Thunder Bay

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Thunder Bay
City
City of Thunder Bay
Overview of Thunder Bay
Overview of Thunder Bay
Flag of Thunder Bay
Flag
Official logo of Thunder Bay
Logo
Nickname(s): (The) Lakehead; TBay; The Bay
Motto: Superior by Nature / The Gateway to the West
Thunder Bay is located in Ontario
Thunder Bay
Thunder Bay
Location of Thunder Bay in Ontario
Coordinates: 48°22′56″N 89°14′46″W / 48.38222°N 89.24611°W / 48.38222; -89.24611Coordinates: 48°22′56″N 89°14′46″W / 48.38222°N 89.24611°W / 48.38222; -89.24611
Country Canada
Province Ontario
DistrictThunder Bay District
CMAThunder Bay
Settled1683 as Fort Caministigoyan
Amalgamation1 January 1970
Electoral Districts     
Federal

Thunder Bay—Superior North/Thunder Bay—Rainy River
ProvincialThunder Bay—Superior North/Thunder Bay—Atikokan
Government[2][3]
 • TypeMunicipal Government
 • MayorKeith Hobbs
 • City managerTim Commisso[1]
 • Governing BodyThunder Bay City Council
 • MPsBruce Hyer (Green)
John Rafferty (NDP)
 • MPPsMichael Gravelle (OLP)
Bill Mauro (OLP)
Area[4][5][6][7]
 • City447.5 km2 (172.8 sq mi)
 • Land328.24 km2 (126.73 sq mi)
 • Water119.0 km2 (45.9 sq mi)  26.6%
 • Urban179.38 km2 (69.26 sq mi)
 • Metro2,556.37 km2 (987.02 sq mi)
Elevation [8]199 m (653 ft)
Population (2011)[4][5][6]
 • City108,359 (46th)
 • Density330.1/km2 (855/sq mi)
 • Urban102,222 (30th)
 • Urban density569.9/km2 (1,476/sq mi)
 • Metro121,596 (32nd)
 • Metro density47.6/km2 (123/sq mi)
DemonymThunder Bayer
Time zoneEST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code FSAP7A to P7G, P7J, P7K
Area code(s)807
NTS Map052A06
GNBC CodeFCWFX
Websitewww.thunderbay.ca
 
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For other uses, see Thunder Bay (disambiguation).
Thunder Bay
City
City of Thunder Bay
Overview of Thunder Bay
Overview of Thunder Bay
Flag of Thunder Bay
Flag
Official logo of Thunder Bay
Logo
Nickname(s): (The) Lakehead; TBay; The Bay
Motto: Superior by Nature / The Gateway to the West
Thunder Bay is located in Ontario
Thunder Bay
Thunder Bay
Location of Thunder Bay in Ontario
Coordinates: 48°22′56″N 89°14′46″W / 48.38222°N 89.24611°W / 48.38222; -89.24611Coordinates: 48°22′56″N 89°14′46″W / 48.38222°N 89.24611°W / 48.38222; -89.24611
Country Canada
Province Ontario
DistrictThunder Bay District
CMAThunder Bay
Settled1683 as Fort Caministigoyan
Amalgamation1 January 1970
Electoral Districts     
Federal

Thunder Bay—Superior North/Thunder Bay—Rainy River
ProvincialThunder Bay—Superior North/Thunder Bay—Atikokan
Government[2][3]
 • TypeMunicipal Government
 • MayorKeith Hobbs
 • City managerTim Commisso[1]
 • Governing BodyThunder Bay City Council
 • MPsBruce Hyer (Green)
John Rafferty (NDP)
 • MPPsMichael Gravelle (OLP)
Bill Mauro (OLP)
Area[4][5][6][7]
 • City447.5 km2 (172.8 sq mi)
 • Land328.24 km2 (126.73 sq mi)
 • Water119.0 km2 (45.9 sq mi)  26.6%
 • Urban179.38 km2 (69.26 sq mi)
 • Metro2,556.37 km2 (987.02 sq mi)
Elevation [8]199 m (653 ft)
Population (2011)[4][5][6]
 • City108,359 (46th)
 • Density330.1/km2 (855/sq mi)
 • Urban102,222 (30th)
 • Urban density569.9/km2 (1,476/sq mi)
 • Metro121,596 (32nd)
 • Metro density47.6/km2 (123/sq mi)
DemonymThunder Bayer
Time zoneEST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code FSAP7A to P7G, P7J, P7K
Area code(s)807
NTS Map052A06
GNBC CodeFCWFX
Websitewww.thunderbay.ca

Thunder Bay is a city in and the seat of Thunder Bay District, Ontario, Canada. It is the most populous municipality in Northwestern Ontario with a population of 108,359 as of the Canada 2011 Census, and the second most populous in Northern Ontario after Greater Sudbury. The census metropolitan area of Thunder Bay has a population of 121,596, and consists of the city of Thunder Bay, the municipalities of Oliver Paipoonge and Neebing, the townships of Shuniah, Conmee, O'Connor and Gillies and the Fort William First Nation.

