Thomas Hardy

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Thomas Hardy
Thomashardy restored.jpg
Hardy between about 1910 and 1915
Born(1840-06-02)2 June 1840
Stinsford, Dorset, England
Died11 January 1928(1928-01-11) (aged 87)
Dorchester, Dorset, England
Resting place
OccupationNovelist, Poet, and Short Story writer
Alma materKing's College London
Literary movementNaturalism, Victorian literature
Notable worksTess of the d'Urbervilles,
Far from the Madding Crowd,
Collected Poems
Jude the Obscure
Spouse

Signature
 
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For other people named Thomas Hardy, see Thomas Hardy (disambiguation).
Thomas Hardy
Thomashardy restored.jpg
Hardy between about 1910 and 1915
Born(1840-06-02)2 June 1840
Stinsford, Dorset, England
Died11 January 1928(1928-01-11) (aged 87)
Dorchester, Dorset, England
Resting place
OccupationNovelist, Poet, and Short Story writer
Alma materKing's College London
Literary movementNaturalism, Victorian literature
Notable worksTess of the d'Urbervilles,
Far from the Madding Crowd,
Collected Poems
Jude the Obscure
Spouse

Signature

Thomas Hardy, OM (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928) was an English novelist and poet. A Victorian realist in the tradition of George Eliot, he was influenced both in his novels and in his poetry by Romanticism, especially William Wordsworth.[1] Charles Dickens was another important influence.[2] Like Dickens, he was highly critical of much in Victorian society, though Hardy focused more on a declining rural society.

While Hardy wrote poetry throughout his life and regarded himself primarily as a poet, his first collection was not published until 1898. Initially, therefore, he gained fame as the author of novels, including Far from the Madding Crowd (1874), The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886), Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891), and Jude the Obscure (1895). However, beginning in the 1950s Hardy has been recognised as a major poet; he had a significant influence on the Movement poets of the 1950s and 1960s, including Philip Larkin.[3]

Most of his fictional works – initially published as serials in magazines – were set in the semi-fictional region of Wessex. They explored tragic characters struggling against their passions and social circumstances. Hardy's Wessex is based on the medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdom and eventually came to include the counties of Dorset, Wiltshire, Somerset, Devon, Hampshire and much of Berkshire, in southwest and south central England.

Life[edit]

Thomas Hardy was born in 1840 in Higher Bockhampton (Upper Bockhampton in his day), a hamlet in the parish of Stinsford to the east of Dorchester in Dorset, England, where his father Thomas (died 1892) worked as a stonemason and local builder. His mother Jemima (née Hand;[4] died 1904) was well-read, and she educated Thomas until he went to his first school at Bockhampton at age eight. For several years he attended Mr. Last's Academy for Young Gentlemen in Dorchester. Here he learned Latin and demonstrated academic potential.[5] Because Hardy's family lacked the means for a university education, his formal education ended at the age of sixteen, when he became apprenticed to James Hicks, a local architect.[6] Hardy trained as an architect in Dorchester before moving to London in 1862; there he enrolled as a student at King's College London. He won prizes from the Royal Institute of British Architects and the Architectural Association. Hardy was in charge of the excavation of the graveyard of St Pancras Old Church prior to its destruction when the Midland Railway was extended to a new terminus at St Pancras.[7]

But Hardy never felt at home in London, because he was acutely conscious of class divisions and his social inferiority. However, during this time he became interested in social reform and the works of John Stuart Mill. He was also introduced by his Dorset friend Horace Moule to the works of Charles Fourier and Auguste Comte. Five years later, concerned about his health, he returned to Dorset, settling at Weymouth, and decided to dedicate himself to writing.

In 1870, while on an architectural mission to restore the parish church of St Juliot in Cornwall,[8] Hardy met and fell in love with Emma Lavinia Gifford, whom he married in 1874.[9][10] Although they later became estranged, her death in 1912 had a traumatic effect on him and after her death, Hardy made a trip to Cornwall to revisit places linked with their courtship, and his Poems 1912–13 reflect upon her death. In 1914, Hardy married his secretary Florence Emily Dugdale, who was 39 years his junior. However, he remained preoccupied with his first wife's death and tried to overcome his remorse by writing poetry.[11] In 1910, Hardy had been awarded the Order of Merit.

Florence Hardy at the seashore, 1915

In 1885 Thomas and his wife moved into Max Gate, a house Hardy had designed himself and his brother had built.

