Timeline of religion

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The timeline of religion is a chronological catalog of important and noteworthy religious events in prehistoric and modern times. This article reaches extensively into prehistoric times, as the bulk of the human religious experience is not relegated to written history. Written history is only approximately 5000 years old (the age of formal writing). A lack of written records is that much knowledge of prehistoric religion is derived from archaeological records, other indirect sources, and suppositions. Much of religious prehistory is subject to continued debate.

Prehistoric period (300th millennium to 34th century BCE)[edit source | edit]

A commonly held marker for the dawn of religious belief and practice is with the advent of intentional burial marks,[1] thus included in this section.

300th to 51st millennium BC[edit source | edit]

223,000 – 100,000 BCE 
The earliest evidence of Hominids, such as Neanderthals[2][3] and even Homo heidelbergensis,[3][4] deliberately disposing of deceased individuals usually in funerary caches. The graves, located throughout Eurasia (e.g. the Pontnewydd Cave, Atapuerca Mountains, Qafzeh, Es Skhul, Krapina),[3] are believed to represent the beginnings of ceremonial rites, although there is some debate about this.[5] Neanderthals placed their deceased in simple graves with little or no concern for grave goods or markers; however, their graves occasionally appeared with limestone blocks in or on them, possibly an archaic form of grave marking.[3] These practices were possibly the result of empathetic feelings towards fellow tribespeople, for example: an infant buried in the Dederiyeh Cave after its joints had disarticulated was placed with concern for the correct anatomical arrangement of its body parts.[3]
98,000 BC 
In the area of present-day France and Belgium, Neanderthals begin defleshing their dead, possibly after a period of excarnation prior to burial.[3]

50th to 11th millennium BCE[edit source | edit]

40,000 BCE 
One of the earliest anatomically modern humans to be cremated is buried near Lake Mungo.[6][7][8][9][10]
38,000 BCE 
The Aurignacian[11] Lion man of the Hohlenstein Stadel, the oldest known zoomorphic (animal-shaped) sculpture in the world and one of the oldest known sculptures in general, is made. The sculpture has also been interpreted as anthropomorphic, giving human characteristics to an animal, although it may have represented a deity.[12]
33,000 BCE 
All convincing evidence for Neanderthal burials ceases. Roughly coinciding with the time period of the Homo sapiens introduction to Europe and decline of the Neanderthals.[3]
25,000 BCE 
Individual skulls and/or long bones begin appearing heavily stained with red ochre and are separately buried. This practice may be the origins of sacred relics.[3]
The oldest discovered "Venus figurines" appear in graves. Some are deliberately broken or repeatedly stabbed. Possibly representing murders of the men they are buried with[3] or some other unknown social dynamic.
25,000 – 21,000 BCE 
Clear examples of burials are present in Iberia, Wales, and Eastern Europe. All of these, also, incorporate the heavy use of red ochre. Additionally, various objects are being included in the graves (i.e. periwinkle shells, weighted clothing, dolls, possible drumsticks, mammoth ivory beads, fox teeth pendants, panoply of ivory artifacts, "baton" antlers, flint blades, etc.).[3]
21,000 – 11,000 BCE 
Convincing evidence of mortuary activity ceases.[3]
13,000 – 8,000 BCE 
Noticeable burial activity resumes. Prior mortuary activity had either taken a less obvious form or contemporaries retained some of their burial knowledge in the absence of such activity; dozens of men, women, and children were being buried in the same caves which were used for burials 10,000 years beforehand. All these graves are delineated by the cave walls and large limestone blocks. The burials are very similar to each other and share a number of characteristics—ochre, shell and mammoth ivory jewellery—that go back thousands of years. Some burials are double, comprising an adult male with a juvenile male buried by his side. They are now appearing to take on the form of modern cemeteries. Old burials are commonly being redug and moved to make way for the new ones, with the older bones often being gathered and cached together. Large stones may have acted as grave markers. Pairs of ochred antlers are sometimes poles within the cave; this is compared to the modern practice of leaving flowers at one's grave.[3]