European settlement in the region began in the late 17th century with a French fur trading outpost on the banks of the Kaministiquia River.[9] It grew into an important transportation hub with its port forming an important link in the shipping of grain and other products from western Canada through the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway to the east coast. Forestry and manufacturing played important roles in the city's economy. They have declined in recent years, but have been replaced by a "knowledge economy" based on medical research and education. Thunder Bay is the site of the Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute.

The city takes its name from the immense Thunder Bay at the head of Lake Superior, known on 18th-century French maps as Baie du Tonnerre (Bay of Thunder).[9] The city is often referred to as the "Lakehead" or "Canadian Lakehead" because of its location at the end of Great Lakes navigation on the Canadian side of the border.[10]

History[edit]

Before 1900[edit]

European settlement at Thunder Bay began with two French fur trading posts (1683, 1717) which were subsequently abandoned (see Fort William, Ontario). In 1803 the Montreal-based North West Company established Fort William as its mid-continent entrepôt. The fort thrived until 1821 when the North West Company merged with the Hudson's Bay Company, and Fort William was no longer needed.

Fort William in 1865

By the 1850s, the Province of Canada began to take an interest in its western extremity. Discovery of copper in the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan had prompted a national demand for mining locations on the Canadian shores of Lake Superior. In 1849 French-speaking Jesuits established the Mission de l'Immaculée-Conception (Mission of the Immaculate Conception) on the Kaministiquia to evangelize the Ojibwe. The Province of Canada negotiated the Robinson Treaty in 1850 with the Ojibwa of Lake Superior. As a result, an Indian reservation was set aside for them south of the Kaministiquia River. In 1859–60 the Department of Crown Lands surveyed two townships (Neebing and Paipoonge) and the Town Plot of Fort William for European-Canadian settlement.

Another settlement developed a few miles to the north of Fort William after construction by the federal Department of Public Works of a road connecting Lake Superior with the Red River Colony. The work was directed by Simon James Dawson. (see Port Arthur, Ontario) This public works depot or construction headquarters acquired its first name in May 1870 when Colonel Garnet Wolseley named it Prince Arthur's Landing. It was renamed Port Arthur by the CPR in May 1883.[11]

The arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) in 1875 sparked a long rivalry between the towns, which did not end until the amalgamation of 1970. Until the 1880s, Port Arthur was a much larger and dynamic community. The CPR, in collaboration with the Hudson's Bay Company, preferred east Fort William, located on the lower Kaministiquia River where the fur trade posts were. Provoked by a prolonged tax dispute with Port Arthur and its seizure of a locomotive in 1889, the CPR relocated all its employees and facilities to Fort William. The collapse of silver mining after 1890 undermined the economy of Port Arthur. It had an economic depression, while Fort William thrived.

The 20th century[edit]

C.N. Railway Station

In the era of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Thunder Bay began a period of extraordinary growth, based on improved access to markets via the transcontinental railway and development of the western wheat boom. The CPR double-tracked its Winnipeg–Thunder Bay line. The Canadian Northern Railway established facilities at Port Arthur. The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway began construction of its facilities at the Fort William Mission in 1905, and the federal government began construction of the National Transcontinental Railway. Grain elevator construction boomed as the volume of grain shipped to Europe increased. Both cities incurred debt to grant bonuses to manufacturing industries. By 1914 the twin cities had modern infrastructures (sewers, safe water supply, street lighting, electric light, etc.) Both Fort William and Port Arthur were proponents of municipal ownership. As early as 1892, Port Arthur built Canada's first municipally owned electric street railway. Both cities spurned Bell Telephone Company of Canada to establish their own municipally owned telephone systems in 1902.

The boom came to an end in 1913–14, aggravated by the outbreak of the First World War. A war-time economy emerged with the making of munitions and shipbuilding. The cities raised men for the 52nd, 94th and 141st Battalions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force.

Railway employment was hurt when the federal government took over the National Transcontinental Railway and Lake Superior Division from the Grand Trunk in 1915, and the Canadian Northern Railway in 1918. These were amalgamated with other government-owned railways in 1923 to form the Canadian National Railways. The CNR closed many of the Canadian Northern Railway facilities in Port Arthur. It opened the Neebing yards in Neebing Township in 1922. By 1929 the population of the two cities had recovered to pre-war levels.