Hardy became ill with pleurisy in December 1927 and died at Max Gate just after 9 pm on 11 January 1928, having dictated his final poem to his wife on his deathbed; the cause of death was cited, on his death certificate, as "cardiac syncope", with "old age" given as a contributory factor. His funeral was on 16 January at Westminster Abbey, and it proved a controversial occasion because Hardy and his family and friends had wished for his body to be interred at Stinsford in the same grave as his first wife, Emma. However, his executor, Sir Sydney Carlyle Cockerell, insisted that he be placed in the abbey's famous Poets' Corner. A compromise was reached whereby his heart was buried at Stinsford with Emma, and his ashes in Poets' Corner.[12]

Shortly after Hardy's death, the executors of his estate burnt his letters and notebooks, but twelve documents survived, one of them containing notes and extracts of newspaper stories from the 1820s, and research into these has provided insight into how Hardy used them in his works.[13] In the year of his death Mrs Hardy published The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, 1841–1891, compiled largely from contemporary notes, letters, diaries, and biographical memoranda, as well as from oral information in conversations extending over many years.

Hardy's work was admired by many younger writers, including D. H. Lawrence,[14] John Cowper Powys,[15] and Virginia Woolf.[16] In his autobiography Goodbye to All That, (1929) Robert Graves recalls meeting Hardy in Dorset in the early 1920s and how Hardy received him and his new wife warmly, and was encouraging about his work.

Hardy's birthplace in Bockhampton and his house Max Gate, both in Dorchester, are owned by the National Trust.

Novels[edit]

Thomas Hardy's birthplace at Higher Bockhampton, where Under the Greenwood Tree and Far from the Madding Crowd were written
View of the Vale of Frome from the bridge at Lower Bockhampton. In Tess of the d'Urbervilles it is known as the Vale of the Great Dairies, in comparison to Tess's home, the fertile Vale of Blackmore, the Vale of Little Dairies. The building through the trees is Kingston Dairy House which Hardy would have known

Hardy's first novel, The Poor Man and the Lady, finished by 1867, failed to find a publisher. He then showed it to his mentor and friend, the Victorian poet and novelist, George Meredith, who felt that The Poor Man and the Lady would be too politically controversial and might damage Hardy's ability to publish in the future. So Hardy followed his advice and he did not try further to publish it. Later, he destroyed the manuscript.

After he abandoned his first novel, Hardy wrote two new ones that he hoped would have more commercial appeal, Desperate Remedies (1871) and Under the Greenwood Tree (1872), both of which were published anonymously. In 1873 A Pair of Blue Eyes, a novel drawing on Hardy's courtship of his first wife, was published under his own name. The term "cliffhanger" is considered to have originated with the serialised version of this story (which was published in Tinsley's Magazine between September 1872 and July 1873) in which Henry Knight, one of the protagonists, is left literally hanging off a cliff.

In his next novel Far from the Madding Crowd (1874), Hardy first introduced the idea of calling the region in the west of England, where his novels are set, Wessex. Wessex had been the name of an early Saxon kingdom, in approximately the same part of England. Far from the Madding Crowd was successful enough for Hardy to give up architectural work and pursue a literary career. Over the next twenty-five years Hardy produced ten more novels.

Subsequently the Hardys moved from London to Yeovil, and then to Sturminster Newton, where he wrote The Return of the Native (1878). Hardy published Two on a Tower in 1882, a romance story set in the world of astronomy. Then in 1885, they moved for the last time, to Max Gate, a house outside Dorchester designed by Hardy and built by his brother. There he wrote The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886), The Woodlanders (1887), and Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891), the last of which attracted criticism for its sympathetic portrayal of a "fallen woman" and was initially refused publication. Its subtitle, A Pure Woman: Faithfully Presented, was intended to raise the eyebrows of the Victorian middle classes.

Jude the Obscure, published in 1895, met with an even stronger negative response from the Victorian public because of its controversial treatment of sex, religion and marriage. Furthermore its apparent attack on the institution of marriage caused further strain on Hardy's already difficult marriage because Emma Hardy was concerned that Jude the Obscure would be read as autobiographical. Some booksellers sold the novel in brown paper bags, and the Bishop of Wakefield, Walsham How, is reputed to have burnt his copy.[13] In his postscript of 1912, Hardy humorously referred to this incident as part of the career of the book: "After these [hostile] verdicts from the press its next misfortune was to be burnt by a bishop – probably in his despair at not being able to burn me".[17] Despite this, Hardy had become a celebrity by the 1900s, but some argue that he gave up writing novels because of the criticism of both Tess of the D'Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure.[18] The Well-Beloved, first serialized in 1892, was published in 1897.

