Timeline of same-sex marriage

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Legal recognition of
same-sex relationships
Marriage

Argentina
Belgium
Brazil
Canada
Denmark:
· Denmark proper
France
Iceland
Mexico:
· DF,1 QR1
Netherlands:
· Netherlands proper2
New Zealand:
· New Zealand proper

Norway
Portugal
South Africa
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom:
· England and Walesα
United States:
· CA, CT, DE, DC,
· HI, IL,β IA, ME, MD,
· MA, MN, NH, NJ,
· NM, NY, RI, VT,
· WA, 8 tribes
Uruguay

Recognized

· Federal government,
· OR

  1. Valid in all of Mexico
  2. Can be registered also in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten

Commencement dates:
  1. March 13, 2014
  2. Cook County: February 21, 2014; Rest of state: June 1, 2014
LGBT portal
 
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Legal recognition of
same-sex relationships
Marriage

Argentina
Belgium
Brazil
Canada
Denmark:
· Denmark proper
France
Iceland
Mexico:
· DF,1 QR1
Netherlands:
· Netherlands proper2
New Zealand:
· New Zealand proper

Norway
Portugal
South Africa
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom:
· England and Walesα
United States:
· CA, CT, DE, DC,
· HI, IL,β IA, ME, MD,
· MA, MN, NH, NJ,
· NM, NY, RI, VT,
· WA, 8 tribes
Uruguay

Recognized

· Federal government,
· OR

  1. Valid in all of Mexico
  2. Can be registered also in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten

Commencement dates:
  1. March 13, 2014
  2. Cook County: February 21, 2014; Rest of state: June 1, 2014
LGBT portal

This page contains a timeline of significant events regarding same-sex marriage and legal recognition of same-sex couples worldwide. It begins with the history of same-sex unions during ancient times, which consisted of unions ranging from informal and temporary relationships to highly ritualized unions, and continues to modern-day state-recognized same-sex marriage. Events concerning same-sex marriages becoming legal in a country or in a country's state are listed in bold.

Ancient times[edit]

Various types of same-sex marriages have existed,[1] ranging from informal, unsanctioned relationships to highly ritualized unions.[2]

Cicero mentions the marriage (using the Latin verb for "to marry", i.e. nubere) of the son of Curio the Elder, but he does it in a metaphorical form to criticize his enemy Antonius. Cicero states thus that the younger Curio was "united in a stable and permanent marriage" to Antonius.[3] Martial also mentions a number of same-sex marriages, but always in derisory terms against people whom he wants to mock.[4]

Practices and rituals for same sex unions were more recognized in Mesopotamia than in ancient Egypt.[5] In ancient Assyria, there was nothing wrong with homosexual love between men.[6][7][8][8] The Almanac of Incantations contained prayers giving equal standing to the love of a man for both a woman and a man.[9]

At least two of the Roman Emperors were in same-sex unions; and in fact, thirteen out of the first fourteen Roman Emperors held to be bisexual or exclusively homosexual.[10] The first Roman emperor to have married a man was Nero, who is reported to have married two other men on different occasions. First with one of his freedman, Pythagoras, to whom Nero took the role of the bride, and later as a groom Nero married a young boy, who resembled one of his concubines,[11] named Sporus.

Adolescent emperor Elagabalus referred to his chariot driver, a blond slave from Caria named Hierocles, as his husband.[12] He also married an athlete named Zoticus in a lavish public ceremony in Rome amidst the rejoicings of the citizens.[13]

These same-sex marriages continued until Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire. A law in the Theodosian Code (C. Th. 9.7.3) was issued in 342 AD by the Christian emperors Constantius II and Constans. This law prohibited same-sex marriage in ancient Rome and ordered that those who were so married were to be executed.[14][15]

In the Middle Ages, a same-sex marriage between the two men Pedro Díaz and Muño Vandilaz in the Galician municipality of Rairiz de Veiga in Spain occurred on 16 April 1061. They were married by a priest at a small chapel. The historic documents about the church wedding were found at Monastery of San Salvador de Celanova.[16]

In ancient India same-sex marriage was more common. One example being a Princess named Shikhandi (born Shikhandini) who was married off to another princess by her father King Drupada.[citation needed] According to traditions in South India, Krishna married Iravan to fulfill one of his three last wishes.[citation needed]

The Siwa Oasis in Egypt had an historical acceptance of male homosexuality and even rituals of same-sex marriage — traditions that Egyptian authorities have sought to repress, with increasing success, since the early 20th century.[17] The German egyptologist George Steindorff explored the oasis in the year 1900 and reported that homosexual relations were common and often extended to a form of marriage[18]

1970s[edit]

1970[edit]

1971[edit]

Michael McConnell (l) and Jack Baker apply at the Hennepin County courthouse for a license to marry.

1973[edit]

1974[edit]

1979[edit]

1980s[edit]

1989[edit]

1990s[edit]

1993[edit]

1994[edit]

1996[edit]

1997[edit]

1998[edit]

1999[edit]

  1. creates a relationship register for both gay and straight couples (called "Pacte civil de solidarité" abbreviated as "PaCS"); and
  2. redefines the non-registered partnership as the stable union between two adults regardless of their gender (before this law, previous decisions of the French highest Court ruled that there could be no couple without appearance of marriage, therefore excluding gay people from any vision of family).

2000s[edit]

2000[edit]

2001[edit]

Two men marrying in Amsterdam, in the first month after the Netherlands became the first country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage (2001).

2003[edit]

2004[edit]

2005[edit]

2006[edit]

2007[edit]

2008[edit]

First same-sex wedding in San Francisco, California.

2009[edit]

2010s[edit]

2010[edit]

President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández, signs the bill legalizing same-sex marriage.

2011[edit]

2012[edit]

2013[edit]

The National Assembly of France gives final approval to the same-sex marriage bill by a 331–225 vote.

2014[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  3. ^ Cicero Philippic 18 February, 2.45 See old translation at: http://old.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.02.0021&layout=&loc=18 February, 2.45
  4. ^ Martial 12.42, 1.35, 3.93, 12.95. Old Translations of passages at: http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/martial_epigrams_book12.htm http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/martial_epigrams_book01.htm http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/martial_epigrams_book03.htm
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  6. ^ Martial, 468.
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  11. ^ Nero missed her so greatly after her death that on learning of a woman who resembled her he at first sent for her and kept her; but later he caused a boy of the freedmen, whom he used to call Sporus,..."he formally "married" Sporus, and assigned the boy a regular dowry according to contract;" q.v., Suetonius Nero 28; Dio Cassius Epitome 62.28 Old Translation of passage at: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/62*.html
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  153. ^ See
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  187. ^ Constitutional convention backs extension of marriage rights to same-sex couples
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