Timeline of Spanish history

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Main article: History of Spain
Further information: list of heads of state of Spain

See Timeline of pre-Roman Iberian history and Timeline of Spanish history (Hispania) for preceding periods.

This article is a Timeline of Spanish history only from the Dark Ages to the present time and comprises important legal and territorial changes and political events in Spain and its predecessor nation states.

Middle Ages (before 1506)[edit]

Main articles: Reconquista and Catholic Monarchs
YearDateEvent
711The Moors invaded Spain, displacing the Visigoths, and established Al-Andalus.
722Pelayo[disambiguation needed] defeats the moor's army in Covadonga (Asturias) starting the Reconquista
778Zaragoza is attacked by the Carolingian army.
1009The Fitna of al-Andalus got let off with the assassination of Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo.
1031The Fitna of al-Andalus ended with the breakup of the Caliphate of Cordoba.
1085Alfonso VI from Castille conquered Toledo.
1094The Castilian knight El Cid conquered Valencia from the Moors.
1138The Kingdom of Portugal was established.
1228Moorish influence was reduced to the Kingdom of Granada.
1366Starts a civil war against Enrique de Trastamara, son of Alfonso XI.
146919 OctoberIsabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon were married, laying the foundation for the unification of the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon into Spain.
147410 DecemberThe reign of Isabella began.
1475War of the Castilian Succession: The war began.
1478The Spanish Inquisition was founded.
1504Isabella I of Castile died.
20 JanuaryThe reign of Ferdinand began.
4 SeptemberBy the Treaty of Alcáçovas, Portugal recognized Spanish control of the Canary Islands.
1492Christopher Columbus first explored the New World.
Reconquista: The Reconquista ended.
Jews were expelled from Spain by the Alhambra Decree.
1493Spanish colonization of the Americas Spanish colonization of the Americas began.
1494The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed.
1499Italian War of 1499-1504: Ferdinand allied with the French King Louis XII of France.

Habsburg Spain (1506–1700)[edit]

Main article: Habsburg Spain
YearDateEvent
1516Ferdinand died.
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, became King of Castile and Aragon.
155425 JulyEnglish Queen Mary I of England married Spanish Prince Philip.
1556Charles abdicated in favor of Philip, who became King Philip II of Spain.
1557Battle of St. Quentin (1557): Spain won the battle.
1561Philip moved his court to Madrid.
1568Dutch Revolt: A revolt began against Habsburg control of the Netherlands.
1571Battle of Lepanto (1571): The Holy League was victorious.
1578Dutch Revolt: The revolt ended.
1580The Iberian Union of the crowns of Aragon, Castile and Portugal was established.
1585Anglo–Spanish War (1585): The war began.
15888 AugustThe Spanish Armada was defeated in the English Channel.
1598Philip III of Spain was crowned.
1604Anglo-Spanish War (1585): The war ended.
1605The Treaty of London (1604) was signed.
The Moriscos were expelled.
1618Thirty Years' War: The war began.
1621Philip IV of Spain was crowned.
1640Portuguese Restoration War: The war began.
The Iberian Union was dissolved.
1648The Treaty of Westphalia was signed.
1659The Peace of the Pyrenees was signed.
1665Philip IV died.
1668The Treaty of Lisbon was signed.
1675Charles II of Spain was crowned.
1700Charles II died.

Bourbon Spain (1700–1811)[edit]

YearDateEvent
1701War of the Spanish Succession: The war began.
1761Seven Years' War: Spain declared war on Great Britain.
1778American Revolutionary War: Spain supported the United States.
1789Spain during this time opened up the slave trade to Havana.
1806British invasions of the Río de la Plata: The invasions began.
1807British invasions of the Río de la Plata: The invasions ended.
1808Peninsular War: The war began.
2 MayDos de Mayo Uprising: An uprising took place in Madrid against the French occupation of the city.
1809Bolivian Independence War: The war began.
1811Venezuelan War of Independence: The war began.

Reaction, Republicanism and Restoration (1812–1931)[edit]

YearDateEvent
1812The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was issued.
1814Peninsular War: The war ended.
1815Spanish reconquest of New Granada: The reconquest began.
1816Spanish reconquest of New Granada: The reconquest ended.
1820Trienio Liberal: The period began.
1823Trienio Liberal: The period ended.
1824Bolivian Independence War: The war ended.
1833First Carlist War: The war began.
1839First Carlist War: The war ended.
1846Second Carlist War: The war began.
1849Second Carlist War: The war ended.
1864Chincha Islands War: The war began.
1866Chincha Islands War: The war ended.
1868Ten Years' War: A war with Cuba began.
1872Third Carlist War: The war began.
1873The First Spanish Republic was established.
1874Spain under the Restoration: The period began.
The First Spanish Republic was disestablished.
1876Third Carlist War: The war ended.
1878Ten Years' War: The war ended.
1879Pablo Iglesias founds the Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE in Casa Labra, a bar from Madrid
189825 AprilSpanish-American War: The war began.
12 AugustSpanish-American War: The war ended.
1914World War I: The war began. Spain remained neutral.
1918World War I: The war ended.
1920Rif War (1920): The war began.
1926Rif War (1920): The war ended.
1931The Second Spanish Republic was established.
Spain under the Restoration: The period ended.


Second Republic and Francoist Spain (1931–1975)[edit]

YearDateEvent
1936Spanish Civil War (to 1939)
1937Spanish Civil War, 1937: The war took place.
26 AprilBombing of Guernica: The bombing took place.
1938Spanish Civil War, 1938–1939: The war began.
1939Spain under Franco: The period began.
The Second Spanish Republic was disestablished.
1957Ifni War: The war began.
1958Ifni War: The war ended.
1959Spanish miracle: A period of economic growth began.
1973Spanish miracle: The period ended.
1975History of Spain (1975–present): The period began.
6 NovemberThe Green March forced Spain to hand over its last remaining colonial possession, Spanish Sahara, to Morocco.
19 NovemberFrancisco Franco died; the monarchy was restored to Juan Carlos I of Spain.

Contemporary Spain[edit]

YearDateEvent
1976Spanish transition to democracy: The transition began.
1978The Spanish Constitution of 1978 was issued.
1981Spanish society after the democratic transition: A democratic society was established.
23 February23-F: An attempted coup took place.
1986Spain joined the European Union.
19921992 Summer Olympics: The Summer Olympics were held in Barcelona.
1998Judge Baltasar Garzón issued an international arrest warrant for former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet.
200411 March2004 Madrid train bombings: Madrid train bombings killed one hundred and ninety-one and injured over two thousand. Prime Minister José María Aznar blamed the Basque terrorists ETA.
14 MarchAznar's People's Party lost an election after the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero promised to withdraw Spanish troops from Iraq.
20062006 Madrid Barajas International Airport bombing: A bombing by ETA ended an active ceasefire and peace negotiations.
2008Moroccan national Jamal Zougam was found guilty of the 2004 train bombings in Madrid.
Garzón was charged with criminal conduct in three cases, causing an international scandal and protests.
Spain won the Euro Cup Final, establishing the team as an international soccer power house.
2010Spain won the FIFA World Cup.
Garzón was granted leave to work as a consultant to the International Criminal Court at The Hague.

Further reading[edit]