Chronology of the Bible

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This article deals with the chronology of the Hebrew Bible (or Christian Old Testament). For material on the Christian New Testament, see Chronology of Jesus, Historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles, and Timeline of Christianity. For a historical look at the Bible see The Bible and history. For the composition of the various books of the Bible, see Dating the Bible.

A chronology of the Bible is the goal of those who attempt to calibrate the various genealogies, generations, reign-periods and other historical reference points contained within the Tanakh or Christian Old Testament. Some biblical scholars such as Martin Anstey believed it was possible to establish a select chronology of the human race according to the Jewish and Christian faith.[1] Other researchers say such efforts are futile. David Long, for instance, says such efforts lay the foundation of modern-day creationism, and does so by "rejecting the figurative or metaphorical interpretation of Biblical texts" resulting in the "sublimation of all manner of post-enlightenment scientific data".[2]

According to bible chronologers, the passage of time in the earlier passages of Genesis is indicated by counts of generations: an individual lived so many years, begat a son, and died at such and such an age: when the ages at each birth of a new generation are added together, the result is the total number of years elapsed. In later books the passage of years is calibrated to events in the overall narrative (e.g., 1 Kings 6:1 states that the building of the Temple of Solomon began in the 480th year from the Exodus), or by inter-relationships of the reigns of kings (e.g., king A of Israel came to the throne in year X of king B of Judah and ruled Z number of years, for example in 1 Kings 15:25-28).

While some of the events during the monarchic period (10th to 7th centuries BCE) are historical and can be related to extra-biblical historiography, attempts to date Moses and the Exodus, or yet earlier events such as the birth of Abraham, Noah's Flood, or the date of Creation with archaeological evidence have been unsuccessful. These events and the dates assigned to such events cannot be established as historical fact according to the scientific method without further archaeological discoveries.[3]

Background[edit]

Historically, Bible chronology has captured the interest of a range of biblical scholars, ranging from chronologers in the Early Church such as Eusebius and Jerome to more recent contributors such as Joseph Scaliger, Sir Isaac Newton and Bishop Ussher. More recently, in 1913 Martin Anstey's 'The Romance of Bible Chronology' was significant within the tradition of Biblical Literalism for developing the first Bible chronology that successfully resolved the Bible's apparent chronological gaps.[4] Until the late nineteenth century Bible Chronology was the most prevalent method for calculating the age of the earth, but was replaced by radiometric calculation methods developed contiguously with the rise of Darwin's theory of evolution.

Overview[edit]

According to biblical scholar Thomas Thompson, the main events of the biblical chronology are the Creation (Year 0 AM), the account of Noah's Ark, the birth and summoning of Abraham, the Exodus, the construction of the Temple of Solomon, the Edict allowing the return of the Jews to Jerusalem which, according to Ezra, was issued by Cyrus the Great during the first year of his conquest of Babylon, and the rededication of the Temple during the Maccabaean period.[5]

Creation to the Flood[edit]

Biblical dating commences with Creation or the creation of Adam, depending on the source. In the Seder Olam Rabbah, written during ca. 160 CE and meant to be a history of the world, Adam's creation is considered year 0,[dubious ] and his death 930 years later is considered year 930. The Jewish calendar currently in use terms the 5 days prior to Adam's creation year 1, and has Adam created on the first day of year 2.[citation needed]

The period to the Flood is derived using the genealogical table of the ten patriarchs listed in Genesis 5, and 7:6, termed the generations of Adam. According to the Masoretic Text, this period consists of 1656 years, and this dating is also followed by Western Christian Bibles derived from the Latin Vulgate. According to the Samaritan texts the period is 1307 years, and according to the Septuagint (Codex Alexandrinus, Elizabeth Bible) it is 2262 years.[6]

