Timeline of chemical element discoveries

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The discovery of the elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order. The elements are listed generally in the order in which each was first defined as the pure element, as the exact date of discovery of most elements cannot be accurately defined.

Given is each element's name, atomic number, year of first report, name of the discoverer, and some notes related to the discovery.

Table[edit]

Periodic table by era of discovery
123456789101112131415161718
Group →
↓ Period
11
H
2
He
23
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
311
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
419
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
537
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
655
Cs
56
Ba
1 asterisk72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
787
Fr
88
Ra
1 asterisk104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Uut
114
Fl
115
Uup
116
Lv
117
Uus
118
Uuo
 
1 asterisk57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
1 asterisk89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
 
Background color shows age of discovery:
Antiquity to Middle AgesMiddle Ages–​17991800–​18491850–​18991900–​19491950–​1999Since 2000
(13 elements)
Antiquity to Middle Ages: unrecorded discoveries up into the Middle Ages
(21 elements)
Discoveries during the age of enlightenment
(24 elements)
Scientific and industrial revolutions
(26 elements)
The age of classifying elements; application of spectrum analysis techniques: Boisbaudran, Bunsen, Crookes, Kirchhoff, and others "hunting emission line signatures"
(13 elements)
Development of old quantum theory and quantum mechanics
(16 elements)
Post Manhattan project; synthesis of atomic numbers 98 and above (colliders, bombardment techniques)
(5 elements)
Recent synthesis
black=Solidgreen=Liquidred=Gasgrey=UnknownColor of the atomic number shows state of matter (at 0 °C and 1 atm)
PrimordialFrom decaySyntheticBorder shows natural occurrence of the element

Unrecorded discoveries[edit]

ZElementEarliest useOldest
existing
sample
DiscoverersPlace of
oldest
sample
Notes
29Copper9000 BC6000 BCMiddle EastAnatoliaCopper was probably the first metal mined and crafted by man.[1] It was originally obtained as a native metal and later from the smelting of ores. Earliest estimates of the discovery of copper suggest around 9000 BC in the Middle East. It was one of the most important materials to humans throughout the copper and bronze ages. Copper beads dating from 6000 BC have been found in Çatal Höyük, Anatolia.[2]
82Lead7000 BC3800 BCNear EastAbydos, EgyptIt is believed that lead smelting began at least 9,000 years ago, and the oldest known artifact of lead is a statuette found at the temple of Osiris on the site of Abydos dated circa 3800 BC.[3]
79GoldBefore 6000 BC3000 BCMiddle EastEgyptArchaeologists suggest that the first use of gold began with the first civilizations in the Middle East. It may have been the first metal used by humans. The oldest remaining gold jewelry is that in the tomb of Egyptian Queen Zer.[dubious ][4][5]
47SilverBefore 5000 BCca. 4000 BCAsia MinorEstimated to have been discovered shortly after copper and gold.[6][7]
26IronBefore 5000 BC4000 BCUnknown; see History of ferrous metallurgyEgyptThere is evidence that iron was known from before 5000 BC.[8] The oldest known iron objects used by humans are some beads of meteoric iron, made in Egypt in about 4000 BC. The discovery of smelting around 3000 BC led to the start of the iron age around 1200 BC[9] and the prominent use of iron for tools and weapons.[10]
6Carbon3750 BCEgyptians and SumeriansThe earliest known use of charcoal was for the reduction of copper, zinc, and tin ores in the manufacture of bronze, by the Egyptians and Sumerians.[11] Diamonds were probably known as early as 2500 BC.[12] The first true chemical analyses were made in the 18th century,[13] and in 1789 carbon was listed by Antoine Lavoisier as an element.[14]
50Tin3500 BC2000 BCUnknown; see Tin#HistoryFirst smelted in combination with copper around 3500 BC to produce bronze.[15] The oldest artifacts date from around 2000 BC.[16]
16SulfurBefore 2000 BCChinese/IndiansFirst used at least 4,000 years ago.[17] Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier in 1777.
80MercuryBefore 2000 BC1500 BCChinese/IndiansEgyptKnown to ancient Chinese and Indians before 2000 BC, and found in Egyptian tombs dating from 1500 BC.[18]
30ZincBefore 1000 BC1000 BCIndian metallurgistsIndian subcontinentExtracted as a metal since antiquity (before 1000 BC) by Indian metallurgists, but the true nature of this metal was not understood in ancient times. Identified as a unique metal by the metallurgist Rasaratna Samuccaya in 800[19] and by the alchemist Paracelsus in 1526.[20] Isolated by Andreas Sigismund Marggraf in 1746.[21]
33Arsenic2500 BC/1250 ADBronze ageA. MagnusIn use in the early bronze age; Albertus Magnus was the first European to isolate the element in 1250.[22] In 1649, Johann Schröder published two ways of preparing elemental arsenic.[22]
51Antimony3000 BCIn widespread use in Egypt and the Middle East.[23]
24ChromiumBefore 1 ADBefore 1 ADTerracotta ArmyChinaFound coating various weapons in China because of its high strength and corrosion resistance.[24]