Hardy painted by William Strang, 1893

Literary themes[edit]

Considered a Victorian realist, Hardy examines the social constraints on the lives of those living in Victorian England, and criticizes those beliefs, especially those relating to marriage, education and religion, that limited people's lives and caused unhappiness. Such unhappiness, and the suffering it brings, is seen by poet Philip Larkin as central in Hardy's works:

What is the intensely maturing experience of which Hardy's modern man is most sensible? In my view it is suffering, or sadness, and extended consideration of the centrality of suffering in Hardy's work should be the first duty of the true critic for which the work is still waiting [. . .] Any approach to his work, as to any writer's work, must seek first of all to determine what element is peculiarly his, which imaginative note he strikes most plangently, and to deny that in this case it is the sometimes gentle, sometimes ironic, sometimes bitter but always passive apprehension of suffering is, I think, wrong-headed.[19]

In Two on a Tower, for example, Hardy takes a stand against these rules of society with a story of love that crosses the boundaries of class. The reader is forced to reconsider the conventions set up by society for the relationships between women and men. Nineteenth-century society had conventions, which were enforced. In this novel Swithin St Cleeve's idealism pits him against such contemporary social constraints.

In a novel structured around contrasts, the main opposition is between Swithin St Cleeve and Lady Viviette Constantine, who are presented as binary figures in a series of ways: aristocratic and lower class, youthful and mature, single and married, fair and dark, religious and agnostic...she [Lady Viviette Constantine] is also deeply conventional, absurdly wishing to conceal their marriage until Swithin has achieved social status through his scientific work, which gives rise to uncontrolled ironies and tragic-comic misunderstandings.[20]

Fate or chance is another important theme. Hardy's characters often encounter crossroads on a journey, a junction that offers alternative physical destinations but which is also symbolic of a point of opportunity and transition, further suggesting that fate is at work. Far From the Madding Crowd is an example of a novel in which chance has a major role: "Had Bathsheba not sent the valentine, had Fanny not missed her wedding, for example, the story would have taken an entirely different path."[21] Indeed, Hardy's main characters often seem to be held in fate's overwhelming grip.

Poetry[edit]

Thomas Hardy by Walter William Ouless, 1922

For online poems, see "Poetry collections" below.

In 1898 Hardy published his first volume of poetry, Wessex Poems, a collection of poems written over 30 years. While some suggest that Hardy gave up writing novels following the harsh criticism of Jude the Obscure in 1896, the poet C. H. Sisson calls this "hypothesis" "superficial and absurd".[22][23] In the twentieth century Hardy only published poetry.

Thomas Hardy wrote in a great variety of poetic forms including lyrics, ballads, satire, dramatic monologues, and dialogue, as well as a three-volume epic closet drama The Dynasts (1904-8),[24] and though in some ways a very traditional poet, because he was influenced by folksong and ballads,[25] he "was never conventional," and "persistently experiment[ed] with different, often invented, stanza forms and metres,[26] and made use of "rough-hewn rhythms and colloquial diction".[27]

A portrait of Thomas Hardy in 1923

Hardy wrote a number of significant war poems that relate to both the Boer Wars and World War I, including “Drummer Hodge”, “In Time of ‘The Breaking of Nations,” and "The Man He Killed" and "[h]is work had a profound influence on other war poets such as Rupert Brooke and Siegfried Sassoon".[28] Hardy in these poems often used the viewpoint of ordinary soldiers and their colloquial speech.[29] A theme in the Wessex Poems is the long shadow that the Napoleonic Wars cast over the nineteenth century, as seen, for example, in "The Sergeant's Song" and "Leipzig".[30] The Napoleonic War is of course the subject of The Dynasts.