100th to 34th century BCE[edit source | edit]

9831
The Neolithic Revolution begins and results in a worldwide population explosion. The first cities, states, kingdoms, and organized religions begin to emerge. The early states were usually theocracies, in which the political power is justified by religious prestige.
9130 – 7370 BCE 
The apparent lifespan of Göbekli Tepe, the oldest human-made place of worship yet discovered.[13]
8000 BCE 
Four to five pine posts are erected near the eventual site of Stonehenge.
7500 – 5700 BCE 
The settlements of Catalhoyuk develop as a likely spiritual center of Anatolia. Possibly practicing worship in communal shrines, its inhabitants leave behind numerous clay figurines and impressions of phallic, feminine, and hunting scenes.
5500 – 4500 BCE
The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) emerged, probably within the Pontic-Caspian steppe (though their exact urheimat is debated). The PIE peoples developed a religion focused on sacrificial ideology, which would influence the religions of the descendent Indo-European cultures throughout Europe, Anatolia, and the Indian sub-continent.
~3750 BCE
The Proto-Semitic people emerged with a generally accepted urheimat in the Arabian peninsula. The Proto-Semitic people would migrate throughout the Near East into Mesopotamia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. Their religion would influence their descendant cultures and faiths, including the Abrahamic religions.

Ancient history (33rd century BCE to 3rd century CE)[edit source | edit]

33rd to 12th century BCE[edit source | edit]

3300 - 1300 BCE 
Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization. The shaded area does not include recent excavations.

The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, Flourishing around the Indus River basin, the civilization extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the upper reaches Ganges-Yamuna Doab; it extended west to the Makran coast of Balochistan, north to northeastern Afghanistan and south to Daimabad in Maharashtra. The civilization was spread over some 1,260,000 km², making it the largest known ancient civilization. The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries, Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, and multistoried houses as well as for containing artifacts of early Hinduism.

3228 – 3102 BCE 
Traditionally accepted time of Krishna's life on Earth (One of the revered gods in Hinduism).[14][15][16][17][18][19]
3100 BCE 
The initial form of Stonehenge is completed. The circular bank and ditch enclosure, about 110 metres (360 ft) across, may be complete with a timber circle.
3100 – 2900 BCE 
Newgrange, the 250,000 ton (226,796.2 tonne) passage tomb aligned to the winter solstice in Ireland, is built.[20]
3000 BCE 
Sumerian Cuneiform emerges from the proto-literate Uruk period, allowing the codification of beliefs and creation of detailed historical religious records.
The second phase of Stonehenge is completed and appears to function as the first enclosed cremation cemetery in the British Isles.
2635 – 2610 BCE 
The oldest surviving Egyptian Pyramid is commissioned by pharaoh Djoser.
2600 BCE 
Stonehenge begins to take on the form of its final phase. The wooden posts are replaced with that of bluestone. It begins taking on an increasingly complex setup—including altar, portal, station stones, etc.—and shows consideration of solar alignments.
2560 BCE 
The approximate time accepted as the completion of the Great Pyramid of Giza, the oldest pyramid of the Giza Plateau.
2494 – 2345 BCE 
The first of the oldest surviving religious texts, the Pyramid Texts, are composed in Ancient Egypt.
2200 BCE 
Minoan Civilization in Crete develops. Citizens worship a variety of Goddesses.
2150 – 2000 BCE 
The earliest surviving versions of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (originally titled "He who Saw the Deep" (Sha naqba īmuru) or "Surpassing All Other Kings" (Shūtur eli sharrī)) were written.
2000 – 1850 BCE 
The traditionally accepted period in which the Judeochristian/Islamic patriarchal figure Abraham lived. Likely born in Ur Kaśdim or Haran and died in Machpelah, Canaan.
1700 BCE 
Zoroaster (a.k.a. Zarathushtra), founder of Zoroastrianism is thought to have been born.
1600 BCE 
The ancient development of Stonehenge comes to an end.
1500 – 1000 BCE 
Vedic 'Samhitas' composed (Rig-Veda : Hinduism : India)