Masoretic
Date (AM)
Masoretic
Date (BCE)
EventReference
1 AM4124 BCEAccording to the Genesis creation narrative heaven and the earth were created, including Adam and Eve.Genesis 1:1
130 AM3995 BCESeth born, son of Adam with EveGenesis 5:3
235 AM3890 BCEEnosh born, son of SethGenesis 5:6
325 AM3800 BCEKenan born, son of EnoshGenesis 5:9
395 AM3730 BCEMahalalel born, son of KenanGenesis 5:12
460 AM3665 BCEJared born, son of MahalalelGenesis 5:15
622 AM3503 BCEEnoch born, son of JaredGenesis 5:18
687 AM3438 BCEMethuselah born, son of EnochGenesis 5:21
874 AM3251 BCELamech born, son of MethusalehGenesis 5:25
930 AM3195 BCEAdam died at 930Genesis 5:5
987 AM3138 BCEEnoch "walks with God"Genesis 5:23-24
1042 AM3083 BCESeth died at 912Genesis 5:8
1056 AM3069 BCENoah born, son of LamechGenesis 5:28-29
1140 AM2985 BCEEnosh died at 905Genesis 5:11
1235 AM2890 BCEKenan died at 910Genesis 5:14
1290 AM2835 BCEMahalalel died at 895Genesis 5:17
1422 AM2703 BCEJared died at 962Genesis 5:20
1556 AM2569 BCENoah begets Shem, Ham and Japheth. Noah is 500, nearly 501.Genesis 5:32
Genesis 7:6
1651 AM2474 BCELamech died at 777Genesis 8:4
1656 AM2469 BCEMethuselah died at 969Genesis 5:31
1656 AM2469 BCEOn the seventeenth (Septuagint: 27th) day of the second month, the fountains of the great deep were broken up and the windows of heaven were opened.Genesis 7:4-11
1656 AM2469 BCEOn the seventeenth day of the seventh month, Noah's Ark rested in "mountains of Ararat"Genesis 7:27
1657 AM2468 BCEOn the twenty-seventh day of the second month, Noah and his family left the arkGenesis 8:13-14
1658 AM2467 BCEArphaxad born, son of Shem
Shem is 100 years old, nearly 101.
Genesis 11:10

Flood to Abraham[edit]

The period from the creation to Abraham is measured by the genealogies at Genesis 5 and 11, elapsed time being calculated by the addition of the years of the patriarchs at the birth of their offspring. The genealogies exist in three main manuscript traditions, the Masoretic (in Hebrew), the Septuagint (in Greek), and the Samaritan Torah (Hebrew). The three do not agree with each other, here or elsewhere. (The Septuagint is represented in this table by two manuscripts, Alexandrinus and Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209; dates are Anno Mundi, or AM, meaning year of the world):[7]

PeriodMasoretic
Alexandrinus
Vaticanus
Samaritan
Note
Year of the Flood1656 AM2262 AM2242 AM1307 AMThe Masoretic, Alexandrinus and Samaritan chronologies records the deaths of all the pre-Flood patriarchs except Noah either in or prior to the Flood, but Vaticanus has Methuselah outlive the Flood by 14 years.
Flood to Abraham352 years1072 years1172 years942 years
Year of Abraham's birth1948 AM3334 AM3414 AM2249 AMThe two sets of patriarchs before and after the Flood are exactly symmetrical: there are ten in each group, and the final members of each, Noah and Terah, each have three sons who will begin the next section of the chronology.

The following is a list of biblical patriarchs from Shem to Abraham, given with their Masoretic date.

Masoretic date
(AM)
Masoretic date
(BCE)
EventBible verse
1658 AM2467 BCEArphaxad born, son of ShemGenesis 11:10
1693 AM2432 BCEShelah born, son of ArphaxadGenesis 11:12
1693 AM2432 BCEEber born, son of ShelahGenesis 11:12
1757 AM2368 BCEPeleg born, son of EberGenesis 11:16
1787 AM2338 BCEReu born, son of PelegGenesis 11:18
1819 AM2306 BCESerug born, son of ReuGenesis 11:20
1849 AM2276 BCENahor born, son of SerugGenesis 11:22
1878 AM2247 BCETerah born, son of NahorGenesis 11:24
1996 AM2129 BCEPeleg diedGenesis 11:19
1997 AM2128 BCENahor diedGenesis 11:25
2006 AM2119 BCENoah diedGenesis 9:28
1948 AM2117 BCEAbram born, son of TerahGenesis 11:26
Genesis 12:4
Acts 7:2-4

Birth of Abraham to death of Joseph[edit]

This table gives the Masoretic dates (Seder Olam Rabbah) in the Anno Mundi era and converted to the Dionysian era (1 AM = 3925 BCE).[citation needed]

The 40-year reigns of David and Solomon of the United Monarchy are probably schematic rather than historical, even though those two kings may be historical.[8]

The BCE dates, prior to the kings period, are estimated dates and based on a continuous judges rule which was not the case. Intermediary periods with no judges existed, and judges may have overlapped.[9]