Recorded discoveries[edit]

ZElementObserved or predictedIsolated (widely known)ObserverFirst isolatorNotes
15Phosphorus16691669H. BrandH. BrandPrepared from urine, it was the first element to be chemically discovered.[25]
27Cobalt1732G. BrandtProved that the blue color of glass is due to a new kind of metal and not bismuth as thought previously.[26]
78Platinum17351735A. de UlloaA. de UlloaFirst description of a metal found in South American gold was in 1557 by Julius Caesar Scaliger. Ulloa published his findings in 1748, but Sir Charles Wood also investigated the metal in 1741. First reference to it as a new metal was made by William Brownrigg in 1750.[27]
28Nickel17511751F. CronstedtF. CronstedtFound by attempting to extract copper from the mineral known as fake copper (now known as niccolite).[28]
83Bismuth1753C.F. GeoffroyDefinitively identified by Claude François Geoffroy in 1753.[29]
12Magnesium17551808J. BlackH. DavyBlack observed that magnesia alba (MgO) was not quicklime (CaO). Davy isolated the metal electrochemically from magnesia.[30]
1Hydrogen17661500H. CavendishParacelsusCavendish was the first to distinguish H
2
from other gases, although Paracelsus around 1500, Robert Boyle, and Joseph Priestley had observed its production by reacting strong acids with metals. Lavoisier named it in 1793.[31][32]
8Oxygen17711771W. ScheeleW. ScheeleObtained it by heating mercuric oxide and nitrates in 1771, but did not publish his findings until 1777. Joseph Priestley also prepared this new air by 1774, but only Lavoisier recognized it as a true element; he named it in 1777.[33][34]
7Nitrogen17721772D. RutherfordD. RutherfordHe discovered Nitrogen while he was studying at the University of Edinburgh.[35] He showed that the air in which animals had breathed, even after removal of the exhaled carbon dioxide, was no longer able to burn a candle. Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Henry Cavendish, and Joseph Priestley also studied the element at about the same time, and Lavoisier named it in 1775-6.[36]
17Chlorine17741774W. ScheeleW. ScheeleObtained it from hydrochloric acid, but thought it was an oxide. Only in 1808 did Humphry Davy recognize it as an element.[37]
25Manganese17741774W. ScheeleG. GahnDistinguished pyrolusite as the calx of a new metal. Ignatius Gottfred Kaim also discovered the new metal in 1770, as did Scheele in 1774. It was isolated by reduction of manganese dioxide with carbon.[38]
56Barium17721808W. ScheeleH. DavyScheele distinguished a new earth (BaO) in pyrolusite and Davy isolated the metal by electrolysis.[39]
42Molybdenum17781781W. ScheeleJ. HjelmScheele recognised the metal as a constituent of molybdena.[40]
52Tellurium1782F.-J.M. von ReichensteinH. KlaprothMuller observed it as an impurity in gold ores from Transylvania.[41]
74Tungsten17811783T. BergmanJ. and F. ElhuyarBergman obtained from scheelite an oxide of a new element. The Elhuyars obtained tungstic acid from wolframite and reduced it with charcoal.[42]
38Strontium17871808W. CruikshankH. DavyCruikshank and Adair Crawford in 1790 concluded that strontianite contained a new earth. It was eventually isolated electrochemically in 1808 by Humphry Davy.[43]
1789A. LavoisierThe first modern list of chemical elements – containing, among others, 23 elements of those known then.[44] He also redefined the term "element". Until then, no metals except mercury were considered elements.
40Zirconium17891824H. KlaprothJ. BerzeliusKlaproth identified a new element in zirconia.[45][46]
