Thomas & Friends

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Thomas & Friends
Thomas-the-tank-engine-logo.jpg
Thomas the Tank Engine
Also known asThomas the Tank Engine & Friends (original title)
GenreChildren's television series
FormatAnimated television series
Created byWilbert Awdry (characters)
Christopher Awdry (characters)
Britt Allcroft
Written byBritt Allcroft (1984–1998)
David Mitton (1984–2003)
Various (2002–present)
Directed byDavid Mitton (1984–2003)
Steve Asquith (2004–2008)
Greg Tiernan (2009–2012)
StarringRingo Starr UK/US: (1984–1986)
Michael Angelis UK: (1991–present) US: (Video 2004)
George Carlin US: (1991–1995)
Alec Baldwin US: (1998–2002)
Michael Brandon US: (2003–present)
Pierce Brosnan UK/US: (2008, "guest narrator")
Voices ofMartin Sherman
Ben Small
David Bedella
Michael Brandon
Rupert Degas
Teresa Gallagher
William Hope
Togo Igawa
Jules de Jongh
Steve Kynman
Michael Legge
Kerry Shale
Keith Wickham
Matt Wilkinson
Glenn Wrage
Composer(s)Mike O'Donnell and Junior Campbell (1984–2003)
Robert Hartshorne (2004–present)
Ed Welch (2004–2008)
Country of originUnited Kingdom
Language(s)English
No. of series16
No. of episodes400 + 1 feature film and 6 specials (List of episodes)
Production
Executive producer(s)Britt Allcroft
Producer(s)David Mitton (1984–2004)
Britt Allcroft (1984–1998)
Robert D. Cardona (1984–1986)
Simon Spencer (2004–2009)
Nicole Stinn (2010–present)
Ian McCue (2012–present)
Editor(s)Michael Dixon (1984)
Rebecca de Burgh Mound (1986)
John Wright (1991–1998)
Paul Davenport (2002–present)
Running time5 minutes (Series 1–7)
7 minutes (Series 8–12)
9 minutes (Series 13–16)
Production company(s)Clearwater Features (1984–1986)
The Britt Allcroft Company (1991–2000)
Gullane Entertainment (2001–2002)
HiT Entertainment
(2003–present)
DistributorVarious distributors; currently Lionsgate Entertainment
Broadcast
Original channelITV/(CITV) (1984–2004)
Channel 5 (2005–present)
Nick Jr./Nick Jr. 2 (repeats)
Picture format4:3 576i (SDTV) (filmed) (Series 1–5)
16:9 576i (SDTV) (filmed) (Series 6–10)
16:9 1080i (HDTV) (filmed) (Series 11)
16:9 1080i (HDTV) (CGI) (Series 12-present)
Audio formatStereo (1984–1995)
Dolby Surround (1998–2002)
Dolby Digital 5.1 (2003–present)
Original run4 September 1984 – present
Chronology
Related showsTugs
Theodore Tugboat
Shining Time Station
Mr. Conductor's Thomas Tales
Storytime with Thomas
External links
Website
 