The forest products industry has always played an important role in the Thunder Bay economy from the 1870s. Logs and lumber were shipped primarily to the United States. In 1917 the first pulp and paper mill was established in Port Arthur. It was followed by a mill at Fort William in 1920. Eventually there were four mills operating.

Manufacturing resumed in 1937 when the Canada Car and Foundry Company plant re-opened to build aircraft for the British. Now run by Bombardier Transportation, the plant has remained a mainstay of the post-war economy. It has produced forestry equipment, and transportation equipment for urban transit systems, such as the Toronto Transit Commission and GO Transit.

Amalgamation[edit]

On 1 January 1970, the City of Thunder Bay was formed through the merger of the cities of Fort William, Port Arthur and the geographic townships of Neebing and McIntyre.[9] Its name was the result of a referendum held previously on 23 June 1969, to determine the new name of the amalgamated Fort William and Port Arthur. Officials debated over the names to be put on the ballot, taking suggestions from residents including "Lakehead" and "The Lakehead". Predictably, the vote split between the two, and "Thunder Bay" was the victor. The final tally was "Thunder Bay" with 15,870, "Lakehead" with 15,302, and "The Lakehead" with 8,377.[12]

There was more controversy over the selection of a name for the amalgamated city than over whether to amalgamate. A vocal majority of the population preferred the "Lakehead".[13] There was much discusion over whether there was any other city in the world that uses the word "The" in its name, which there is as The Pas, Manitoba has "The" in its name, for example. The area was often referred to as the "Lakehead" before and after amalgamation based on its geographic location. It was seen as the "head" of shipping on the Great Lakes and the "rail head".

The expansion of highways, beginning with the Trans-Canada Highway and culminating with the opening of Highway 17 linking Sault Ste Marie to Thunder Bay in 1960, has significantly diminished railway and shipping activity in the 1970s and 80s. Shipping on the Saint Lawrence Seaway was superseded by trucking on highways. Grain shipping on the Great Lakes to the East has declined substantially in favour of transport to Pacific Coast ports. As a result, many grain elevators have been closed and demolished. The Kaministiquia River was abandoned by industry and shipping.

Today[edit]

Thunder Bay has become the regional services centre for Northwestern Ontario with most provincial departments represented. Lakehead University, established through the lobbying of local businessmen and professionals, has proved to be a major asset. Another upper level institution is Confederation College. The same businessmen and professionals who helped attract the university and college were the driving force behind the political amalgamation of Fort William and Port Arthur in 1970.

Geography[edit]

Fort William as seen from the International Space Station, December 2008

The city has an area of 328.48 square kilometres, which includes the former cities of Fort William and Port Arthur, as well as the townships of Neebing, Ontario and McIntyre. The former Fort William section occupies flat alluvial land along the Kaministiquia River. In the river delta are two large islands: Mission Island and McKellar Island.

The former Port Arthur section is more typical of the Canadian Shield, with gently sloping hills and very thin soil lying on top of bedrock with many bare outcrops. Thunder Bay, which gives the city its name, is about 22.5 kilometres (14.0 mi) from the Port Arthur downtown to Thunder Cape at the tip of the Sleeping Giant. The city reflects the settlement patterns of the 19th century and sprawls. Anchoring the west end of the city, the Fort William Town Plot surveyed in 1859–60 was named West Fort William (Westfort) in 1888 by the CPR. The land adjoining the lower Kaministiquia River became the residential and central business district of the town and city of Fort William. A large uninhabited area adjoining the Neebing and McIntyre rivers, which became known as Intercity, separated Fort William from the residential and central business district of Port Arthur. At the extreme east of the city, a part of McIntyre Township was annexed to the town of Port Arthur in 1892, forming what later became known as the Current River area.

Since 1970, the central business districts of Fort William and Port Arthur have suffered a serious decline. Business and government relocated to new developments in the Intercity area. There has also been substantial residential growth in adjacent areas of the former Neebing and McIntyre townships.

Climate[edit]

Thunder Bay and the area experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb)[14] that is influenced by Lake Superior, with especially noticeable effects in the city's north end. This results in cooler summer temperatures and warmer winter temperatures for an area extending inland as far as 16 km. The average daily temperatures range from 17.7 °C (63.9 °F) in July to −14.3 °C (6.3 °F) in January. The average daily high in July is 24.3 °C (75.7 °F) and the average daily high in January is −8.0 °C (17.6 °F).[15] On 10 January 1982, the local temperature in Thunder Bay dropped to −36.3 °C (−33.3 °F), with a wind speed of 54 km (34 mi) for a wind chill temperature that dipped to −58 °C (−72.4 °F).[16][17] As a result, it holds Ontario's record for coldest day with wind chill.[17]

