This is a
timeline of events concerning ancient Rome, from the city foundation until the last attempt of the Eastern Roman Empire to re-conquer Rome. 8th century BC [edit ] 7th century BC [edit ] 6th century BC [edit ] ROMAN REPUBLIC 5th century BC [edit ] 4th century BC [edit ] 396 BC 394 BC: Office of consul replaces Tribuni militum consulari potestate. 391 BC: Office of Tribuni militum consulari potestate replaces office of consul. 390 BC: Gauls defeat Roman army : battle of the Allia sack of Rome by the Gauls 375/371 BC: Anarchy years: no magistrates elected 367 BC: Office of consul replaces Tribuni militum consulari potestate for last time. 366 BC: Patricians agree to allow Plebeian Consuls to be elected (the first being Lucius Sextius Sextinus). By this, Plebeians acquire de facto right to be elected Censor or appointed Dictator. As a concession, the Plebeians allow the Patricians to create the offices of Praetor and Curule Aedile, and allow only Patricians to run for these offices. 351 BC: Elected : first non-patrician Dictator 351 BC: Elected : first non-patrician censor 343 BC: Rome captures Campania and Capua : First Samnite War 342 BC Battle of Mount Gaurus. passed: Lex Genucia no man can hold the same office before 10 years have elapsed from the first election Second law passed, disallowing any man from holding two offices at once. 341 BC: Rome withdraws from the conflict with the Samnites. End of First Samnite War. 340 BC: Latin League pushes for independence : Latin War 339 BC: Law passed (the lex Publilia) which requires the election of one Plebeian censor for each five-year term. 338 BC: Latin League dissolved and Rome controls territory : Latin War Ends. 337 BC: Elected the first non-patrician Praetor (Q. Publilius Philo). 326 BC: Second Samnite War begins 300 BC: passed: priesthoods opened to plebeians Lex Ogulnia 3rd century BC [edit ] 2nd century BC [edit ] 1st century BC [edit ] 91/88 BC– Social War, the last rebellion of the Italian nations against Rome 88 BC– Sulla crosses the with his legions and invades Rome pomerium 88/85 BC– First Mithridatic War against Mithridates VI of Pontus 83/82 BC– First Roman civil war, between Sulla and the popular faction; Sulla wins and becomes ; dictator censor office abolished (to be recreated in 70 BC) 83/82 BC– Second Mithridatic War; Sulla returns to Rome and is nominated dictator 82/72 BC– Sertorius, the last Marian general continues the civil war in Hispania 74/66 BC– Third Mithridatic War, eventually won by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, aka Pompey 73/71 BC- Servile War led by Spartacus 67 BC– Pompey clears the Mediterranean of pirates 63 BC 60/54 BC– An informal coalition is formed by Gāius Jūlius Caesar, Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus to govern the Roman republic. This coalition is often referred to as the First triumvirate, even though it did not have the official sanction of law required for a legal triumvirate. 58/50 BC– Caesar fights the Gallic Wars, acquiring the province of Gallia Comata 54/53 BC– First campaign against the Parthian Empire; Crassus utterly defeated and killed 49 BC– Caesar crosses the Rubicon ( alea iacta est) and begins the Second Roman civil war against the , the conservative faction of the Optimates Senate, led by Pompey 48/45 BC– Caesar pursues and defeats the in Greece and Africa Optimates 44 BC– Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March 44/42 BC– Third Roman civil war, between the assassins of Caesar (led by Cassius and Brutus) and Caesar's heirs, Octavian and Mark Antony 43 BC– Octavian, Antony and Lepidus form the second triumvirate 36 BC– Antony's Parthian campaign ends in failure 32 BC– End of peaceful relations between Octavian and Antony 31 BC– In the battle of Actium, Octavian decisively defeats Antony and Cleopatra 30 BC– Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide; Egypt becomes a Roman province ROMAN EMPIRE 1st century AD [edit ]
March– Inauguration of the '"