Masoretic date
(AM)
Masoretic date
(BCE)
EventBible verse
1948 AM2117 BCEAbram born, son of TerahGenesis 11:26
Genesis 12:4
Acts 7:4
2018 AM2107 BCESarai born, wife of AbramGenesis 17:17
2026 AM2099 BCEReu diedGenesis 11:21
2107 AM2018 BCECovenant of Circumcision. Abram and Sarai renamed Abraham and Sarah by the LORD.
Abraham was circumcised.
Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed
Genesis 17:10
2049 AM2076 BCESerug diedGenesis 11:23
2083 AM2042 BCETerah diedGenesis 11:32
2094 AM2031 BCEIshmael born, son of Abram with Sarai's handmaiden HagarGenesis 16:16
2096 AM2029 BCEArpachshad diedGenesis 11:13
2108 AM2017 BCEIsaac born, son of Abraham with SarahGenesis 21:5
2126 AM1999 BCEShelah diedGenesis 11:15
2141 AM1980 BCESarah diedGenesis 23:1
2158 AM1967 BCEShem diedGenesis 11:11
2168 AM1957 BCEEsau and Jacob born, sons of Isaac with RebekahGenesis 25:26
2183 AM1942 BCEAbraham diedGenesis 25:7
2187 AM1938 BCEEber diedGenesis 11:17
2231 AM1894 BCEIshmael diedGenesis 25:17
2259 AM1866 BCEJoseph born, son of Jacob with RachelGenesis 30:25
Genesis 41:46
2276 AM1849 BCEJoseph was sold by his brothersGenesis 37:2
2287 AM1838 BCEJoseph interpreted the dreams of the butler and the baker while in prisonGenesis 41:1
2288 AM1837 BCEIsaac diedGenesis 35:28
2289 AM1836 BCEJoseph was elevated to Pharaoh's secondGenesis 41:46
2298 AM1827 BCEJacob moved to Egypt at the age of 130
After 7 years of plenty and 2 years of famine
When Joseph was 39
Genesis 47:9, 45:11, 41:46
2315 AM1810 BCEJacob diedGenesis 47:28
2369 AM1756 BCEJoseph diedGenesis 50:26

Birth of Moses to United Monarchy[edit]

This table gives the Masoretic dates (Seder Olam Rabbah) in the Anno Mundi era and converted to the Dionysian era (1 AM = 3925 BCE).[citation needed]

Masoretic date
(AM)
Masoretic date
(BCE)
EventBible verse
2433 AM1692 BCEMoses born, son of Amram with JochebedExodus 7:7
Exodus 12:40,41
Exodus 2:23
Exodus 2:11-15
Acts 7:23-30
2513 AM1612 BCEThe Israelites left in a mass exodus from Egypt.Genesis 15:13,
see also 1 Kings 6:1
2553 AM1572 BCEAaron and Moses diedDeuteronomy 34:7
2553 AM1572 BCEThe Israelites entered CanaanJoshua 4:19
2553–3063 AM1572–1062 BCEPeriod of Joshua, Judges and Saul, first King of Israel1 Kings 6:1
2 Samuel 5:4
3033 AM1092 BCEJesse begat David2 Samuel 5:4
3063–3103 AM1062–1022 BCEDavid reigned as king of Israel1 Kings 2:11 - reigns for 40 years
3070 AM1055 BCEDavid moved his capitol from Hebron to Jerusalem1 Kings 2:11
3103–3143 AM1022–982 BCESolomon son of David reigned as king of Israel1 Kings 11:42
3106 AM1019 BCEFoundation of Temple laid in the 4th year of Solomon's reign
480th year after the Exodus. As Anstey noted, "The 480 years of 1Kings 6:1 being the sum of the periods enumerated, omitting the six servitudes, the usurpation, and the two concurrent judgeships. Total: 480 years of Israel governed by God + 114 years of servitude and usurpation = 594 years".[10]
1 Kings 6:1

The biblical chronology of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah includes some historical events and can be compared to dates from Assyrian chronology such as the Battle of Qarqar.[11]

The sum of the reigns of the kings of Judah is 430 years, the same as the Septuagint's version of the period between the promise of the Land of Canaan given to Abraham and the covenant at Sinai.[12]

For this period, most historians follow either of the older chronologies established by William F. Albright or Edwin R. Thiele, or the newer chronologies of Gershon Galil and Kenneth Kitchen. See Kings of Israel and Kings of Judah for the differences between these chronologies. These scholarly chronologies may differ for up to about forty years from the traditional Masoretic dates in the early period, while all authorities agree that the last king of Judah, Zedekiah, ruled from 597 to 587 or 586 BCE.