The city is quite sunny, with an average of 2121 hours of bright sunshine each year, ranging from 268.1 hours in July to 86.2 hours in November, sunnier than any city in Canada located to the east of it.[15]

Neighbourhoods[edit]

The Port of Thunder Bay, as seen from Hillcrest Park

Thunder Bay is composed of two formerly separate cities, Port Arthur and Fort William. Both still retain much of their distinct civic identities, reinforced by the buffering effect of the Intercity area between them. Port Arthur and Fort William each has its own central business districts and suburban areas. Some of the more well-known neighbourhoods include: the Bay and Algoma area, which has a large northern European population centred around the Finnish Labour Temple and the Italian Cultural Centre; Simpson-Ogden and the East End, two of the oldest neighbourhoods in Fort William located north of Downtown Fort William; Intercity, a large business district located between Fort William and Port Arthur; Current River, the northernmost neighbourhood of Port Arthur; and Westfort, the oldest settlement in Thunder Bay. Within city limits are some small rural communities, such as Vickers Heights and North McIntyre, which were located in the former townships of Neebing and McIntyre, respectively.

Government and politics[edit]

Map of Thunder Bay's seven municipal wards

The city is governed by a mayor and twelve councillors. The mayor and five of the councillors are elected at large by the whole city. Seven councillors are elected for the seven wards: Current River Ward, McIntyre Ward, McKellar Ward, Neebing Ward, Northwood Ward, Red River Ward, and Westfort Ward.[18]

Thunder Bay is represented in the Canadian Parliament by Green Party MP Bruce Hyer, and John Rafferty, member of the New Democratic Party, and in the Ontario Legislature by Ontario Liberal Party members Michael Gravelle and Bill Mauro.

City symbols[edit]

Sleeping Giant

A large formation of mesas on the Sibley Peninsula in Lake Superior which resembles a reclining giant has become a symbol of the city. Sibley peninsula partially encloses the waters of Thunder Bay, and dominates the view of the lake from the northern section of the city (formerly Port Arthur). The Sleeping Giant also figures on the city's coat of arms and the city flag.

Coat of arms
The Coat of Arms of the City of Thunder Bay, which incorporates features from the coats of arms of Port Arthur and Fort William.

The Coat of arms of Thunder Bay, Ontario is a combination of the coats of arms of both Port Arthur and Fort William, with a unifying symbol—the Sleeping Giant—at the base of the arms.[19]

Corporate logo

The city logo depicts a stylized thunderbird, called Animikii, a statue of which is located on the city's Kaministiquia River Heritage Park. The slogan, Superior by Nature, is a double play on words reflecting the city's natural setting on Lake Superior.[19]

City flag

Thunder Bay's flag was created in 1972, when mayor Saul Laskin wanted to promote the city by having a distinctive flag. The city held a contest, which was won by Cliff Redden. The flag has a 1:2 ratio, and depicts a golden sky from the rising sun behind the Sleeping Giant, which sits in the blue waters of Lake Superior. The sun is represented by a red maple leaf, a symbol of Canada. Green and gold are Thunder Bay's city colours.[19]

Sister cities[edit]

Thunder Bay has four sister cities on three continents,[20] which are selected based on economic, cultural and political criteria.

Economy[edit]

Labour force[21][22]
RateThunder BayOntarioCanada
Employment57.7%60.8%62.2%
Unemployment7.6%8.9%7.7%
Participation62.4%66.8%67.4%
As of: February 2009

As the largest city in Northwestern Ontario, Thunder Bay is the region's commercial, administrative and medical centre. Many of the city's largest single employers are in the public sector. The City of Thunder Bay, the Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre, the Lakehead District School Board and the Government of Ontario each employ over 1,500 people.[23] Bowater Forest Products is the largest private employer, employing over 1,500 people.[24] Other major employers in the forestry sector include AbitibiBowater and Buchanan Forest Products. Bombardier Transportation operates a plant in Thunder Bay which manufactures mass transit vehicles and equipment, employing approximately 800 people.[24]

Employment by industry, 2006[25]
IndustryThunder BayOntario
Agriculture and resource-based3.6%2.9%
Construction5.4%5.9%
Manufacturing7.7%13.9%
Wholesale Trade2.8%4.7%
Retail trade12.7%11.1%
Finance and real estate4.2%6.8%
Health care and social services15.2%9.4%
Education services8.9%6.7%
Business services16.8%19.7%
Other services22.6%18.7%

Lack of innovation by traditional industries, such as forest products, combined with high labour costs have reduced the industrial base of Thunder Bay by close to 60%. The grain trade has declined because of the loss of grain transportation subsidies and the loss of European markets. The gradual transition from shipping by train and boat to shipping by truck, and the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement have ended Thunder Bay's privileged position as a linchpin in Canadian east-west freight-handling trade. As a result the city has lost its traditional raison d'être as a break-bulk point. However, in recent years shipments through the port of Thunder Bay have stabilized, and remains an important part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway.[26]