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Thomas & Friends
Thomas-the-tank-engine-logo.jpg
Thomas the Tank Engine
Also known asThomas the Tank Engine & Friends (original title)
GenreChildren's television series
FormatAnimated television series
Created byWilbert Awdry (characters)
Christopher Awdry (characters)
Britt Allcroft
Written byBritt Allcroft (1984–1998)
David Mitton (1984–2003)
Various (2002–present)
Directed byDavid Mitton (1984–2003)
Steve Asquith (2004–2008)
Greg Tiernan (2009–2012)
StarringRingo Starr UK/US: (1984–1986)
Michael Angelis UK: (1991–present) US: (Video 2004)
George Carlin US: (1991–1995)
Alec Baldwin US: (1998–2002)
Michael Brandon US: (2003–present)
Pierce Brosnan UK/US: (2008, "guest narrator")
Voices ofMartin Sherman
Ben Small
David Bedella
Michael Brandon
Rupert Degas
Teresa Gallagher
William Hope
Togo Igawa
Jules de Jongh
Steve Kynman
Michael Legge
Kerry Shale
Keith Wickham
Matt Wilkinson
Glenn Wrage
Composer(s)Mike O'Donnell and Junior Campbell (1984–2003)
Robert Hartshorne (2004–present)
Ed Welch (2004–2008)
Country of originUnited Kingdom
Language(s)English
No. of series16
No. of episodes400 + 1 feature film and 6 specials (List of episodes)
Production
Executive producer(s)Britt Allcroft
Producer(s)David Mitton (1984–2004)
Britt Allcroft (1984–1998)
Robert D. Cardona (1984–1986)
Simon Spencer (2004–2009)
Nicole Stinn (2010–present)
Ian McCue (2012–present)
Editor(s)Michael Dixon (1984)
Rebecca de Burgh Mound (1986)
John Wright (1991–1998)
Paul Davenport (2002–present)
Running time5 minutes (Series 1–7)
7 minutes (Series 8–12)
9 minutes (Series 13–16)
Production company(s)Clearwater Features (1984–1986)
The Britt Allcroft Company (1991–2000)
Gullane Entertainment (2001–2002)
HiT Entertainment
(2003–present)
DistributorVarious distributors; currently Lionsgate Entertainment
Broadcast
Original channelITV/(CITV) (1984–2004)
Channel 5 (2005–present)
Nick Jr./Nick Jr. 2 (repeats)
Picture format4:3 576i (SDTV) (filmed) (Series 1–5)
16:9 576i (SDTV) (filmed) (Series 6–10)
16:9 1080i (HDTV) (filmed) (Series 11)
16:9 1080i (HDTV) (CGI) (Series 12-present)
Audio formatStereo (1984–1995)
Dolby Surround (1998–2002)
Dolby Digital 5.1 (2003–present)
Original run4 September 1984 – present
Chronology
Related showsTugs
Theodore Tugboat
Shining Time Station
Mr. Conductor's Thomas Tales
Storytime with Thomas
External links
Website

Thomas & Friends (Thomas the Tank Engine & Friends until 2002) is a British children's television series, first broadcast on the ITV network on 4 September 1984. It is based on The Railway Series of books by the Reverend Wilbert Awdry and his son Christopher Awdry. These books deal with the adventures of a group of anthropomorphised trains and road vehicles who live on the fictional Island of Sodor. The books were based on stories Awdry told to entertain his son Christopher during his recovery from measles. Many of the stories are based on events from Awdry's personal experience.

Contents

Production

Animation

The show was originally produced with live action model animation at Shepperton Studios in England. The use of moving models was seen at the time of the show's conception as an effective method of animating the stories. Locomotives and other vehicles were operated by radio, while humans and animals were static figures. Stop-motion was occasionally employed for instances in which a human or animal character would move. Hand-drawn animation was used in Series 3 to create bees.

At the show's conception in 1984, live action model animation would not deliver lip sync, but show co-creator Britt Allcroft and model director David Mitton did not see this as an inhibition. About 20 years later however, with advancement in technology, the show saw the introduction of CGI by HIT Entertainment's subsidiary HOT Animation.[1] At first this was used to generate smoke and other effects, but later, HIT (the new owners of Thomas) announced its intent to introduce a fully CGI series in 2009.[2] With Series 12, CGI by Nitrogen Studios was used to animate characters' faces and to make people and animals mobile within the stories. The following series saw a transition to full CGI animation.

Models

The original live action models were filmed on an extensive model railway layout built at the studios. The models were built to the 1:32 scale, known in model railway circles as "Gauge 1". The locomotives used chassis made by Märklin with specially made bodies. Along with the moving-eye and eyelid mechanisms and clay faces, these bodies also included smoke generators. Coaches and trucks were made using Tenmille kits. Later models were constructed entirely from scratch. Some of the models from the sister television series Tugs were reused in later episodes of the series.

In Series 5 through to 12, some larger-scale models were used for the narrow gauge characters, to more easily fit the complex mechanisms into them while retaining a sufficient level of detail. In Series 6, the characters known as "the Pack" (construction machines) were also constructed on a large scale, and larger models of Thomas and Percy were made to interact with them. In the ninth series, another larger Thomas model was built to the same scale as the narrow gauge engines to provide greater possibilities for interaction. It was joined by a large version of James in the tenth series. In 2009, these models were put on display in a special exhibit at Drayton Manor Theme Park's Thomas Land.[3]

Storytelling

Before Series 13, narration and dialogue were performed by a single storyteller. This was the choice of Allcroft, who wanted the television stories to be an extension of the way they would be told at home in a comforting environment. All character emotions would come from the nuances of the storyteller's voice, in conjunction with facial expressions, music, and actions on-screen.