92Uranium17891841H. KlaprothE.-M. PéligotMistakenly identified a uranium oxide obtained from pitchblende as the element itself and named it after the recently discovered planet Uranus.[47][48]
22Titanium17911825W. GregorJ. BerzeliusGregor found an oxide of a new metal in ilmenite; Martin Heinrich Klaproth independently discovered the element in rutile in 1795 and named it. The pure metallic form was only obtained in 1910 by Matthew A. Hunter.[49][50]
39Yttrium17941840J. GadolinG. MosanderDiscovered in gadolinite, but Mosander showed later that its ore, yttria, contained more elements.[51][52]
4Beryllium17981828N. VauquelinF. Wöhler and A. BussyVauquelin discovered the oxide in beryl and emerald, and Klaproth suggested the present name around 1808.[53]
23Vanadium18011830M. del RíoN.G.SefströmRío found the metal in vanadinite but retracted the claim after Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils disputed it. Sefström isolated and named it, and later it was shown that Río had been right in the first place.[54]
41Niobium18011864C. HatchettW. BlomstrandHatchett found the element in columbite ore and named it columbium. Heinrich Rose proved in 1844 that the element is distinct from tantalum, and renamed it niobium which was officially accepted in 1949.[55]
73Tantalum1802G. EkebergEkeberg found another element in minerals similar to columbite and in 1844, Heinrich Rose proved that it was distinct from niobium.[56]
46Palladium18031803H. WollastonH. WollastonWollaston discovered it in samples of platinum from South America, but did not publish his results immediately. He had intended to name it after the newly discovered asteroid, Ceres, but by the time he published his results in 1804, cerium had taken that name. Wollaston named it after the more recently discovered asteroid Pallas.[57]
58Cerium18031839H. Klaproth, J. Berzelius, and W. HisingerG. MosanderBerzelius and Hisinger discovered the element in ceria and named it after the newly discovered asteroid (then considered a planet), Ceres. Klaproth discovered it simultaneously and independently in some tantalum samples. Mosander proved later that the samples of all three researchers had at least another element in them, lanthanum.[58]
76Osmium18031803S. TennantS. TennantTennant had been working on samples of South American platinum in parallel with Wollaston and discovered two new elements, which he named osmium and iridium.[59]
77Iridium18031803S. TennantS. TennantTennant had been working on samples of South American platinum in parallel with Wollaston and discovered two new elements, which he named osmium and iridium, and published the iridium results in 1804.[60]
45Rhodium18041804H. WollastonH. WollastonWollaston discovered and isolated it from crude platinum samples from South America.[61]
19Potassium18071807H. DavyH. DavyDavy discovered it by using electrolysis on potash.[62]
11Sodium18071807H. DavyH. DavyDavy discovered it a few days after potassium, by using electrolysis on sodium hydroxide.[63]
20Calcium18081808H. DavyH. DavyDavy discovered the metal by electrolysis of quicklime.[63]
5Boron18081808L. Gay-Lussac and L.J. ThénardH. DavyOn June 21, 1808, Lussac and Thénard announced a new element in sedative salt, Davy announced the isolation of a new substance from boracic acid soon afterwards.[64]
9Fluorine18101886A.-M. AmpèreH. MoissanAndré-Marie Ampère predicted an element analogous to chlorine obtainable from hydrofluoric acid, and between 1812 and 1886 many researchers tried to obtain this element. It was eventually isolated by Moissan.[65]