In an effort to rejuvenate its economy, the city has been actively working to attract quaternary or "knowledge-based" industries, primarily in the fields of molecular medicine and genomics.[27][28] The city is home to the western campus of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, the first medical school to open in Canada in a generation.[29] The city also has a law school. [30]

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Thunder Bay receives air, rail and shipping traffic due to its prime location along major continental transportation routes. Greyhound Canada provides coach service to both regional and national destinations, with the municipally owned Thunder Bay Transit providing 17 routes across the city's urban area. The city is served by the Thunder Bay International Airport, the fourth busiest airport in Ontario by aircraft movements.[31] The main highway through the city is Highway 11/17, a four-lane highway designated as the Thunder Bay Expressway.

The city is an important railway hub, served by both the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railway. Passenger rail service to Thunder Bay ended on 15 January 1990, with the cancellation of Via Rail's southern transcontinental service.[32]

Harbour

Thunder Bay has been a port since the days of the North West Company which maintained a schooner on Lake Superior. The Port of Thunder Bay is the largest outbound port on the St. Lawrence Seaway System,[33] and the sixth largest port in Canada.[29] The Thunder Bay Port Authority manages Keefer Terminal, built on a 320,000 square metre site on Lake Superior.

Medical centres and hospitals[edit]

Thunder Bay has one major hospital, the Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre. Other health care services include the St. Joseph's Care Group, which operates long term care centres such as the Lakehead Psychiatric Hospital, St. Joseph's Hospital, and Hogarth Riverview Manor. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine has a campus at Lakehead University. The city is also home to a variety of smaller medical and dental clinics.

Demographics[edit]

Selected Ethnic
Origins, 2006[34]
Ethnic originPopulation
English34,360
Scottish26,400
Canadian24,650
Irish22,260
French21,165
Ukrainian17,620
Italian17,290
Finnish14,510
German13,090
Aboriginal11,870
Polish8,595
Swedish5,580
Visible minorities3,175
multiple responses included
City of Thunder Bay
Population by year[35]
191127,719
192135,427
193146,095
194155,011
195166,108
195677,600
196192,490
1966104,539
1971108,411
1976111,476
1981112,486
1986112,272
1991113,946
1996113,662
2001109,016
2006109,140
2011108,359

According to the 2006 Census, there were 109,140 people residing in Thunder Bay on 16 May 2006, of whom 48.4% were male and 51.6% were female. Residents 19 years of age or younger accounted for approximately 22.9% of the population. People aged by 20 and 39 years accounted for 24.6%, while those between 40 and 64 made up 35.9% of the population. The average age of a Thunder Bayer in May 2006 was 41.7, compared to the average of 39.5 for Canada as a whole.[25]

Between the censuses of 2001 and 2006, Thunder Bay's population increased by 0.1%, compared to the average of 6.6% for Ontario and 5.4% for Canada. The population density of the city of Thunder Bay averaged 332.3 people per square kilometre, compared with an average of 13.4 for Ontario. The total population has been stagnant or declining since amalgamation in 1970.

A further 13,767 people live in Thunder Bay's Census Metropolitan Area, which apart from Thunder Bay includes the municipalities of Neebing and Oliver Paipoonge, the townships of Conmee, Gillies, O'Connor and Shuniah, and the aboriginal community of Fort William First Nation.[36]

Ethnicity

Thunder Bay is home to 14,510 people of Finnish descent,[34] the highest concentration of persons of Finnish origin per capita in Canada, and the second largest Finnish population in Canada after Toronto which has 14,750 persons of Finnish origin. Thunder Bay has a large Aboriginal population representing 8.2% of the population, but very few other ethnic minorities with the most populous, Chinese, representing only 0.8% of the population.[34]

Language

In terms of Canada's official languages, 81.6% of Thunder Bayers speak only English, and 2.6% speak only French. Thunder Bay has one of the largest established communities of Finnish speaking people outside of Finland.[37] Other languages spoken in Thunder Bay include Italian and Ojibwe.

Religion

The 2001 census states that 82.0 per cent of Thunder Bay residents belong to a Christian denomination, 39.8% of which are Roman Catholic, 39.5% Protestant, and 2.6% other following Christian denominations, mostly Eastern Orthodox. Those who follow other religions make up less than 1% of the population, while the remaining 17.0% are non-religious.