13th to 9th century BCE[edit source | edit]

1367 BCE 
Reign of Akhenaten in Ancient Egypt. Akhenaten is sometimes credited with starting the earliest known monotheistic religion. Akenaten's monotheistic beliefs are thought to be the precursor of the monotheistic doctrines of the Abrahamic religions.
1300 – 1000 BCE 
The "standard" Akkadian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh was edited by Sin-liqe-unninni.
1250 BCE 
The believed time of the Hebrew exodus from Egypt.
1200 BCE 
The Greek Dark Age begins.
1200 BCE 
Olmecs build earliest pyramids and temples in Central America.[21]
950 BCE 
The Torah begins to be written, the core texts of Judaism and foundation of later Abrahamic religions.
877–777 BCE
Parshva, 23rd Tirthankar of Jainism.[22][23][24][25][26][27]

8th to 3rd century BCE[edit source | edit]

800 BCE 
Early Brahmanas are composed.
800 BCE
The Greek Dark Age ends.
600 – 500 BCE 
Earliest Confucian writing, Shu Ching incorporates ideas of harmony and heaven.
599–527 BCE
Mahavira, 24th and last Tirthankar of Jainism.[28]
600–400 BCE
Probable time of existence of Laozi, author of the Tao Te Ching, considered the founding work of philosophical Taoism.
563 BCE 
Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism is born.
551 BCE 
Confucius, founder of Confucianism, is born.[21]
440 BCE 
Zoroastrianism enters recorded history.
399 BCE 
Socrates is tried for impiety.
300 BCE 
Theravada Buddhism is introduced to Sri Lanka by the Venerable Mahindra.
250 BCE 
The Third Buddhist council was convened.

2nd century BCE to 4th century CE[edit source | edit]

150 BCE 
The oldest surviving Hebrew Bible manuscripts date to about the 2nd century BCE (fragmentary).
63 BCE 
Pompey captures Jerusalem and annexes Judea as a Roman client kingdom.
7 BCE – 36 CE 
The approximate time-frame for the life of Jesus of Nazareth, the central figure of Christianity.
50–62 
Council of Jerusalem is held.
70 
Siege of Jerusalem and the Destruction of the Temple.
220 
Manichaean Gnosticism is formed by prophet Mani
250 
Some of the oldest parts of the Ginza Rba, a core text of Mandaean Gnosticism, are written.
250 – 900 
Classic Mayan civilization, Stepped pyramids are constructed.
300 
The oldest known version of the Tao Te Ching is written on bamboo tablets.
313 
The Edict of Milan decrees religious toleration in the Roman empire.
325 
The first Ecumenical Council, the Council of Nicaea, is convened to attain a consensus on doctrine through an assembly representing all of Christendom. It establishes the original Nicene Creed, fixes Easter date, confirms primacy of the sees of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch, and grants the See of Jerusalem a position of honor.
350 
The oldest record of the complete biblical texts survives in a Greek translation called the Septuagint, dating to the (appx. placement here) 4th century CE (Codex Sinaiticus).
380 
Theodosius I declares Nicene Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire.
381 
The second Ecumenical Council, the Council of Constantinople, reaffirms/revises the Nicene Creed repudiating Arianism and Macedonianism.
381 – 391 
Theodosius proscripted Paganism within the Roman Empire.
393 
The Synod of Hippo, the first time a council of bishops of early Christianity listed and approved a biblical canon.