53Iodine18111811B. CourtoisB. CourtoisCourtois discovered it in the ashes of seaweed.[66]
3Lithium18171821A. ArfwedsonW. T. BrandeArfwedson discovered the alkali in petalite.[67]
48Cadmium18171817S. L Hermann, F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. RoloffS. L Hermann, F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. RoloffAll three found an unknown metal in a sample of zinc oxide from Silesia, but the name that Stromeyer gave became the accepted one.[68]
34Selenium18171817J. Berzelius and G. GahnJ. Berzelius and G. GahnWhile working with lead they discovered a substance that they thought was tellurium, but realized after more investigation that it is different.[69]
14Silicon18241824J. BerzeliusJ. BerzeliusHumphry Davy thought in 1800 that silica was an element, not a compound, and in 1808 suggested the present name. In 1811 Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thénard probably prepared impure silicon, but Berzelius is credited with the discovery for obtaining the pure element in 1824.[70]
13Aluminium18251825H.C.ØrstedH.C.ØrstedAntoine Lavoisier predicted in 1787 that alumine is the oxide of an undiscovered element, and in 1808 Humphry Davy tried to decompose it. Although he failed, he suggested the present name. Hans Christian Ørsted was the first to isolate metallic aluminium in 1825.[71]
35Bromine18251825J. Balard and L. GmelinJ. Balard and L. GmelinThey both discovered the element in the autumn of 1825 and published the results the next year.[72]
90Thorium1829J. BerzeliusBerzelius obtained the oxide of a new earth in thorite.[73]
57Lanthanum1838G. MosanderMosander found a new element in samples of ceria and published his results in 1842, but later he showed that this lanthana contained four more elements.[74]
68Erbium1842G. MosanderMosander managed to split the old yttria into yttria proper and erbia, and later terbia too.[75]
65Terbium18421842G. MosanderG. MosanderIn 1842 Mosander split yttria into two more earths, erbia and terbia[76]
44Ruthenium18071844J. SniadeckiJ. SniadeckiSniadecki isolated the element in 1807, but his work was not ratified. Gottfried Wilhelm Osann thought that he found three new metals in Russian platinum samples, and in 1844 Karl Karlovich Klaus confirmed that there was a new element. Klaus is usually recognized as the discoverer of the element.[77]
55Caesium18601882R. Bunsen and R. KirchhoffC. SetterbergBunsen and Kirchhoff were the first to suggest finding new elements by spectrum analysis. They discovered caesium by its two blue emission lines in a sample of Dürkheim mineral water.[78] The pure metal was eventually isolated in 1882 by Setterberg.[79]
37Rubidium1861R. Bunsen and G. R. KirchhoffR. BunsenBunsen and Kirchhoff discovered it just a few months after caesium, by observing new spectral lines in the mineral lepidolite. Bunsen never obtained a pure sample of the metal, which was later obtained by Hervesy.[80]
81Thallium18611862W. CrookesC.-A. LamyShortly after the discovery of rubidium, Crookes found a new green line in a selenium sample; later that year, Lamy found the element to be metallic.[81]
49Indium18631867F. Reich and T. RichterT. RichterReich and Richter First identified it in sphalerite by its bright indigo-blue spectroscopic emission line. Richter isolated the metal several years later.[82]
2Helium18681895P. Janssen and N. LockyerW. Ramsay, T. Cleve, and N. LangletJanssen and Lockyer observed independently a yellow line in the solar spectrum that did not match any other element.