The first 130 stories were written for television by Britt Allcroft and David Mitton. For the first four series the shows were closely based on stories from The Railway Series books.

Producers

The producer is in charge of every aspect of the show for the relevant series. The following people have been the series' producers:

Originally the series was produced by Britt Allcroft Productions and Clearwater Features Ltd (David Mitton and Robert D. Cardona's company). Clearwater closed in 1990 and The Britt Allcroft Company (which changed to Gullane Entertainment in 2000) was the sole producer until 2002, when HiT Entertainment bought the company and now runs its operation. HiT Entertainment was acquired in 2005 by the British private equity firm Apax Partners.

In September 2010, Apax were preparing to sell off HiT Entertainment and its franchises, including Thomas – regarded as the single most valuable asset – in order to help clear HIT's debts.[4][5][6]

In February 2012, Apax sold HIT Entertainment, along with the Thomas properties, to US toy giant Mattel.

Music

Mike O'Donnell and Junior Campbell composed the show's original main title theme, incidental music and songs, (see List of Thomas & Friends songs), which were used for Series 1 to 7 comprising 182 episodes between 1984 and 2003.

In 2004, Robert Hartshorne took their place as composer. Ed Welch provided a new theme tune, "Engine Roll Call," and also filled the role of series songwriter up until "The Great Discovery," after which Hartshorne replaced him.

Filmmaking and history

1984–1998

The first series (1984) used stories from the first eight books, along with one specially written by the Rev. W. Awdry, Thomas's Christmas Party. The second series (1986) used stories from Book 9 (Edward the Blue Engine) to Book 30 (More About Thomas the Tank Engine). This book was unusual, as it was written specifically by Christopher Awdry to be adapted by the show. At that time it was a contractual obligation that the show could only adapt stories that appeared in print. The series also used a story from a Thomas Annual, "Thomas and Trevor", and a specially written stand-alone story, Thomas and the Missing Christmas Tree. The second series was actually a 27-episode series, as a single (unaired) episode ("The Missing Coach") was in the process of being filmed, but despite being filmed it was never shown because Allcroft decided it was too confusing for young children/younger viewers. The production team went on to use "Thomas, Percy and the Coal" instead.[7] In between production of the second and third series, the production team were focused in producing the sister television series Tugs which ran for one series from 1989 to 1990.[8] However due to the company TVS, who was responsible for producing the show, going bankrupt the show was halted with sets and models reused and later seen in future episodes of Thomas.[9]

Series 3 was broadcast 1991 to 1992 in two parts, (one part having 16 episodes and the other having 10). It was made at a cost of £1.3 million.[10] The series was a combination of episodes derived from The Railway Series, stories in the Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends magazine, and original stories by Allcroft and Mitton. One of the primary reasons for diverging from the original books was that many of the stories not yet used featured large numbers of new characters, which would be expensive to produce. Another was that the producers wanted more stories about Thomas, the nominal main character. The Rev. W. Awdry complained that the new stories were unrealistic (see Henry the Green Engine for more details).[10]

Series 4 was also broadcast in two parts, (one part having 10 episodes and the other having 16) from 1994 to 1995. The producers planned to introduce some "new" female characters, including Caroline the car, Nancy, and The Refreshment Lady.[11] Some commentators took this as a response to accusations of sexism levelled against the series two years earlier.[12] In reality, these were not "new" characters, but creations of the Rev. Awdry from the original Railway Series books. Series 4 was almost entirely based on The Railway Series. The narrow gauge engines were introduced, and were the focus of a number of episodes. Only one original story ("Rusty to the Rescue") was used, but this took certain elements of plot and dialogue from Stepney the "Bluebell" Engine.

The fifth series (1998) was a radical departure, as none of the stories were taken from the Railway Series. This series saw the introduction of new characters, such as Cranky, The Horrid Lorries and Old Slow Coach.

2000

Thomas & the Magic Railroad was released in July 2000 in the UK. It featured new characters created by Britt Allcroft, along with characters from the show that introduced Thomas to the US, Shining Time Station.

Despite high production values and the popularity of the show, the film was criticised by UK reviewers who were unfamiliar with Shining Time Station. The movie was well received by young children on both sides of the Atlantic, but made only $16 million at the US box office at matinee prices, against a cost of $19 million to produce.