Middle Ages (5th to 15th century)[edit source | edit]

5th to 9th century[edit source | edit]

405 
St. Jerome completes the Vulgate, the first Latin translation of the Bible.
410 
The Western Roman Empire begins to decline, signaling the onset of the Dark Ages.
424 
The Assyrian Church of the East formally separates from the See of Antioch and the western Syrian Church
431 
The third Ecumenical Council, the Council of Ephesus, is held as a result of the controversial teachings of Nestorius, of Constantinople. It repudiates Nestorianism, proclaims the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos ("Birth-giver to God", "God-bearer", "Mother of God"), repudiates Pelagianism, and again reaffirmes the Nicene Creed.
449 
The Second Council of Ephesus declares support of Eutyches and attacked his opponents. Originally convened as an Ecumenical council, its ecumenicality is rejected and is denounced as a latrocinium by the Chalcedonian.
451 
The fourth Ecumenical Council, the Council of Chalcedon rejects the Eutychian doctrine of monophysitism, adopts the Chalcedonian Creed, reinstated those deposed in 449 and deposed Dioscorus of Alexandria, and elevates of the bishoprics of Constantinople and Jerusalem to the status of patriarchates.
451 
The Oriental Orthodox Church rejects the christological view put forth by the Council of Chalcedon and is excommunicated.
480 – 547 
The Rule of Saint Benedict is written by Benedict of Nursia, the founder of Western Christian monasticism.
553 
The fifth Ecumenical Council, Second Council of Constantinople, repudiates the Three Chapters as Nestorian and condemns Origen of Alexandria.
570 – 632 
Life-time of Muhammad ibn 'Abdullāh RA, the founder of Islam and considered by Muslims to be the last and final messenger of God.
632–661 
The Rashidun Caliphate brings Arab conquest of Persia, Egypt, Iraq, bringing Islam into those regions.
650 
The verses of the Qur'an are compliled in the form of a book in the era of Uthman RA, the third Caliph of Islam.
661–750 
The Umayyad Caliphate brings Arab conquest of North Africa, Spain, Central Asia. Marking the greatest extent of the Arab conquests bringing Islam into those regions.
680 – 681 
The sixth Ecumenical Council, the Third Council of Constantinople, rejects Monothelitism and Monoenergism.
Circa 680 the split between Sunni and Shiites starts to grow.
692 
The Quinisext Council (aka "Council in Trullo"), an amendment to the 5th and 6th Ecumenical Councils, establishes the Pentarchy.
712 
Kojiki, the oldest Shinto text is written[21]
754 
The latrocinium Council of Hieria supports iconoclasm.
787 
The seventh Ecumenical Council, Second Council of Nicaea, restores the veneration of icons and denounces iconoclasm.
850 
The oldest extant manuscripts of the vocalized Masoretic text upon which modern editions are based date to the (appx.) 9th century CE.

10th to 15th century[edit source | edit]

1054 
The Great Schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches formally takes place.
1095 – 1099 
The first Crusade takes place.
1107 – 1110 
Sigurd I of Norway wages the Norwegian Crusade on Muslims in Spain, the Baleares, and in Palestine.
1147 – 1149 
The Second Crusade is waged in response to the fall of the County of Edessa.
1189 – 1192 
The Third Crusade, European leaders attempt to reconquer what they considered the Holy Land from Saladin.
1199 – 1204 
The Fourth Crusade takes place.
1204 
Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade sack the Christian Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.
1206 
Delhi Sultanate is established.
1209 – 1229 
The Albigensian Crusade takes place in Occitania, Europe.
1217 – 1221 
The Church attempts the Fifth Crusade.
1222 
Nichiren Daishonin the Buddha of True Cause, Latter Day of the Law and founder of Nichiren Buddhism is born,
based at Nichiren Shoshu Head Temple Taisekiji (Japan), Nam(u)-Myōhō-Renge-Kyō
1228 – 1229 
The Sixth Crusade occurs.
1229 
The Codex Gigas is completed by Herman the Recluse in the Benedictine monastery of Podlažice near Chrudim.
1244 
Jerusalem is sacked again, instigating the Seventh Crusade.
1270 
The Eighth Crusade is organized.
1271 – 1272 
The Ninth Crusade fails.
1320 
Pope John XXII lays the groundwork for the future witch-hunts with the formalization of the persecution of witchcraft.
1378 – 1417 
The Roman Catholic Church is split during the Western Schism.
1469 – 1539 
The life of Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism.
1484 
Pope Innocent VIII marks the beginning of the classical European witch-hunts with his papal bull Summis desiderantes.
1500 
African religious systems are introduced to the Americas, with the commencement of the trans-Atlantic forced migration.
1517 
Martin Luther, of the Protestant Reformation, posts the 95 theses.
In the Spanish Empire, Catholicism is spread and encouraged through such institutions as missions and the Inquisition.
1562 
The Massacre of Vassy spark the first a long series of French Wars of Religion.