Divided Monarchy: Kingdom of Israel[edit]

The following table only gives the Anno Mundi dates of the Masoretic tradition and its conversion in the Dionysian era (AM 1 = 3925 BCE).


Masoretic date
(AM)
Masoretic date
(BCE)
EventBible verse
3143 AM982 BCEThe United Monarchy split into two rival kingdoms: Israel in the north and Judah in the south.1 Kings 12
3143–3164 AM982–961 BCEJeroboam I son of Nebat reigned as king of Israel1 Kings 12:20
1 Kings 14:20
3163–3164 AM962–961 BCENadab son of Jeroboam I co-reigned as king of Israel with Jeroboam.1 Kings 15
2 Chronicles 13:20
3164–3165 AM961–960 BCENadab son of Jeroboam I reigned as king of Israel.1 Kings 15
2 Chronicles 13:20
3165–3188 AM960–937 BCEBaasha reigned as king of Israel1 Kings 15:28,33
3188–3189 AM937-936 BCEElah son of Baasha reigned as king of Israel1 Kings 16
3189 AM936 BCEZimri reigned as king of Israel for 7 days in Tirzah having slew Elah.1 Kings 16
3189-3193 AM936–932 BCEThe people of Israel were divided after the death of Zimri, as half wanted Tibni for King, with the other half wanting Omri for King. Rival kingships of Tibni and Omri until Tibni dies.1 Kings 16
3193–3200 AM932–925 BCEOmri reigns as sole king of Israel, after the death of Tibni.1 Kings 16
3200–3221 AM925–904 BCEAhab son of Omri reigned as king of Israel1 Kings 16
3220–3221 AM905–904 BCEAhab son of Omri and Ahaziah son of Ahab co-reigned as kings of Israel1 Kings 16
3221-3221 AM904-903 BCEAhaziah son of Ahab reigned as king of Israel, following the death of King Ahab in battle at Ramoth Gilead.1 Kings 22
3221–3233 AM903–892 BCEJoram (Jehoram) son of Ahab reigned as king of Israel, following death of King Ahab in battle at Ramoth Gilead and King Ahaziah who fell through a lattice.2 Kings 1
3233–3261 AM892-864 BCEJehu son of Nimshi slew the two kings, Joram King of Israel and Ahaziah King of Judah. Jehu becomes the king of Israel2 Kings 9:21
3261–3278 AM864–847 BCEJehoahaz son of Jehu reigned as king of Israel
3275–3278 AM850–847 BCEJehoahaz son of Jehu and Jehoash (Joash) son of Jehoahaz co-reign as kings of Israel
3278–3293 AM847–832 BCEJehoash (Joash) son of Jehoahaz reigned as king of Israel
3293–3334 AM832–791 BCEJeroboam II son of Jehoash reigned as king of Israel2 Kings 14:16,23
3334–3356 AM791-769 BCEInterregnum
3356–3357 AM769-768 BCEZechariah son of Jeroboam II reigned as king of Israel six months
3357–3357 AM768-768 BCEShallum reigned as king of Israel
3358–3568 AM767–757 BCEMenahem son of Gadi reigned as king of Israel
3368–3370 AM757–755 BCEPekahiah son of Menahem reigned as king of Israel
3370–3390 AM755–735 BCEPekah son of Remaliah reigned as king of Israel
3390–3398 AM735-727 BCEInterregnum
3398–3406 AM727–719 BCEHoshea son of Elah reigned as king of Israel
3403 AM722 BCENorthern kingdom of Israel fell to Assyria, forced to pay tribute.
3406 AM719 BCENorthern kingdom of Israel fell to Assyria, deportation of inhabitants to Assyria.2 Kings 17:1

Divided Monarchy: Kingdom of Judah[edit]