Years later, Ramsay, Cleve, and Langlet observed independently the element trapped in cleveite about the same time.[83]

1869D. I. MendeleevMendeleev arranges the 63 elements known at that time into the first modern periodic table and correctly predicts several others.
31Gallium1875P. E. L. de BoisbaudranP. E. L. de BoisbaudranBoisbaudran observed on a pyrenea blende sample some emission lines corresponding to the eka-aluminium that was predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 and subsequently isolated the element by electrolysis.[84]
70Ytterbium18781907J.C.G. de MarignacG. UrbainOn October 22, 1878, Marignac reported splitting terbia into two new earths, terbia proper and ytterbia.[85]
67Holmium1878M. DelafontaineDelafontaine found it in samarskite and next year, Per Teodor Cleve split Marignac's erbia into erbia proper and two new elements, thulium and holmium.[86]
69Thulium18791879T. CleveT. CleveCleve split Marignac's erbia into erbia proper and two new elements, thulium and holmium.[87]
21Scandium18791879F. NilsonF. NilsonNilson split Marignac's ytterbia into pure ytterbia and a new element that matched 1871 Mendeleev's predicted eka-boron.[88]
62Samarium18791879P.E.L. de BoisbaudranP.E.L. de BoisbaudranBoisbaudran noted a new earth in samarskite and named it samaria after the mineral.[89]
64Gadolinium18801886J. C. G. de MarignacF. L. de BoisbaudranMarignac initially observed the new earth in terbia, and later Boisbaudran obtained a pure sample from samarskite.[90]
59Praseodymium1885A. von WelsbachVon Welsbach discovered two new distinct elements in ceria: praseodymium and neodymium.[91]
60Neodymium1885A. von WelsbachVon Welsbach discovered two new distinct elements in ceria: praseodymium and neodymium.[92]
66Dysprosium1886P.E.L. de BoisbaudranDe Boisbaudran found a new earth in erbia.[92]
32Germanium1886A. WinklerIn February 1886 Winkler found in argyrodite the eka-silicon that Mendeleev had predicted in 1871.[93]
18Argon18941894Lord Rayleigh and W. RamsayLord Rayleigh and W. RamsayThey discovered the gas by comparing the molecular weights of nitrogen prepared by liquefaction from air and nitrogen prepared by chemical means. It is the first noble gas to be isolated.[94]
36Krypton18981898W. Ramsay and W. TraversW. Ramsay and W. TraversOn May 30, 1898, Ramsay separated a third noble gas from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.[95]
10Neon18981898W. Ramsay and W. TraversW. Ramsay and W. TraversIn June 1898 Ramsay separated a new noble gas from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.[95]
54Xenon18981898W. Ramsay and W. TraversW. Ramsay and W. TraversOn July 12, 1898 Ramsay separated a third noble gas within three weeks, from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.[96]
84Polonium18981902P. and M. CurieW. MarckwaldIn an experiment done on July 13, 1898, the Curies noted an increased radioactivity in the uranium obtained from pitchblende, which they ascribed to an unknown element.[97]
88Radium18981902P. and M. CurieM. CurieThe Curies reported on December 26, 1898, a new element different from polonium, which Marie later isolated from uraninite.[98]
86Radon18981910E. DornW. Ramsay and R. Whytlaw-GrayDorn discovered a radioactive gas resulting from the radioactive decay of radium, isolated later by Ramsay and Gray.[99][100]
89Actinium18991899A.-L. DebierneA.-L. DebierneDebierne obtained from pitchblende a substance that had properties similar to those of thorium.[101]
63Europium18961901E.-A. DemarçayE.-A. DemarçayDemarçay found spectral lines of a new element in Lecoq's samarium, and separated this element several years later.[102]
71Lutetium19061906G. Urbain and C.A. von WelsbachG. Urbain and C.A. von WelsbachUrbain and von Welsbach proved independently that the old ytterbium also contained a new element.[103]
75Rhenium1908[contradiction]1908M. OgawaM. OgawaOgawa found it in thorianite but assigned it as element 43 instead of 75 and named it nipponium.[104] In 1922 Walter Noddack, Ida Eva Tacke and Otto Berg announced its separation from gadolinite and gave it the present name.[61]
72Hafnium19111922G. Urbain and V. VernadskyD. Coster and G. von HevesyUrbain claimed to have found the element in rare-earth residues, while Vernadsky independently found it in orthite. Neither claim was confirmed due to World War I. After the war, Coster and Hevesy found it by X-ray spectroscopic analysis in Norwegian zircon.[105] Hafnium was the next to last element with stable isotopes to be discovered.[106]
91Protactinium1913O.H.Göhring and K. FajansThe two obtained the first isotope of this element that had been predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as a member of the natural decay of 238U.[107] Originally isolated in 1900 by William Crookes.[108]
43Technetium19371937C. Perrier and E. SegrèC. Perrier & E.SegrèThe two discovered a new element in a molybdenum sample that was used in a cyclotron, the first synthetic element to be discovered. It had been predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as eka-manganese.[109][110]