Early modern and Modern era (16th to 20th century)[edit source | edit]

16th to 18th century[edit source | edit]

1699
The creation of the Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh Ji in Sikhism
1708
Death of Guru Gobind Singh, the last human Guru, who, before his death, instituted the Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib Ji, as the eternal Guru.
1770
Baron d'Holbach publishes The System of Nature credited[29] as first positive unambiguous statement of atheism in the West.
1789 – 1799 
The Dechristianisation of France during the Revolution.[30][31] The state confiscates Church properties, bans monastic vows, with the passage of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy removes the Church from the Roman Pope and subordinates it as a department of the Government, replaces the traditional Gregorian Calendar, and abolishes Christian holidays.
1791 
Freedom of religion, enshrined in the Bill of Rights, is amended into the constitution of the United States forming an early and influential secular government.

19th to 20th century[edit source | edit]

1801 
The situation following the French Revolution, France and Pope Pius VII entered into the Concordat of 1801. While "Catholicism" regains some powers and becomes recognized as "...the religion of the great majority of the French", it's not reafforded the latitude it had enjoyed prior to the Revolution. It's not the official state religion, the Church relinquishes all claims to estate seized after 1790, the clergy is state salaried and must swear allegiance to the State, and religious freedom is maintained.
1819 – 1850
The life of Siyyid 'Alí Muḥammad Shírází (Persian: سيد علی ‌محمد شیرازی) Bab (October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850), the founder of Bábism.
1817 – 1892
The life of Bahá'u'lláh, founder of the Bahá'í Faith.
1830
The Latter Day Saint movement (Mormonism) is founded by Joseph Smith, Jr.
1835 – 1908
Lifetime of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the messianic Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam.
1899 
Aradia (aka the Gospel of the Witches), one of the earliest books describing post witchhunt European religious Witchcraft, is published by Charles Godfrey Leland.[32]
1904 
Thelema founded.
1905 
In France the law on the Separation of the Churches and the State is passed, officially establishing it a state secularism and putting and end to the funding of religious groups by the state.[33]
Becoming a place of pilgrimage for neo-druids and other pagans, the Ancient Order of Druids organized the first recorded reconstructionist ceremony in Stonehenge.
1908
The establishment of the Khalifatul Masih after Prophethood in the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, the Second Manifestation of God's Power.
1917 
The October Revolution, in Russia, leads to the annexation of all church properties and subsequent religious suppression.
the 1917 Constitution of Mexico is written making Mexico a secular state.
1926 
Cao Dai founded.
The Cristero War is fought in Mexico between the secular government and religious christian rebels ends 1929.
1930s 
Rastafari movement, the Nation of Islam is founded.
1932 
A neo-Hindu religious movement,the Brahma Kumaris or "Daughters of Brahma" started the origin of BKWSU can be traced to the group "Om Mandali", founded by Lekhraj Kripalani(1884–1969).
1938 
The first event of the Holocaust, the Kristallnacht, takes place.
1939 – 1945 
Millions of Jews are relocated and killed by the Nazi government during Holocaust.
1947 
British India is partitioned on religious lines; into an Islamic country of Pakistan and the secular nation of India with a Hindu majority.
1948 
The Jews return to their ancient biblical homeland and the state of Israel is created.
1952 
Scientology is created.
1954 
Wicca is publicized by Gerald Gardner.[34]
1960s 
Various Neopagan and New Age movements gain momentum.
1961 
Unitarian Universalism formed from merger of Unitarianism and Universalism.[35]
1962 
The Church of All Worlds, the first American neo-pagan church, is formed by a group including Oberon Zell-Ravenheart, Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart, and Richard Lance Christie.
1962 – 1965 
The Second Vatican Council takes place.[36][37][38][39]
1965 
Srila Prabhupada establishes the International Society for Krishna Consciousness and introduces translations of the Bhagavad-Gita and Vedic Scriptures in mass production all over the world.
1966 
Anton Szandor LaVey's Satanism begins, with Anton Szandor LaVey's founding of the Church of Satan,[40] although Satanism in itself has always been defined by the Christians themselves.
1972 – 1984 
The Stonehenge free festivals are held.[41]
1973 
Claude Vorilhon established the Raëlian Movement and changed his name to Raël following a purported extraterrestrial encounter in December 1973.
1984 
Operation Blue Star occurs at holiest site of the Sikhs, the Golden Temple in Amritsar. 1984 Anti-Sikh riots follow.
1972 – 2004 
Germanic Neopaganism (aka Heathenism, Heathenry, Ásatrú, Odinism, Forn Siðr, Vor Siðr, and Theodism) begins to experience a second wave of revival.[42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63]
1979 
The Iranian Revolution results in the establishment of an Islamic Republic in Iran.
1981 
The Stregherian revival continues. "The Book of the Holy Strega" and "The Book of Ways" Volume I & II are published.
1985 
The Battle of the Beanfield forces an end to the Stonehenge free festivals.[41][64][65]
1989 
The revolutions of 1989, the overthrow of many Soviet-style states,[66] allows a resurgence in open religious practice in many Eastern European countries.[citation needed]
1990s 
European pagan reconstructive movements (Celtic, Hellenic, Roman, Slavic, Baltic, Finnish, etc.) organize.
1993 
The European Council convened in Copenhagen, Denmark, agrees to criteria requiring religious freedom within any and all prospective members of the European Union.
1998 
The Strega Arician Tradition is founded.[67]