Masoretic date
(AM)
Masoretic date
(BCE)
EventBible verse
3143 AM982 BCEThe United Monarchy split into two rival kingdoms: Israel in the north and Judah in the south.1 Kings 12
3143–3160 AM982–965 BCERehoboam son of Solomon reigned as king of Judah1 Kings 12
3160–3163 AM965-962 BCEAbijam son of Rehoboam reigned as king of Judah1 Kings 15
3163–3204 AM963–922 BCEAsa son of Abijam reigned as king of Judah1 Kings 15
3204–3229 AM922–896 BCEJehoshaphat son of Asa reigned as king of Judah, from 35 years old until his death at 60 years old.1 Kings 22
3224–3228 AM900-896 BCEJehoshaphat son of Asa and Jehoram (Joram) son of Jehoshaphat co-reigned as kings of Judah
3229–3232 AM896-893 BCEJehoram (Joram) son of Jehoshaphat reigned as king of Judah,
3231-3232 AM894-893 BCEJehoram (Joram) son of Jehoshaphat and Ahaziah son of Jehoram co-reigned as kings of Judah
3232-3233 AM893-892 BCEAhaziah son of Jehoram reigned as king of Judah
3233 AM892 BCEJehu son of Nimshi slew the two kings, Joram King of Israel and Ahaziah King of Judah. Jehu becomes the king of Israel2 Kings 9:21
3233–3239 AM892–886 BCEFollowing the death of her son Ahaziah at the hand of Jehu, Athaliah wife of Jehoram usurped the throne of Judah and ruled six years.2 Kings 11
3239–3279 AM886–846 BCEJoash (Jehoash) son of Ahaziah reigned as king of Judah 40 years following the overthrow of Athaliah.2 Kings 12:1
3279–3308 AM846–817 BCEAmaziah son of Joash reigned as king of Judah 29 years2 Kings 12:21
2 Kings 14:1-2
2 Kings 14:17-22
3308–3319 AM817–806 BCEInterregnum
3319–3371 AM806–754 BCEUzziah (Azariah) son of Amaziah reigned as king of Judah 52 years2 Kings 14:21
2 Kings 15:1-2
3371–3387754–738 BCEJotham son of Uzziah reigned as king of Judah 16 years, following four years serving as judge during the leprosy of King Uzziah2 Kings 15:32
3387–3403 AM738–722 BCEAhaz son of Jotham reigned as king of Judah 16 years2 Kings 15:38
3401–3403 AM724–722 BCEAhaz son of Jotham and Hezekiah son of Ahaz co-reigned as kings of Judah
3403–3430 AM724–697 BCEHezekiah son of Ahaz reigned as king of Judah2 Kings 16:20
3406 AM719 BCENorthern kingdom of Israel fell to Assyria during the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah
3430–3485 AM695–640 BCEManasseh son of Hezekiah reigned as king of Judah 55 years2 Kings 20:21
3485–3487 AM640–638 BCEAmon son of Manasseh reigned as king of Judah 2 years2 Kings 21:18
3487–3517 AM638–608 BCEJosiah son of Amon reigned as king of Judah
3517 AM608 BCEJehoahaz son of Josiah reigned as king of Judah 3 months
3518–3528 AM607–597 BCEJehoiakim son of Josiah reigned as king of Judah 10 years
3528 AM597 BCEJehoiachin (Jeconiah, Coniah) son of Jehoiakim reigned as king of Judah 3 months
3529–3539 AM596–586 BCEZedekiah (Mattaniah) son of Josiah reigned as king of Judah 10 years. In his eleventh year Jerusalem falls to the Babylonians.2 Kings 25:1-21
3538 AM587 BCEKingdom of Judah fell to Babylon. The destruction of the First Temple of Jerusalem. The start of the Babylonian Exile.
3586 AM539 BCEThe Babylonian Empire falls to the Persians, led by King Cyrus.Ezra 1
3587 AM538 BCEEnd of the Babylonian Exile, as King Cyrus the Great of Persia frees the Jews from exile, in the first year of his reign over Babylon.Ezra 1

Jewish computation[edit]

The Jewish calendar's reference point is traditionally considered to be about one year before the creation of the world.

The current Hebrew calendar year numbering system, which counts years from the creation, has been in use for more than 1000 years.[13] The year numbering system was adopted sometime before 3925 Anno Mundi (165 CE), and based on the calculation of Rabbi Yose ben Halafta during about 160 CE in the book Seder Olam Rabbah.[14]

The year numbers are based on the computations of dates and periods found in the Hebrew Bible. In Jewish tradition, "Year 1" is considered to have begun on the 25 of Elul, 6 days before the beginning of "Year 2" on the first of Tishrei, when Adam was created. The new moon of its first month (Tishrei) is designated molad tohu (the mean new moon of chaos or nothing). By Halafta's calculation Adam was created during the year 3761 BCE.[15] However, Seder Olam Rabbah treats the creation of Adam as the beginning of "Year Zero". This results in a two year discrepancy between the years given in Seder Olam Rabbah and the Jewish year used now. For example, Seder Olam Rabbah gives the year of the Exodus from Egypt as 2448 AM; but, according to the current system, the year would be 2450 AM.