The film was broadcast on BBC1 in 2004 and again in 29 December 2008

2002–2003

The sixth and seventh series continued to introduce action-packed storylines and new characters, and saw the introduction of a writing staff. The sixth series in 2002 was notable for its attempt to create a spin-off based on the successful "Bob the Builder" series. Two episodes introduced a group of construction machine characters known as "The Pack". The spin-off didn't materialise for some time. Eventually, in 2006, thirteen episodes were released straight to DVD. The fact that older sets were used and the episodes were shot on 35mm camera (as opposed to the digital camera used at the time of the episodes' release) suggest it was filmed some time before Series 8. In Series 7 (2003) the programme title was officially shortened to Thomas & Friends, this name having been used on merchandise and video covers for three years previously.

2004–2008

The eighth series (2004) introduced a number of significant changes to the show after rights to the show were acquired by HIT Entertainment, a company specialising in children's entertainment. Many of the original founding team involved in the original show, since 1984, including Britt Allcroft (by now working strictly as a consultant), director and writer David Mitton, left the production. Original composers Mike O'Donnell and Junior Campbell, also departed, after a protracted dispute with HIT,[13][14] and a new theme song and incidental music was composed by Ed Welch and Robert Hartshorne, respectively. Episode runtime was increased to seven minutes. The series was produced using digital video camera, creating a somewhat different look for the show. Other changes include the additions of CGI educational sequences and transitions between stories.

These series saw the adoption of a centralised cast, including Thomas, Edward, Henry, Gordon, James, Percy, Toby and Emily.

A straight-to-video film, Calling All Engines was released shortly before Series 9 in 2005. While featuring characters from Thomas and the Magic Railroad, it was not a direct sequel. It proved successful, and more direct-to-video specials are planned for the future.[15]

Series 9 (2005) and 10 (2006) saw the expansion of the supporting cast with new and old characters. From Series 9 the Narrator would call out the episodes names and from Series 11 the Theme Song was sung starting with the sound of a train whistle. Series 10 aired with twenty-eight episodes rather than the twenty-six of previous years. The eleventh series (2007) was filmed in a high definition format. Twenty episodes aired in the original broadcast, while six were released direct to DVD.

The 2008 series saw the introduction of CGI effects, with the intent of producing the show entirely in CGI the following year.[16] Only twenty episodes were broadcast (the US broadcast featured six additional episodes from Engines and Escapades).

CGI animation

2008–2009

The production techniques were similar as that of 2004–2008 except that with the introduction of CGI, the characters could now move their faces and the humans and animals could move more realistically.

2009–present

HIT announced multiple changes to the show beginning in 2009. One new aspect was the introduction of live-action host segments to Thomas' home video releases. The host took the form of a character who worked on The Fat Controller's railway, who would instruct viewers in craft projects.

The other major changes were a move to production in CGI, rather than using physical models, and the addition of a voice cast to support the established narrator. The DVD feature, Hero of the Rails, was the first Thomas & Friends production to show these changes; Series 13 was the first television series in the new format.

Future

HIT also revealed that its theatrical division would be piloted by a "Thomas" film. Originally targeted for late-2010 release,[17] in September 2009 this was revised to "Spring 2011".[18] As of January 2011, the release date had been pushed back further to 2012 and the name of the production had still not been announced. The initial draft of the script was written by Josh Klausner (screenwriter for Shrek Forever After), who has also said that the film will be set around the times of World War II.[19] On 8 June 2011, Deadline announced that 9 director Shane Acker will direct the live-action adaptation of Thomas the Tank Engine, with Weta Digital designing the film's visual effects.[20] The film's release date has again been pushed back to 2014, and is now set to be produced by HIT Entertainment's brand new film company, HIT Films, as well as Media Rights Capital and Weta Digital, with Design by Weta Workshop Design Dept.[citation needed]

List of productions

Television series

SeriesYearEpisodesDVD Release Date (R2)DVD Release Date (R4)DVD Release Date (R1)
119842631 January 2005[21]2 May 2006[22]6 January 2009[23]
219862618 April 2005[24]13 April 2006[25]TBA
31991–19922623 January 2006[26]6 July 2006[27]TBA
41994–19952624 July 2006[28]8 September 2006[29]TBA
51998265 February 2007[30]8 September 2006[31]TBA
62002262 July 2007[32]5 January 2009[33]TBA
720032614 January 2008[34]4 June 2009[35]TBA
820042628 July 2008[36]4 June 2009[37]TBA
920052619 January 2009[38]2 March 2010[39]TBA
1020062817 May 2010[40]2 June 2010[41]TBA
1120072626 July 2010[42]2 June 2011[43]TBA
1220082021 February 2011[44]1 March 2012[45]TBA
1320102013 February 2012[46]TBATBA
14201020TBATBATBA
15201120TBATBATBA
16201220TBATBATBA