21st century[edit source | edit]

2000s[edit source | edit]

2001 
Osama bin Laden's declaration of al-Qaeda's "holy" war on America, reaches a climax with 2,993 dead, through al-Qaeda's actions on 11 September.[68][69][70][71][72][73]
2008 
The only Hindu Kingdom in the world, Nepal, is declared to be secular by its Constituent Assembly after declaring the state a Republic on 28 May 2008.
2009 
The Church of Scientology in France is fined 600,000 and several of its leaders are fined and sentenced to jail for defrauding new recruits out of their savings.[74][75][76] The state fails to disband the church due to legal changes occurring over the same time period.[76][77]

See also[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

External links[edit source | edit]

Footnotes[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Morton, Glenn. "Earliest burial ritual >300,000 years ago". American Scientific Affiliation, Colorado State University. Retrieved 26 December 2011. 
  2. ^ "Gathering the Jewels". Early Neanderthal jaw fragment, c. 230,000 years old. Culturenet Cymru. 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l When Burial Begins
  4. ^ Greenspan, Stanley (2006-02-06). How Symbols, Language, and Intelligence Evolved from Early Primates to Modern Human. ISBN 0-306-81449-8. 
  5. ^ Robert Gargett argued that the evidence for purposeful Neanderthal burials is weak, and that they can be explained as a result of accidental deposition. Gargett, Robert H. "Middle Palaeolithic burial is not a dead issue: the view from Qafzeh, Saint-Césaire, Kebara, Amud, and Dederiyeh". Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 37, 1999. 27–90.
  6. ^ Bowler JM, Jones R, Allen H, Thorne AG. (1970). "Pleistocene human remains from Australia: a living site and human cremation from Lake Mungo, Western New South Wales.". World Archaeol. 2 (1): 39–60. doi:10.1080/00438243.1970.9979463. PMID 16468208. 
  7. ^ Barbetti M, Allen H. (1972). "Prehistoric man at Lake Mungo, Australia, by 32,000 years BP.". Nature 240 (5375): 46–8. doi:10.1038/240046a0. PMID 4570638. 
  8. ^ Bowler, J.M. 1971. Pleistocene salinities and climatic change: Evidence from lakes and lunettes in southeastern Australia. In: Mulvaney, D.J. and Golson, J. (eds), Aboriginal Man and Environment in Australia. Canberra: Australian National University Press, pp. 47–65.
  9. ^ Bowler JM, Johnston H, Olley JM, Prescott JR, Roberts RG, Shawcross W, Spooner NA. (2003). "New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia.". Nature 421 (6925): 837–40. doi:10.1038/nature01383. PMID 1259451. 
  10. ^ Olleya JM, Roberts RG, Yoshida H and Bowler JM (2006). "Single-grain optical dating of grave-infill associated with human burials at Lake Mungo, Australia". Quaternary Science Reviews 25 (19–20): 2469–2474. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.07.022. 
  11. ^ http://www-geology.ucdavis.edu/~cowen/HistoryofLife/CH20images.html