Colosseum'" 2nd century [edit ] 101/102– First Dacian War 105/106– Second Dacian War; king Decebalus commits suicide and Dacia becomes a province 106– Building of Trajan's Forum and construction of Trajan's column 113/117– Trajan's successful campaigns against the Parthian Empire 115/117– Jewish rebellion that started in Egypt ( Kitos War) 117– becomes emperor Hadrian 121/125– Hadrian travels through the Northern Empire 122– construction of Hadrian's Wall begins 128/132– Hadrian travels through Africa and the Eastern Empire 131/135 - Jewish Bar Kokhba revolt 138– becomes emperor Antoninus Pius 140/143– After a rebellion Antoninus conquers Scotland; construction of Antonine Wall begins 150/163– rebellions in Scotland, Antonine Wall is abandoned and reoccupied several times 161– becomes emperor Marcus Aurelius 162/166– Lucius Verus successful campaigns against the Parthian Empire 167– The tribe of the Marcomanni crosses the Danube and invades Dacia 168/175– Marcus Aurelius' campaigns against the Marcomanni 180– Death of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the Five good emperors; becomes emperor Commodus 184– Antonine Wall abandoned for the last time 193– Commodus is murdered. After the short reigns of and Pertinax , Didius Julianus becomes emperor. There is opposition from first Septimius Severus Pescennius Niger and then Clodius Albinus 197– Septimius Severus secures the empire after the battle of Lugdunum 198– Septimius Severus invades Parthia 3rd century [edit ] 208/211– Severus campaigns against the Caledonians 211– Severus dies. His sons and Caracalla become joint emperors. Caracalla has Geta murdered shortly thereafter. Geta 217– Caracalla assassinated; becomes emperor Macrinus 218– Macrinus deposed and executed, is installed on the throne Elagabalus 222– Elagabalus is murdered. becomes emperor Alexander Severus 231-33– War against Persia 235– Alexander killed in a soldier mutiny. becomes emperor. Maximinus Thrax 238– Year of the Six Emperors. The Senate supports a revolt of and Gordian I in Africa. These two are defeated by an ally of Thrax, and the Senate appoints Gordian II and Balbinus as co-emperors. They are soon assassinated, and Thrax is killed in a mutiny. The young Pupienus becomes emperor. Gordian III 241– Victory over the Persians at Resaina. 244– Romans defeated at Misiche. becomes emperor. Philip the Arab 249– usurps the throne with support from the Danubian legions. He names his son Decius co-emperor. Herennius 251– Decius and Herennius defeated and slain by Cniva, king of the Goths. Another son of Decius, , is briefly emperor, but dies in a plague outbreak. Hostilian and his son Gallus become emperors. Volusianus 252– King Shapur I of Persia defeats the Romans at Barbalissos. 253– becomes emperor after leading a revolt and Gallus and Volusianus are slain by their own troops. Aemilianus and his son Valerian become emperors after Aemilianus is killed by his own soldiers. Shapur captures Gallienus Antioch. 257– Valerian retakes Antioch. The Franks invade Gaul and Hispania. The Alemanni invades Italy but are defeated at Milan. 258– Goths invade Asia Minor 260– Valerian is taken captive by the Persians. Retreating Persian army attacked by Odaenathus of Palmyra. Postumus proclaimed emperor in Gaul. He is also supported in Hispania and Britain. 267– Odaenathus assassinated. His widow Zenobia takes control of Palmyra 268– Gallienus defeats Gothic invasion, but is later assassinated. becomes emperor. Claudius II 269– Postumus is killed. Victorinus proclaimed emperor in Gaul and Britain. The Palmyrenes takes Egypt and Syria. Claudius defeats the Goths at Naissus in Moesia. 270– Claudius dies of plague. After a brief rule by Claudius' brother , Quintillus becomes emperor. Aurelian 271– Aurelian campaigns against the Vandals, Juthungi and the Sarmatians. Victorinus is murdered and his soldiers proclaim Tetricus I emperor 272– Aurelian defeats Zenobia at Antioch and Emesa and takes Palmyra. Zenobia is captured. The province of Dacia is abandoned. 273– Palmyra revolts. The city is destroyed by Aurelian. 274– Aurelian defeats the army of Tericus at the Catalaunian fields. 