Despite the computations by Yose ben Halafta, confusion persisted for a long time as to how the calculations should be applied.[16] During 1000, for example, the Muslim chronologist al-Biruni noted that three different epochs were used by various Jewish communities being one, two, or three years later than the modern epoch.[17] The epoch seems to have been settled by 1178, when Maimonides, in his work Mishneh Torah, described all of the modern rules of the Hebrew calendar, including the modern epochal year. His work has been accepted by Jews as definitive, though it does not correspond to the scientific calculations. For example, the Jewish year for the destruction of the First Temple has traditionally been given as 3338 AM or 421/2 BCE. This differs from the modern scientific year, which is usually expressed using the Gregorian calendar as 587 BCE. The scientific date takes into account evidence from the ancient Babylonian calendar and its astronomical observations. So, too, according to Jewish computation, the destruction of the Second Temple occurred in the lunar month of Av in anno 68 CE, rather than in 70 CE. In this and related cases, a difference between the traditional Jewish year and a scientific date in a Gregorian year results from a disagreement about when the event happened—and not simply a difference between the Jewish and Gregorian calendars (See the "Missing Years" in the Jewish Calendar and below, Excursus: Jewish Chronology in the Scroll of Antiochus).

In Jewish thought the counting is usually considered to be to the creation of the world, as has been emphasized in many ancient texts dealing with creation chronology that the six days of creation till man are literal days—including the days before the creation of the sun and earth.[18][19] However, some understand these days metaphorically.[20]

The modern epoch year is set at 3761 BCE, taking into account that there is no year zero in the Julian year count.

Biblical literalist chronology[edit]

Biblical literalism is the interpretation or translation of the explicit and primary sense of words and numbers in the Bible.[25] There are two kinds of literal interpretation, the more common historical-grammatical method, and "letterism", a hermeneutical method that attempts to uncover the meaning of a text through emphasis on a strict, mechanical literalism of words.[26]

Letterism does not necessarily lead to total and complete agreement upon one single interpretation for any given passage. A literalist reading of the explicit text of the Bible presents the reader with difficulties that cannot be resolved solely by the principle that "scripture clarifies the meaning of scripture" and "the Bible interprets the Bible" (Hyatt 1964, p. 45).[27] "Once you start with the assumption that a given passage does not mean what it says, but rather 'something else', you open the cover on a Pandora's box of wild imaginings and bizarre interpretations." (Hyatt 1964, pp. 43–44)[27]

A literal letterist chronology of the Bible calculates dates by arithmetic, taking the numbers of the years of listed genealogies, generations, regnal years, and lives of particular individuals as plainly stated in the text and simply adds them together. Attempts to harmonize the numerical dating in some parts of the Bible with the numerical dating in other parts (apparently) fail when the plain interpretation makes them inconsistent or contradictory. (Hyatt, p. 33)[27]