  12. ^ Martin Bailey Ice Age Lion Man is world’s earliest figurative sculpture The Art Newspaper, Jan 31, 2013, accessed Feb 01, 2013.http://www.theartnewspaper.com/articles/Ice-Age-iLion-Mani-is-worlds-earliest-figurative-sculpture/28595
  13. ^ "The World's First Temple", Archaeology magazine, Nov/Dec 2008 p 23.
  14. ^ Knott 2000, p. 61
  15. ^ See horoscope number 1 in Dr. B.V. Raman (1991). Notable Horoscopes. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0901-7. 
  16. ^ Arun K. Bansal's research published in Outlook India, September 13, 2004. "Krishna (b. July 21, 3228 BC)". 
  17. ^ N.S. Rajaram takes these dates at face value when he opines that "We have therefore overwhelming evidence showing that Krishna was a historical figure who must have lived within a century on either side of that date, i.e., in the 3200–3000 BC period".Prof. N. S. Rajaram (September 4, 1999). "Search for the Historical Krishna". www.swordoftruth.com. Retrieved 2008-06-15. 
  18. ^ The Bhagavata Purana (1.18.6), Vishnu Purana (5.38.8), and Brahma Purana (212.8) state that the day Krishna left the earth was the day that the Dvapara Yuga ended and the Kali Yuga began.
  19. ^ See: Matchett, Freda, "The Puranas", p 139 and Yano, Michio, "Calendar, astrology and astronomy" in Flood, Gavin (Ed) (2003). Blackwell companion to Hinduism. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-21535-2 
  20. ^ "PlanetQuest: The History of Astronomy – Newgrange". 
  21. ^ a b c Smith, Laura (2007). Illustrated Timeline of Religion. ISBN 1-4027-3606-1. 
  22. ^ Fisher, Mary Pat (1997). Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths. London: I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-148-2.  p. 115
  23. ^ "Parshvanatha". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  24. ^ Bowker, John (2000). "Parsva". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  25. ^ Charpentier, Jarl (1922). "The History of the Jains". The Cambridge History of India 1. Cambridge. p. 153. 
  26. ^ Ghatage, A.M. (1951). "Jainism". In Majumdar, R.C. and A.D. Pusalker. The Age of Imperial Unity. Bombay. pp. 411–412. 
  27. ^ Deo, Shantaram Bhalchandra (1956). History of Jaina monachism from inscriptions and literature. Poona [Pune, India]: Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute. pp. 59–60. 
  28. ^ "Mahavira." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2006. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/mahavira
  29. ^ by Jonathan Miller in Atheism: A Rough History of Disbelief
  30. ^ Tallet, Frank Religion, Society and Politics in France Since 1789 p. 1, 1991 Continuum International Publishing
  31. ^ Tallet, Frank Religion, Society and Politics in France Since 1789 p. 2, 1991 Continuum International Publishing
  32. ^ Clifton, Chas (1998). "The Significance of Aradia". in Mario Pazzaglini. Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches, A New Translation. Blaine, Washington: Phoenix Publishing, Inc.. p. 73. ISBN 0-919345-34-4.
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