Visitor attractions[edit]

Thunder Bay's main tourist attraction is Fort William Historical Park, a reconstruction of the North West Company's Fort William fur trade post as it was in 1815, which attracts 100,000 visitors annually.[38] The marina in downtown Port Arthur, an area known as The Heart of the Harbour, draws visitors for its panoramic view of the Sleeping Giant and the presence of various water craft. The marina also includes a lake walk, playground, harbour cruises, a children's museum, and a Chinese/Canadian restaurant. There are several small surface amethyst mines in the area, some of which allow visitors to search for their own crystals.[39] A 2.74 m (9 ft) statue of Terry Fox is situated at the Terry Fox Memorial and Lookout on the outskirts of the city near the place where he was forced to abandon his run. Other tourists attractions are listed below.

Education[edit]

Thunder Bay has 38 elementary schools, 3 middle schools, 8 secondary schools, 2 private schools, and an adult education facility. The city also has several other private for-profit colleges and tutoring programmes. Post secondary institutions in Thunder Bay include Confederation College and Lakehead University.

The Lakehead District School Board is the largest school board in the city, with 22 elementary schools, 4 secondary schools and a centre for adult studies. The Thunder Bay Catholic District School Board is the second largest with 16 elementary schools, 3 middle schools and 2 high schools. Conseil scolaire de district catholique des Aurores boréales operates one elementary and one high school in Thunder Bay, and an additional six schools throughout the Thunder Bay District.

Culture[edit]

A Persian, local to Thunder Bay

The city of Thunder Bay was declared a "Cultural Capital of Canada" in 2003.[40] Throughout the city are cultural centres representing the diverse population, such as the Finnish Labour Temple, Scandinavia House, the Italian Cultural Centre, the Polish Legion, and a wide variety of others. Shags, a combination shower and stag held to celebrate the engagement of a couple,[41] and Persians, a cinnamon bun pastry with pink icing, originated in the city.[42][43] Thunder Bay is served by the Thunder Bay Public Library, which has four branches.

The arts[edit]

Thunder Bay Historical Museum

Thunder Bay is home to a variety of music and performance arts venues. The largest professional theatre is Magnus Theatre. Founded in 1971, it offers six stage plays each season and is located in the renovated Port Arthur Public School on Red River Road. The Thunder Bay Community Auditorium, which seats 1500, is the primary venue for various types of entertainment. It is the home of the Thunder Bay Symphony Orchestra, which has 30 full-time and up to 20 extra musicians presenting a full range of classical music.[44] New Music North is vital to the contemporary classical music scene in the city by offering intriguing and novel contemporary chamber music concerts.[45]

The Bay Street Film Festival, established in 2005, is an independent film festival that features local, national, and international films with the theme of "Films for the People." The festival is held in early October at 314 Bay Street in the historic Finnish Labour Temple.[46] Thunder Bay is also home to the North of Superior Film Association (NOSFA). Established in 1992, the NOSFA features monthly screenings of international and Canadian films at the Cumberland Cinema Centre, with a spring film festival that attracts several thousand patrons.[47]

Museums and galleries[edit]

The Thunder Bay Art Gallery which was founded in 1976, specializes in the works of First Nations artists, having a collection of national significance. The Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, founded in 1908, presents local and travelling exhibitions and houses an impressive collection of artifacts, photographs, paintings, documents and maps in its archives.

Thunder Bay has two recognized Federal Heritage buildings on the Register of the Government of Canada Heritage Buildings:[48]

both are part of HMCS Griffin.

Places of worship[edit]

St. Andrews Presbyterian Church

Thunder Bay has many places of worship supported by people of a variety of faiths, reflecting the cultural diversity of the population.[49] A sample:

Sports and recreation[edit]

Thunder Bay's proximity to the wilderness of the Boreal Forest and the rolling hills and mountains of the Canadian Shield allow its residents to enjoy very active lifestyles. The city has hosted several large sporting events including the Summer Canada Games in 1981, the Nordic World Ski Championships in 1995, the Continental Cup of Curling in 2003, and the World Junior Baseball Championship in 2010.

Recreational facilities[edit]

Thunder Bay enjoys many recreational facilities. The city operates fifteen neighbourhood community centres, which offer various sporting and fitness facilities as well as seasonal activities such as dances. The city also operates six indoor ice rinks and 84 seasonal outdoor rinks,[52] two indoor community pools and three seasonal outdoor pools as well as a portable pool and two maintained public beaches, several curling sheets, and three golf courses, among others.[53] Listed below are some of the city's major facilities.