Disagreement persists as to whether a coherent Bible chronology can be calculated. While Martin Anstey was able to resolve the Bible's apparent chronological gaps in his 1913 publication 'The Romance of Bible Chronology', other authors have maintained that a coherent chronology is not calculable. (Elwell, p. 643; Ramm, p. 45; Hyatt, pp. 33, 43–44.)[25][26][27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.preteristarchive.com/Books/1913_anstey_romance.html
  2. ^ Long, D (2010). "Scientists at play in the field of the Lord". Cultural Studies of Science Education 5 (1): 213–225. doi:10.1007/s11422-009-9249-7. 
  3. ^ Everett Jenkins, The creation: secular, Jewish, Catholic, Protestant, and Muslim perspectives p.330
  4. ^ Martin Anstey, 'The Romance of Bible Chronology', 1913,[1].
  5. ^ Thompson, Thomas L., "The historicity of the patriarchal narratives (Continuum, 2002) ISBN 9781563383892, pp.14-15
  6. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Biblical Chronology (WikiSource)
  7. ^ G.F. Hasel, "Genesis 5 and 11: Chronogenealogies in the Biblical History of Beginnings"
  8. ^ History and ideology in the Old Testament, by James Barr, fn.6, p.63
  9. ^ Judges 3:8
  10. ^ http://www.preteristarchive.com/Books/1913_anstey_romance.html
  11. ^ see e.g. The Jerusalem Chronology of the Israelite Monarchies, by Brad Aaronson (1989)
  12. ^ Wayne Sibley Towner, "Genesis", (Westminster John Knox, 2001) p.75
  13. ^ Maimonides (Times:Laws of 7th year, chapt 10): For instance this year is ... and which is also counted as 4936 to the creation... is a Shemita year."
  14. ^ p.107, Kantor. Note that the book Seder Olam Rabbah has been continuously edited throughout the ages, and probably reached its current version around 806 CE according to the historian Leopold Zunz.
  15. ^ Genesis 2:7
  16. ^ Leopold Zunz On Time and Literature Zur Geschichte und Literatur opening chapter.
  17. ^ See The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries.
  18. ^ e.g.Maimonides Guide to the Perplexed (chapt 25): For two reasons, however, we have not done so, and have not accepted the Eternity of the Universe.... [A] mere argument in favour of a certain theory is not sufficient reason for rejecting the literal meaning of a Biblical text, and explaining it figuratively, when the opposite theory [of literalism] can be supported by an equally good argument. SacredTexts.com
  19. ^ e.g.Ramban on Genesis 1:3, And there was light: ...You should know that the "days" mentioned in the account of Creation, concerning the creating of heaven and earth, were real days, made up of hours and minutes, and there were six of them, like the [regular] six days of the work[week], in accordance with the simple understanding of the verse. (Translator's footnote:) Although there was no sun or moon for the first three days, so "day" cycles as we know them today did not exist then, nevertheless the six days of creation were six periods of twenty-four hours each. The Torah: with Ramban's commentary translated, annotated, and elucidated. Translated by Rabbi Yaakov Binder in collaboration with Rabbi Yoseph Kamenetsky. Artscroll Mesorah Publications, Ltd.
  20. ^ Rabbi A. Kook (Orot Hakodesh Book 2 Chapt 537): If these six days were simply six days, why then would they be called "The secrets of creation" and why would it be forbidden to learn them until correctly prepared... The theory of evolution is increasingly conquering the world at this time, and, more so than all other philosophical theories, conforms to the kabbalistic secrets of the world. Evolution, which proceeds on a path of ascendancy, provides an optimistic foundation for the world. How is it possible to despair at a time when we see that everything evolves and ascends? ... My Jewish Learning
  21. ^ Richard A. Parker & Waldo H. Dubberstein, Babylonian Chronology 626 BC - AD 75, Providence 1956
  22. ^ The Ancient Fragments, ed. I. P. Cory, Esq., p. 65, London 1828. Manetho was the high priest and scribe of Egypt who wrote down his history for Ptolemy Philadelphus.
  23. ^ Tosefta (Zevahim 13:6); Palestinian Talmud (Megillah 18a), et al.
  24. ^ Maimonides, Questions & Responsa, responsum # 389; in other editions, responsum # 234 (Hebrew). Maimonides states explicitly this tradition, putting the destruction of the Second Temple in the lunar month Av, in the year which preceded anno 380 of the Seleucid era (i.e. 68 CE). See also She'harim la'luah ha'ivry (Gates to the Hebrew Calendar) by Rahamim Sar-Shalom, 1984 (Hebrew)
  25. ^ a b "literalism is the interpretation or translation of the explicit and primary sense"—Sources:
    • The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language Houghton Mifflin: 4 edition (September 14, 2000) defines literalism as "1. Adherence to the explicit sense of a given text or doctrine. 2. Literal portrayal; realism."
    • Elwell, Walter A. (1984). Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House. p. 643. ISBN 0-8010-3413-2. 
    • "The literal sense is the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture and discovered by exegesis, following the rules of sound interpretation: 'All other senses of Sacred Scripture are based on the literal.' St. Thomas Aquinas STh I, 1, 10 ad 1." Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC) n. 116
  26. ^ a b Ramm, Bernard (1970), Protestant Biblical Interpretation, Baker Book House, ISBN 0-8010-7600-5, p. 45.
  27. ^ a b c d Hyatt, J. Philip (1964). "Chapter I. A Modern Approach to the Bible.". The Heritage of Biblical Faith. Saint Louis, Missouri: The Bethany Press. 

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