Films, specials, and miniseries

TitleReleaseNotes
Thomas & the Magic Railroad2000Theatrically-released feature film
Calling All Engines!2005Feature-length direct-to-video special
On Site with Thomas200613-episode direct-to-video miniseries
Engines and Escapades20076-episode direct-to-video miniseries
The Great Discovery2008Feature-length special. Limited theatrical release
Hero of the Rails2009Feature-length direct-to-video special
Misty Island Rescue2010Feature-length special. Limited theatrical release
Day of the Diesels2011Feature-length direct-to-video special
Blue Mountain Mystery2012Will receive limited theatrical release[47]

Home video history

Over the history of the programme, the TV episodes and specials have been released for home viewing in a variety of compilations, formats and languages, by a variety of publishing houses.

Cast

Characters

The show revolves around the machines and people who populate the fictional Island of Sodor. Since the advent of a centralised cast, known as "The Steam Team," in 2004, the show has featured eight main characters in the series.

Supporting characters are described in detail on other pages:

Storytellers

The role of the storyteller dates back to the first series. Britt Allcroft thought it essential to convey the episode as a story that would be read from a book at home.

Voice Actors

Individual voice actors were given to the UK and US dubs of the Series, following the switch to CGI.

ActorRegionRole(s)
Martin ShermanUSThomas and Percy
Ben SmallUKThomas, Toby, Ferdinand, Rheneas and Owen
USStanley, Charlie, Rheneas and Owen
David BedellaUSVictor, The Mayor of Sodor and The Duke of Boxford
UKVictor (Blue Mountain Mystery onwards)
Michael BrandonUSDiesel, Mr. Bubbles, The Maithwaite Stationmaster and The Knapford Stationmaster
Rupert DegasUK/USDart, Bertie and Flynn
Teresa GallagherUKEmily, Rosie, Belle, Mavis, Annie and Clarabel, Lady Hatt, Bridget Hatt, The Duchess of Boxford, Bridget Hatt's Friends, The Teacher, The Laundry Lady, The School Children and The Girl in Red Dress
USBelle, Annie and Clarabel
William HopeUSEdward, Toby, Whiff, Bash, Bert (Season 16 onwards), Stephen Hatt, Farmer McColl and Farmer Trotter
UKBert (Season 16 onwards)
Togo IgawaUK/USHiro
Jules de JonghUSEmily, Rosie, Mavis, Lady Hatt, Bridget Hatt, Alicia Botti, The Duchess of Boxford, Bridget Hatt's friends, The Teacher, The Laundry Lady and The School Children
UKAlicia Botti
Steve KynmanUK/USPaxton and Peter Sam
Michael LeggeUK/USLuke
Kerry ShaleUSHenry, Gordon, James, Dash, Scruff, Arry, Bert (Season 14 - Season 15), Harold, Kevin, Sir Topham Hatt, Sir Lowham Hatt and The Railway Inspector
UKDiesel, Arry and Bert (Season 14 - Season 15)
Keith WickhamUKEdward, Henry, Gordon, James, Percy, Whiff, Dash, Salty, Den, Stafford, Skarloey, Sir Handel, Harold, Captain, The Fat Controller, Dowager Hatt, The Mayor of Sodor, The Thin Controller, Sir Lowham Hatt, Mr. Bubbles, The Railway Coal Inspector, The Man at the Fire and The Great Composer
USSalty, Den, Stafford, Skarloey, Sir Handel, Captain and Dowager Hatt
Matt WilkinsonUKSpencer, Stanley, Victor (Hero of the Rails - Season 16), Charlie, Bash, Scruff, Diesel 10, Rocky, Rusty, Cranky, Butch, Kevin, Merrick, Winston, Stephen Hatt, Farmer McColl, The Duke of Boxford, The Photographer, The Maithwaite Stationmaster, Farmer Trotter, The Knapford Stationmaster, The Bird Watcher, The Docks Manager and The Island Inspector
USDiesel 10, Rusty, Merrick and Winston
Glenn WrageUSSpencer, Ferdinand, Rocky, Cranky, Butch and The Sodor Search and Rescue Centre Manager

Reception

Popularity with autistic audience

In June and July 2001, the National Autistic Society conducted a survey of 81 parents of children with autism and Asperger syndrome to investigate their putative 'special relationship' with Thomas the Tank Engine. The survey confirmed the organisation's assumption from anecdotal evidence that children with autism spectrum disorders associate far more strongly with Thomas the Tank Engine than with other children's characters.[54]

In the National Autistic Society's April 2007 survey, conducted with 748 UK parents of children under 10 with autism, 58% of parents reported Thomas was the first children's character their children enjoyed, with about one-third of parents reporting their children were able to learn basic facial expressions from the characters, as all of Thomas's friends have easy-to-read expressions. 54% of parents reported that the stories contributed to their child's sense of security.[55]

Thomas and Friends' autistic audience is referenced in a 2012 article in the satirical newspaper The Onion, "Thomas The Tank Engine A Little Uneasy With His Broad Autistic Following."[56]

Commercialisation

Merchandise

A wide range of merchandise has been manufactured to cash in on the success of the series. The most popular and wide-ranging items of merchandise are the models of the characters, which have been produced in many different ranges, some including accompanying railway systems. Other popular products include videos, books and magazines, and computer games. Thomas merchandise has also included such items as audiobooks, annuals, colouring and activity books, jigsaws, board games, stationery, photo notebooks, clothing, cutlery, household items such as curtains, duvet covers and lampshades, and even soft drinks and spaghetti shapes.

Day out with Thomas

Thomas, Henry and Duck look-
alikes on the Severn Valley Railway

"Day out with Thomas", is a marketing name used by HiT Entertainment for special events held at heritage railways in the UK. The characteristic features of these events include locomotives wearing 'faces' to resemble 'Thomas' characters, and a "Fat Controller" character, usually performed by one of the railway's volunteers. The general idea is that the public have the chance to ride in a train pulled by 'Thomas' or one of his friends.

In the US the name also refers to "Come Ride the Rails with Thomas"[57] which is a US tour by real trains modelled after Thomas the Tank Engine. The Thomas engine visits various historic railroads across the United States allowing visitors to play games, meet Sir Topham Hatt and to ride on a passenger car pulled by the engine. HIT Entertainment sponsors the event to promote the Thomas and Friends brand.

In the Netherlands is also a "Day out with Thomas", Een dag uit met Thomas, and is held at the South Limburg Railway Compagny a heritage railway in Simpelveld in the South of the Netherlands in the province of Limburg. The Thomas locomotive is shipped from the UK. The South Limburg Railway Compagny has its own Diesel locomotive.

Amusement parks

Thomas, with Annie and Clarabel, at Drusilla's Park

In 2007 Drusilla's Park near Alfriston, Sussex, England opened a railway ride featuring Thomas, Annie and Clarabel. The track runs through the Zoo Park and also features James, Diesel, Cranky and the Fat Controller.

Since 2007, several Six Flags amusement parks in the US have included Thomas and Friends -themed attractions: Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, Six Flags New England, Six Flags Magic Mountain, Six Flags Over Georgia and Six Flags America. Several of these attractions have since been renamed and re-themed.[58]

On 15 March 2008 Drayton Manor in the UK opened their own Thomas Land just like Japan's Amusement Park which attracts 1.7 million fans every year. Thomas Land at Drayton Manor is on the site of what was formerly Robinsons Land.

For the 2008 & 2009 Season, Dutch Wonderland in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA, featured a 'Thomas and Friends Live' production.