Sports teams[edit]

ClubSportLeagueVenue
Thunder Bay North StarsIce HockeySuperior International Junior Hockey LeagueFort William Gardens
Lakehead ThunderwolvesBasketballOntario University AthleticsC.J. Sanders Fieldhouse
Lakehead ThunderwolvesBaseballNational Club Baseball Association Div 2 (USA)Baseball Central
Lakehead ThunderwolvesIce HockeyOntario University AthleticsFort William Gardens
Lakehead ThunderwolvesVolleyballOntario University AthleticsC.J. Sanders Fieldhouse
Thunder Bay Border CatsBaseballNorthwoods LeaguePort Arthur Stadium
Thunder Bay ChillSoccerUSL Premier Development LeagueChapples Park Stadium

Thunder Bay is also home to the National Development Centre – Thunder Bay, an elite cross-country ski team that attracts many of Canada's best Junior and U-23 skiers.

Sport events[edit]

Thunder Bay 10 Mile Road Race

Media[edit]

Main article: Media in Thunder Bay

Print[edit]

Thunder Bay has one daily newspaper, The Chronicle-Journal, which has a circulation of approximately 28,000 and has coverage of all of Northwestern Ontario.[56] There are two weekly news papers—Thunder Bay's Source, a weekly newspaper operated by Dougall Media, and Canadan Sanomat, a Finnish language weekly newspaper. Lakehead University has a student newspaper called The Argus, which is published weekly during the school year.[57] The Chronicle Journal publishes a free weekly called Spot every Thursday, focusing on entertainment. The city publishes a bi-monthly newsletter to citizens titled yourCity, which is also available online in a PDF format, by electronic subscription and RSS feed.[58]

Television[edit]

Three English-language stations supply Thunder Bay with free digital over-the-air television. Programming from the Global and CBC networks is provided by a locally owned twinstick operation branded as Thunder Bay Television, and the city receives TVOntario on channel 9. CTV and Radio-Canada are available only on cable and satellite in the area.

The cable provider in Thunder Bay is Shaw, although locally owned TBayTel, has been granted a license by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) to compete in the cable TV market.[59] The community channel on Shaw Cable is branded as Shaw TV, and airs on cable channel 10.

WBKP TV channel 5, the CW affiliate in Calumet, Michigan can be received in Thunder Bay with an outdoor roof antenna and a digital-capable television or receiver.

Radio[edit]

Thunder Bay is home to 12 radio stations, all of which broadcast on the FM band.

There are four commercial radio stations based in the city — Rock 94.3 and CKPR 91.5, owned by Dougall Media, the parent company of Thunder Bay Television and Thunder Bay's Source, and Magic 99.9 and Country 105, owned by Acadia Broadcasting. One additional station, Thunder 103.5, targets the Thunder Bay market from transmitters in Kaministiquia and Shuniah. The city receives CBC Radio One as CBQT-FM and CBC Radio 2 as CBQ-FM, at 88.3 FM and 101.7 FM respectively. The French Première Chaîne is available as a repeater of Sudbury-based CBON-FM on 89.3 FM. Lakehead University operates a campus radio station, CILU-FM, at 102.7 FM, and CJOA-FM 95.1 broadcasts Christian-oriented programming and is run by a local non-profit group. Thunder Bay Information Radio CKSI-FM is broadcast 24/7 on 90.5 and is also the city's emergency radio station.

Notable residents[edit]

