctive therapy with pilocarpine or CAIs.
Children and Adults: Ophthalmic: Initial: 0.25% solution, instill 1 drop twice daily; increase to 0.5% solution if response not adequate; decrease to 1 drop/day if *controlled; do not exceed 2 drops twice daily of 0.5% solution Adults: Oral: