Thyroid peroxidase or thyroperoxidase (TPO) is an enzyme expressed mainly in the thyroid that liberates iodine for addition onto tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin for the production of thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormones. In humans, thyroperoxidase is encoded by the TPO gene.
2 + 2 I− + H2O2 ⇒ 2 + 2 H2O
Iodide is oxidized to iodine radical which immediately reacts with tyrosine.
2 + 2 I− + H2O2 ⇒ 2 + 2 H2O
The second iodine atom is added in similar manner to the reaction intermediate 3-iodotyrosine.
Inorganic iodine enters the body primarily as iodide, I-. After entering the thyroid follicle (or thyroid follicular cell) via a Na+/I- symporter (NIS) on the basolateral side, iodide is shuttled across the apical membrane into the colloid via pendrin, after which thyroid peroxidase oxidizes iodide to atomic iodine (I) or iodinium (I+). The "organification of iodine," the incorporation of iodine into thyroglobulin for the production of thyroid hormone, is nonspecific; that is, there is no TPO-bound intermediate, but iodination occurs via reactive iodine species released from TPO. The chemical reactions catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase occur on the outer apical membrane surface and are mediated by hydrogen peroxide.
Stimulation and inhibition
TPO is stimulated by TSH, which upregulates gene expression.
TPO is inhibited by the thioamide drugs, such as propylthiouracil and methimazole. In laboratory rats with insufficient iodine intake, inhibition of TPO has also been demonstrated for genistein.
Thyroid peroxidase is a frequent epitope of autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease, with such antibodies being called anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies). This is most commonly associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thus, an antibody titer can be used to assess disease activity in patients that have developed such antibodies.
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