Tiberios III

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Tiberios III
Τιβέριος Γ´
Emperor of the Byzantine Empire
Solidus-Tiberius III-sb1360.4.jpg
Solidus displaying the cuirassed bust of Tiberios III, with spear & shield
Reign698–705
Birth nameApsimaros
Birthplacepossibly Pamphylia[1]
Died15 February 706
Place of deathConstantinople
PredecessorLeontios
SuccessorJustinian II
DynastyHeraclian Dynasty
 
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Tiberios III
Τιβέριος Γ´
Emperor of the Byzantine Empire
Solidus-Tiberius III-sb1360.4.jpg
Solidus displaying the cuirassed bust of Tiberios III, with spear & shield
Reign698–705
Birth nameApsimaros
Birthplacepossibly Pamphylia[1]
Died15 February 706
Place of deathConstantinople
PredecessorLeontios
SuccessorJustinian II
DynastyHeraclian Dynasty
Twenty Years' Anarchy
Chronology
Leontios695–698
Tiberios III698–705
Justinian II705–711
with Tiberius as co-emperor, 706–711
Philippikos Bardanes711–713
Anastasios II713–715
Theodosios III715–717
Succession
Preceded by
Heraclian dynasty
Followed by
Isaurian dynasty

Tiberios III (or Tiberius III) (Greek: Τιβέριος Γ') (died 15 February 706)[2] was Byzantine emperor from 698 to 21 August 705.[3] Although his rule was considered generally successful, especially in containing the Arab threat to the east, he was overthrown by the former emperor Justinian II and subsequently executed.

Rise to power[edit]

Tiberius was a Germanic naval officer from the region of Pamphylia and originally named Apsimaros (Αψίμαρος),[4] who rose to the position of droungarios of the Cibyrrhaeotic Theme.[5] He participated in the failed campaign to regain Carthage in 698. As admiral John the Patrician retreated from Carthage to Crete, the fleet rebelled, deposed and murdered their commander,[5] and chose Apsimaros as his replacement.[6] Changing his name to Tiberios,[7] Apsimaros sailed on Constantinople which was suffering from a plague and proceeded to besiege it.[7]

His revolution attracted the support of the Green faction,[6] as well as detachments from the field army and the imperial guard, and officers loyal to him opened the gates of the city and proclaimed him emperor, after which his troops the proceeded to pillage the city.[7] When he was firmly established on the throne, he commanded that the nose of deposed Emperor Leontius be cut off, and ordered him to enter the monastery of Psamathion.[6] Leontios had also mutilated his predecessor Justinian II in the same fashion three years earlier.[4]

Reign and deposition[edit]

As emperor, Tiberios III made the tactical decision to ignore Africa, where Carthage was now definitively lost.[5] Instead, he appointed his brother Herakleios as monostrategos of the East, who firstly strengthened the land and sea defences of Anatolia[6] before proceeding to attack the Umayyad Caliphate under Abd al-Malik, winning minor victories while raiding into northern Syria in 700 and 701.[8] He then proceeded to invade and for a period hold territory in Armenia, while Arab reprisals in 703 and 704 were repelled from Cilicia with heavy Arab losses.[6]

Success in the military sphere was accompanied by Tiberios’ attempt to strengthen the empire militarily by reorganizing its administration.[5] Tiberius then turned his attention to the Island of Cyprus, which had been underpopulated since the reign of Justinian II.[1] He sent a delegation to the Caliph at Damascus, asking for the return of many Cypriot prisoners who had been captured near the Propontis, and subsequently returned them to their place of birth. He strengthened the defence of the island at the same time by increasing the garrison numbers with troops from the Taurus Mountains.[1] He also reorganized the Cibyrrhaeotic Theme[1] and repaired the sea walls of Constantinople.[2]

Domestically, his only known act of note was the banishment of Philippikos Bardanes, the son of a notable patrician, to the island of Cephalonia. Philippikos, a future emperor, had dreamed that his head was overshadowed by an eagle, which Tiberios took to mean that he was planning to rebel against him.[9]

Meanwhile, in 704, Justinian II escaped from exile in Cherson,[5] fleeing to the court of the khagan of the Khazars, Busir Glavan.[10] Tiberios paid a bounty to Busir to have Justinian killed,[11] but Justinian, who had married the khagan's sister and been warned by her, escaped.[12] Seeking the aid of Tervel of Bulgaria, he eventually made his way back to Constantinople at the head of Slav and Bulgar army in 705.[13] For three days, Justinian tried to convince the citizens of Constantinople to open the gates, but to no avail.[14] In the meantime, his troops had discovered a long abandoned water conduit beneath the city walls, through which Justinian and some of his supporters managed to enter the city.[13] Hearing that Justinian had taken control of the Blachernae Palace in the night, Tiberios fled to Bithynia where he evaded capture for several months.[15]

With his capture, Tiberios, together with his brother Herakleios and the former emperor Leontios,[2] were paraded in chains through the city streets before being presented before Justinian in the Hippodrome of Constantinople.[15] There, before a jeering populace, Justinian placed his feet on the necks of Tiberios and Leontios in a symbolic gesture of subjugation before ordering their execution by beheading.[5] Tiberios’ brother, Herakleios, and many of the military commanders under him were subsequently hanged.[16]

External links[edit]

Media related to Tiberius III at Wikimedia Commons

Sources[edit]

Primary Sources[edit]

Theophanes the Confessor, Chronographia.

Secondary Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Bury, pg. 356
  2. ^ a b c Kazhdan, pg. 2084
  3. ^ Dumbarton Oaks, pg. 624
  4. ^ a b Canduci, pg. 200
  5. ^ a b c d e f Moore, Tiberius III
  6. ^ a b c d e Norwich, pg. 334
  7. ^ a b c Bury, pg. 354
  8. ^ Bury, pg. 355
  9. ^ Bury, pg. 357
  10. ^ Norwich, pg. 335
  11. ^ Bury, pg. 358
  12. ^ Bury, pg. 359
  13. ^ a b Norwich, pg. 336
  14. ^ Bury, pg. 360
  15. ^ a b Norwich, pg. 337
  16. ^ Bury, pg. 361
Tiberios III
Born: 7th century Died: 15 February 706
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Leontius
Byzantine Emperor
698–705
Succeeded by
Justinian II