International versions

Broadcasting

CountryChannel
United Kingdom United KingdomChannel 5 (Current Original Channel), 5* (Milkshake!) (Current Repeats), Nick Jr./Nick Jr. 2 (Current Repeats), ITV (1984–1994 & 2003–2006) (Former Original Channel), TCC (Former Repeats), Cartoon Network (Former Repeats),
United States United StatesPBS Kids, PBS Kids Sprout
Australia AustraliaABC1 (1985–present), ABC4 Kids (2005–present),
Japan JapanFuji Television (1990–2007), TV Tokyo (2008–2010), NHK Educational TV (2012–present)
Brazil BrazilRede Manchete, Discovery Kids Latin America
Canada CanadaTVO, BBC Kids, Teletoon, Treehouse TV
Germany GermanySuper RTL
Greece GreeceAlter Channel
Czech Republic Czech RepublicTV Barrandov, Minimax, Jim Jam
Finland FinlandSub Juniori
Sweden SwedenTV4 (Sweden), Kanal 5 (Sweden), Boomerang (Nordic)
Denmark DenmarkDR1
Norway NorwayNRK1 (−2005), TV2
Hungary HungaryM1, Minimax, Jim Jam
Hong Kong Hong KongATV World, Playhouse Disney Channel Asia, buzplay
Indonesia IndonesiaIndosiar, Playhouse Disney Channel Asia
Italy ItalyRai Due, Rai Tre, Italia 1, Playhouse Disney
Mexico MexicoAzteca 7, Azteca 13, Proyecto 40, Discovery Kids Latin America
Netherlands NetherlandsNickelodeon, Jim Jam
New Zealand New ZealandTV3, FOUR
Philippines Philippines3ABN, Cartoon Network Philippines, Playhouse Disney Channel Asia, TV5
Russia RussiaTelenyanya, (First Channel Worldnet)
Poland PolandTVP Krakow, MiniMini, Jim Jam, Polsat Jim Jam
Spain SpainCadena Tres, Playhouse Disney
Singapore SingaporeOkto, Playhouse Disney Channel Asia, JimJam
Romania RomaniaMinimax TV, JimJam, Cartoon Network Romania
France FrancePlayhouse Disney, France 5
Taiwan TaiwanETTV YOYO, MOMO TV
China ChinaCCTV-Children
India IndiaPOGO
Arab League Arab WorldMBC 3
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and HerzegovinaFTV
South Korea South KoreaKBS, EBS
Hawaii HawaiiKīwī Hawai`i, PBSHawaii

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ Mallory, Michael (6 November 2006). "How Thomas the Tank Engine Works". Entertainment.howstuffworks.com. http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/how-thomas-the-tank-engine-works2.htm. Retrieved 1 October 2011. 
  2. ^ "Hit reveals new look for Bob and Thomas". (Press Release). Licensing.biz. 9 June 2008. http://www.licensing.biz/news/1323/NEW-YORK-08-Hit-reveals-new-look-for-Bob-and-Thomas. Retrieved 9 June 2008. 
  3. ^ "Thomas Land exhibit". Thomaslanduk.co.uk. http://www.thomaslanduk.co.uk/Visit/. Retrieved 1 October 2011. 
  4. ^ "Bob the Builder owner prepares for a disposal". Business-sale.com. http://www.business-sale.com/news/article/bob-the-builder-owner-prepares-for-a-disposal-33493.html. Retrieved 1 March 2011. 
  5. ^ ""Thomas the Tank Engine sale steaming ahead", Daily Mail Online, 19 September 2010". Dailymail.co.uk. 19 September 2010. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/money/article-1313456/Thomas-Tank-Engine-sale-steaming-ahead.html?ito=feeds-newsxml. Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  6. ^ ""'Thomas The Tank Engine’ For Sale Cheap", Deadline London, 20 September 2010". Deadline.com. http://www.deadline.com/2010/09/thomas-the-tank-engine-going-cheap/. Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  7. ^ "The Case For The Missing Coach". http://www.sodor-island.net/sodorislandessayannex/themissingcoachessay.html. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  8. ^ "Who Drove Thomas To Success?". sodor-island.net. http://www.sodor-island.net/success.html. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  9. ^ "Memories of Thomas and Tugs by the man who led them both... David Mitton". Sodor Island – A Thomas Fan Site. 2007. http://www.sodor-island.net/interviews.html. Retrieved 12 January 2011. 
  10. ^ a b Sibley, Brian (1995). The Thomas the Tank Engine Man. Heinemann. p. 318. ISBN 0-434-96909-5. 
  11. ^ Sibley, p320
  12. ^ Sibley, p309
  13. ^ "Barbara Dohmann QC". Blackstone Chambers. http://www.blackstonechambers.com/applications/dynamic/barrister.rm?area=MediaandEntertainment&id=443#ap5. Retrieved 1 October 2011. 
  14. ^ "Tom Hickman". Blackstone Chambers. 31 March 2009. http://www.blackstonechambers.com/applications/dynamic/barrister.rm?area=MediaandEntertainment&id=493#ap3. Retrieved 1 October 2011. 
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