Current NHL players
Former NHL players

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Burkowski, Peter. "City appoints new city manager," The Chronicle-Journal (19 August 2008). Retrieved 19 August 2008.
  2. ^ City Hall, Thunder Bay City Council. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  3. ^ Municipal Code, by-law 218-2003. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  4. ^ a b "Thunder Bay, Ontario (Code 3558004) census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2013-04-25. 
  5. ^ a b "Thunder Bay (census metropolitan area) (Code 595) census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2013-04-25. 
  6. ^ a b "Thunder Bay (population centre) (Code 0935) census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2013-04-25. 
  7. ^ The Port of Thunder Bay, The Transportation Sector. City of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
  8. ^ "Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000". Thunder Bay A, Ontario: Environment Canada. Retrieved 12 April 2012. 
  9. ^ a b c Brief History of Thunder Bay, City of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 5 June 2007.
  10. ^ Tronrud, Thorold J; Epp, Ernest A.; and others. (1995). "Introduction", Thunder Bay: From Rivalry to Unity, p. vii, Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society ISBN 0-920119-22-0
  11. ^ F.B. Scollie, "Falling into Line : How Prince Arthur's Landing Became Port Arthur," Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society Papers and Records, XIII (1985) 8–19.
  12. ^ About Thunder Bay, pp. 2. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  13. ^ http://www.thunderbay.ca/Assets/CEDC/docs/Thunder_Bay_Overview+-+opens+a+new+window.pdf
  14. ^ http://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/mpeel/Koppen/World_Koppen_Map.png
  15. ^ a b c "Thunder Bay A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved September 29, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Thunder Bay Airport Hourly Data Report for January 10, 1982". Environment Canada. Retrieved June 3, 2014. 
  17. ^ a b "Fact Sheet−Winter Weather Warnings". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2014. 
  18. ^ Guide to City Services, Municipal Government, Wards. Retrieved 4 June 2007
  19. ^ a b c Thunder Bay City Symbols. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
  20. ^ Thunder Bay Sister Cities. Retrieved 1 August 2014
  21. ^ Labour Force Characteristics, Seasonally adjusted, by CMA. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
  22. ^ Labour Force Survey. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
  23. ^ Major Employer List – Thunder Bay, 2006 45kb. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  24. ^ a b Thunder Bay Top Private Sector Employers, Northern Ontario Business (May 2006). Retrieved 4 September 2007.
  25. ^ a b City of Thunder Bay, 2006 Community Profile. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  26. ^ 56-Year Cargo Statistics, Port of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
  27. ^ New Molecular Medicine Research Centre to be Headquartered in Thunder Bay, TBRHSC.com (6 September 2006). Retrieved 4 September 2007
  28. ^ Genesis Genomics. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  29. ^ a b Thunder Bay Blends Old, New Industries, Site Selection (November 2005). Retrieved 4 September 2007
  30. ^ Lakehead University Faculty of Law, Site Selection. Retrieved 27 February 2014
  31. ^ TP 1496 Preliminary aircraft statistics 2006. Transport Canada. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  32. ^ Canada Transportation Act, 1990. Order Varying Certain National Transportation Agency Orders Respecting Railway Companies, SOR/89-488 S III 1. (2) (c). Retrieved 5 June 2007
  33. ^ Port of Thunder Bay, official website. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  34. ^ a b c Profile of Ethnic Origin and Visible Minorities for Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 13 March 2009.
  35. ^ The People of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 1 September 2007.
    For 1911: Tronrud, Thorold J; Epp, Ernest A.; and others. (1995). Thunder Bay: From Rivalry to Unity. Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, pp. 59. ISBN 0-920119-22-0.
  36. ^ 2006 Census Population Counts by Municipality, Thunder Bay CMA. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  37. ^ Thunder Bay Public Library – Community – Finnish Community. Retrieved 28 June 2008.
  38. ^ Fort William Historical Park, Planning Your Visit – Beginnings. Retrieved on 4 June 2007
  39. ^ Ontario Amethyst: Mining Ontario’s Amethyst Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines. Retrieved 4 August 2007.
  40. ^ Cultural Capitals of Canada 2003. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
  41. ^ Seven Wonders of Thunder Bay, Shags. Thunder Bay Source. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
  42. ^ Thunder Bay Food. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
  43. ^ The Universal Cynic (26 June 2006) Lexicon of Yore. Retrieved 11 June 2007.
  44. ^ Thunder Bay Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  45. ^ New Music North. Retrieved 2 August 2008.
  46. ^ Bay Street Film Festival. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  47. ^ NOSFA Website. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  48. ^ Register of the Government of Canada Heritage Buildings.
  49. ^ "Thunder Bay Community Information Database: Churches" Thunder Bay Community Information & Referral Center. Retrieved 3 January 2009
  50. ^ Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary City of Thunder Bay. Retrieved 3 January 2009
  51. ^ "Thunder Bay Symphony Orchestra Brochure" TBSO. Retrieved 3 January 2009
  52. ^ City of Thunder Bay – Outdoor Rinks. Retrieved January 2008
  53. ^ Thunder Bay Telephone (2007) TBayTel 2007–2008 Directory, Pages 56 to 58.
  54. ^ The Sports Dome. Retrieved 24 January 2008.
  55. ^ Golf Thunder Bay and Golflink – Thunder Bay[dead link]. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  56. ^ Sudbury Star and Sault Star Part of Media Buyout. Netnewsledger, 1 June 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2007.
  57. ^ The Argus. Retrieved 8 June 2007
  58. ^ Your City, Thunder Bay. Retrieved 2 September 2007.
  59. ^ CRTC Decision 2008-289 – CRTC. Retrieved 3 March 2009
  60. ^ Paul Shaffer Bio at CBS – Late Show. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  61. ^ Curtola's Official Website. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  62. ^ Printable Biography of Jay Miron, All-American Talent and Celebrity Network. Retrieved on 2 October 2007.
  63. ^ Federal Experience. Parlinfo Parliamentarian file. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  64. ^ Official Biography[dead link], Supreme Court of Canada website. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
  65. ^ MacLean, Mary R. Colonel Elizabeth Smellie CBE, Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, Papers and Records, III (1975), 16–18 with reproduction of portrait by Kenneth Forbes on page 16.
  66. ^ Eric Staal at The Internet Hockey Database. Retrieved 20 April 2007.

External links[edit]