275– Aurelian is murdered. becomes emperor. Tacitus 276– Tacitus dies. After the brief reign and assassination of , Florianus becomes emperor. Probus 277– The Burgundians, Longiones, Alemanni and Franks defeated. 279– Probus campaigns against the Vandals in Illyricum. 282– proclaimed emperor. Probus killed by his own troops. Carus 283– Carus dies during an invasion of Persia. His sons and Carinus become emperors. Numerian 284– Numerian dies. proclaimed emperor and marches against Carinus. Diocletian 285– Carinus dies in battle against Diocletian. Diocletian splits the empire into two halves and appoints emperor of the Western portion while Diocletian rules the East. Maximian 286– Carausius revolts in Britain. 293– Diocletian appoints and Constantius I as Galerius caesars. Carausius murdered by Allectus who proclaims himself emperor. 296– Allectus defeated and slain. 299– Galerius defeats the Sarmatians and the Carpi 4th century [edit ] 301– Diocletian issues the Edict on Maximum Prices. 303– Diocletian orders the persecution of Christians. 305– Diocletian and Maximian abdicate. Constantius and Galerius becomes Augusti. is appointed Caesar in the east and Maximinus in the west. Severus 306– Constantius dies at York. His son proclaimed emperor. Constantine I , son of Maximian, proclaims himself emperor in Rome. Maxentius 307– Maxentius reinvests his father Maximian as emperor. Severus is put to death. Galerius lays siege to Rome. 308– Conference of Carnuntum. Diocletian convinces Maximian to step down. appointed Caesar in the East. Licinius 310– Maximian again proclaims himself emperor, but is captured by Constantine. He commits suicide. 311– Galerius dies at Sardica. Maximinus and Licinius split his realm between them. 312– Constantine defeats and kills Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge. Licinius marries Constantine's sister Constantia. Constantine converts to Christianity. 313– Licinus defeats Maximinus twice. Maximinus dies at Tarsus. Constantine issues Edict of Milan, ending persecution of Christians and establishing religious toleration throughout the Empire. 314– Constantine defeats Licinius at Cibalae 317– Constantine defeats Licinius on the Campus Ardiensis. Licinius forced to cede all his European provinces except Thrace. 318– Excommunication of Arius. 324– Constantine defeats Licinius at the Hebrus River and at Chrysopolis. Licinius abdicates. 325– The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea. 326– Constantine orders the death of his oldest son, Crispus. 330– Constantine makes Constantinople the capital. 332– Constantine campaigns against the Goths. 334– Constantine campaigns against the Sarmatians. 337– Constantine dies at Nicomedia. His three sons, , Constantine II and Constantius II become emperors. Constans 338– Constantine II defeats the Alemanni. War with Persia. 340– Constantine II invades Italy. He is ambushed and slain by Constans at Aquileia. 341– Constans and Constantius II issue a ban against pagan sacrifice. 347– The Donatists revolt in Africa. 348– Constantius defeats the Persians at the Siege of Singara. 350– Magnentius usurps the throne in the west. Constans is captured and killed. Nepotianus attacks Rome with a band of gladiators 351– Constantius appoints his cousin Constantius Gallus as Caesar. Magnentius is defeated at Mursa. 353– Constantius defeats Magnentius at Mons Seleuci. Magnentius commits suicide. 354– Constantius Gallus is put to death. 355– is appointed Caesar in Gaul. Julian 357– Julian defeats the Franks at Strasbourg. 360– With a Persian war imminent, Constantius orders Julian to send several legions east. The troops mutiny and proclaim Julian Augustus. 361– Constantius dies of illness, naming Julian his successor. Julian openly declares himself a pagan, but his attempt at rejuvenating paganism in the empire fails. 