87Francium1939M. PereyPerey discovered it as a decay product of 227Ac.[111] Francium is the last element to be discovered in nature, rather than synthesized in the lab, although some of the "synthetic" elements that were discovered later (plutonium, neptunium, astatine) were eventually found in trace amounts in nature as well.[112]
85Astatine1940R. Corson, R. Mackenzie and E. SegrèObtained by bombarding bismuth with alpha particles.[113] Later determined to occur naturally in minuscule quantities (<25 grams in earth's crust).[114]
93Neptunium1940E.M. McMillan and H. AbelsonObtained by irradiating uranium with neutrons, it is the first transuranium element discovered.[115]
94Plutonium1940–1941Glenn T. Seaborg, Arthur C. Wahl, W. Kennedy and E.M. McMillanPrepared by bombardment of uranium with deuterons.[116]
95Americium1944G. T. Seaborg, A. James, O. Morgan and A. GhiorsoPrepared by irradiating plutonium with neutrons during the Manhattan Project.[117]
96Curium1944G. T. Seaborg, R. A. James and A. GhiorsoPrepared by bombarding plutonium with alpha particles during the Manhattan Project[118]
61Promethium19421945S. Wu, E.G. Segrè and A. BetheCharles D. Coryell, Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin, and Harold G. RichterIt was probably first prepared in 1942 by bombarding neodymium and praseodymium with neutrons, but separation of the element could not be carried out. Isolation was performed under the Manhattan Project in 1945.[91]
97Berkelium1949G. Thompson, A. Ghiorso and G. T. Seaborg (University of California, Berkeley)Created by bombardment of americium with alpha particles.[119]
98Californium1950S. G. Thompson, K. Street,Jr., A. Ghiorso and G. T. Seaborg (University of California, Berkeley)Bombardment of curium with alpha particles.[120]
99Einsteinium19521952A. Ghiorso et al. (Argonne Laboratory, Los Alamos Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley)Formed in the first thermonuclear explosion in November 1952, by irradiation of uranium with neutrons; kept secret for several years.[121]
100Fermium1952A. Ghiorso et al. (Argonne Laboratory, Los Alamos Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley)Formed in the first thermonuclear explosion in November 1952, by irradiation of uranium with neutrons; kept secret for several years.[122]
101Mendelevium1955A. Ghiorso, G. Harvey, R. Choppin, S. G. Thompson and G. T. SeaborgPrepared by bombardment of einsteinium with helium.[123]
102Nobelium1958A. Ghiorso, T. Sikkeland, R. Walton and G. T. SeaborgFirst prepared by bombardment of curium with carbon atoms.[124]
103Lawrencium1961A. Ghiorso, T. Sikkeland, E. Larsh and M. LatimerFirst prepared by bombardment of californium with boron atoms.[125]
104Rutherfordium1968A. Ghiorso, M. Nurmia, J. Harris, K. Eskola and P. EskolaPrepared by bombardment of californium with carbon atoms.[126]
105Dubnium1970A. Ghiorso, M. Nurmia, K. Eskola, J. Harris and P. EskolaPrepared by bombardment of californium with nitrogen atoms.[127]
106Seaborgium1974A. Ghiorso, J. Nitschke, J. Alonso, C. Alonso, M. Nurmia, G. T. Seaborg, K. Hulet and W. LougheedPrepared by collisions of californium-249 with oxygen atoms.[128]
107Bohrium1981G.Münzenberg et al. (GSI in Darmstadt)Obtained by bombarding bismuth with chromium.[129]
109Meitnerium1982G. Münzenberg, P. Armbruster et al. (GSI in Darmstadt)Prepared by bombardment of bismuth with iron atoms.[130]
108Hassium1984G. Münzenberg, P. Armbruster et al. (GSI in Darmstadt)Prepared by bombardment of lead with iron atoms[131]
110Darmstadtium1994S. Hofmann et al. (GSI in Darmstadt)Prepared by bombardment of lead with nickel.[132]
111Roentgenium1994S. Hofmann et al. (GSI in Darmstadt)Prepared by bombardment of bismuth with nickel.[133]
112Copernicium1996S. Hofmann et al. (GSI in Darmstadt)Prepared by bombardment of lead with zinc.[134][135]
114Flerovium1999Y. Oganessian et al. (JINR in Dubna)Prepared by bombardment of plutonium with calcium[136]
116Livermorium2000Y.Oganessian et al. (JINR in Dubna)Prepared by bombardment of curium with calcium[137]

Unconfirmed discoveries[edit]

ZNameDiscovery
year
DiscovererNotes
118Ununoctium
2002
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryPrepared by bombardment of californium with calcium[138]
113Ununtrium2003Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryAlpha decay of ununpentium[139]
115Ununpentium2003Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryPrepared by bombardment of americium with calcium[139]
117Ununseptium2010Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryPrepared by bombardment of berkelium with calcium[140]

Graphics[edit]

Development in discovery


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Copper History". Rameria.com. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  2. ^ CSA – Discovery Guides, A Brief History of Copper
  3. ^ "The History of Lead – Part 3". Lead.org.au. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
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