363– Julian invades Persia, but forced to retreat, he is mortally wounded during a skirmish and dies. is proclaimed emperor. Jovian 364– Jovien dies of accidental asphyxiation. becomes emperor and splits the empire with his brother Valentinian I . Valens 375– Valentinian dies and is succeeded by as Western emperor. Gratian 378– Valens is defeated and killed by the Goths at the Battle of Adrianople. succeeds him as Eastern emperor. Theodosius I 380- Edict of Thessalonica issued by Theodosius I makes Christianity the State church of the Roman Empire 384– Gratian is murdered, becomes emperor. Valentinian II 392– Valentinian II dies of apparent suicide, though murder by Arbogast is more likely. Arbogast installs the puppet on the Western throne, but Theodosius refuses to recognize the usurper. Eugenius 394– Eugenius and Arbogast are deposed and killed by Theodosius, who briefly reunites the empire for the last time. 395– Theodosius I dies, leaving the Western empire to his son and the Eastern empire to his son Honorius . Arcadius 5th century [edit ] 410– Rome is sacked by Alaric I 423– After a long and disastrous reign, Honorius dies; succeeded by the usurper Joannes 425– becomes Western emperor Valentinian III 447– Eastern Rome loses to Attila the Hun 452– Attila the Hun is turned away from Rome by Pope Leo I. 455– Valentinian III is assassinated and succeeded by as emperor. Rome is plundered by the Petronius Maximus Vandals, and Maximus is killed during mob violence. becomes emperor of the west. Avitus 457– Avitus is deposed by the magister militum Ricimer and killed. is installed as Western emperor. Majorian 461– Majorian is deposed by Ricimer. becomes Western emperor. Libius Severus 465– Libius Severus dies, possibly poisoned by Ricimer. 467– becomes western emperor with the support of Anthemius Leo I. 468– War against the Vandals by the joint forces of both empires. Naval expedition ends in failure. 472– Ricimer kills Anthemius and makes new western emperor. Both Ricimer and Olybrius die of natural causes. Olybrius Gundobad becomes magister militum in Italy. 473– Gundobad makes new western emperor. Glycerius 474– Gundobad leaves Italy to take part in a succession struggle among the Burgundians. Glycerius is deposed by who proclaims himself western emperor. Julius Nepos 475– Julius Nepos forced to flee to Dalmatia by his magister militum Orestes. Orestes proclaims his own son as western emperor. Romulus Augustulus 476– Germanic general Odoacer kills Orestes, forces Romulus Augustus to abdicate and proclaims himself King of Italy. Traditional date for the fall of the western Roman Empire. The Eastern Roman Empire (later known as the Byzantine Empire) continues on. 480– Julius Nepos, still claiming to be emperor, is killed in Dalmatia. 6th century and beyond [edit ] 533– begins to restore the empire in the west; Justinian I Belisarius defeats the Vandals at the Battle of Ad Decimum and the Battle of Tricamarum 536– Belisarius recaptures Rome from the Ostrogoths 552– Narses defeats the Ostrogoths at the Battle of Taginae 553– Narses defeats the Ostrogoths at the Battle of Mons Lactarius 568– The Lombards invade Italy; no further attempts to restore the empire 607– Emperor donates The Phocas Pantheon to the Pope and has a column erected in the Forum. 640- The Roman legion of the East Roman army is disbanded, and the theme systems is introduced. 663– is the last emperor to visit Rome, and the city gradually slips out of imperial control Constans II 976- Basil II effectively becomes Emperor of the Romans after the death of John I Tzimiskes. 1014-Basil crushes Bulgarian forces in the battle of kliedion, and he is called the "Father of the army" by his troops. 1025-The eastern Roman empire is at its peak in the eleventh century, regaining its foothold in the Balkans and southern Italy. Yet marks the death of Basil II. 1071- The battle of manzikert devastated Byzantine forces in Anatolia losing the themata and tagmata to the Seljuk Turks. 1204– Crusaders sack Constantinople and establish the Latin Empire of Constantinople. 1261– Michael VIII Palaiologos recovers Constantinople from the Latin Empire. 1453– Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks. End of the Byzantine/eastern Roman Empire. 1461– Trebizond falls to the Ottoman Turks. End of the Empire of Trebizond and of the last remnant of the Roman Empire. See also [edit ]