Some of Hardy's most famous poems are from "Poems of 1912–13", part of Satires of Circumstance (1914), written following the death of his wife Emma in 1912. They had been estranged for twenty years and these lyric poems express deeply felt "regret and remorse".[31] Poems like “After a Journey,” “The Voice,” and others from this collection "are by general consent regarded as the peak of his poetic achievement".[24] In a recent biography on Hardy, Claire Tomalin argues that Hardy became a truly great English poet after the death of his first wife, Emma, beginning with these elegies, which she describes as among "the finest and strangest celebrations of the dead in English poetry."[32]

Many of Hardy's poems deal with themes of disappointment in love and life, and "the perversity of fate", but the best of them present these themes with "a carefully controlled elegiac feeling".[33] Irony is also an important element in a number of Hardy's poems, including "The Man he Killed" and "Are You Digging on My Grave".[34] A few of Hardy's poems, such as "The Blinded Bird", a melancholy polemic against the sport of vinkenzetting, reflect his firm stance against animal cruelty, exhibited also in his antivivisectionist views and his membership in The Royal Society Against Cruelty to Animals RSPCA.[35]

A number of notable English composers, including Gerald Finzi,[36] Benjamin Britten,[37] and Gustav Holst,[38] set poems by Hardy to music. Holst also wrote Egdon Heath (Homage to Hardy), for orchestra, Op. 47.

Although his poems were initially not as well received as his novels had been, Hardy is now recognised as one of the greatest twentieth-century poets, and his verse has had a profound influence on later writers, including Robert Frost, W. H. Auden, Dylan Thomas, and, most notably Philip Larkin.[27] Larkin included twenty-seven poems by Hardy compared with only nine by T. S. Eliot in his edition of the Oxford Book of Twentieth Century English Verse in 1973 (though, of course, Eliot is most famous for long poems).[39] There were also fewer poems by W. B. Yeats.[40]

Religious beliefs[edit]

Hardy's family was Anglican, but not especially devout. He was baptised at the age of five weeks and attended church, where his father and uncle contributed to music. However, he did not attend the local Church of England school, instead being sent to Mr Last's school, three miles away. As a young adult, he befriended Henry R. Bastow (a Plymouth Brethren man), who also worked as a pupil architect, and who was preparing for adult baptism in the Baptist Church. Hardy flirted with conversion, but decided against it.[41] Bastow went to Australia and maintained a long correspondence with Hardy, but eventually Hardy tired of these exchanges and the correspondence ceased. This concluded Hardy's links with the Baptists.

The irony and struggles of life and a curious mind led him to question the traditional Christian view of God:

The Christian god – the external personality – has been replaced by the intelligence of the First Cause...the replacement of the old concept of God as all-powerful by a new concept of universal consciousness. The 'tribal god, man-shaped, fiery-faced and tyrannous' is replaced by the 'unconscious will of the Universe' which progressively grows aware of itself and 'ultimately, it is to be hoped, sympathetic'.[42]

Hardy's religious life seems to have mixed agnosticism, deism, and spiritism. Once, when asked in correspondence by a clergyman about the question of reconciling the horrors of pain with the goodness of a loving God, Hardy replied,

Mr. Hardy regrets that he is unable to offer any hypothesis which would reconcile the existence of such evils as Dr. Grosart describes with the idea of omnipotent goodness. Perhaps Dr. Grosart might be helped to a provisional view of the universe by the recently published Life of Darwin and the works of Herbert Spencer and other agnostics.[43]

Hardy frequently conceived of, and wrote about, supernatural forces, particularly those that control the universe through indifference or caprice rather than any firm will. He also showed in his writing some degree of fascination with ghosts and spirits.[43] Even so, he retained a strong emotional attachment to the Christian liturgy and church rituals, particularly as manifested in rural communities, that had been such a formative influence in his early years, and Biblical references can be found woven throughout many of Hardy's novels.

Hardy's friends during his apprenticeship to John Hicks included Horace Moule (one of the eight sons of Henry Moule), and the poet William Barnes, both ministers of religion. Moule remained a close friend of Hardy's for the rest of his life, and introduced him to new scientific findings that cast doubt on literal interpretations of the Bible,[44] such as those of Gideon Mantell. Moule gave Hardy a copy of Mantell's book The Wonders of Geology (1848) in 1858, and Adelene Buckland has suggested that there are "compelling similarities" between the "cliffhanger" section from A Pair of Blue Eyes and Mantell's geological descriptions. It has also been suggested that the character of Henry Knight in A Pair of Blue Eyes was based on Horace Moule.[45]

Grave of Thomas Hardy's heart at Stinsford parish church

Locations in novels[edit]

Sites associated with Hardy's own life and which inspired the settings of his novels continue to attract literary tourists and casual visitors. For locations in Hardy's novels see: Thomas Hardy's Wessex, and the Thomas Hardy's Wessex[46] research site, which includes maps.[47]

Influence[edit]

D. H. Lawrence's Study of Thomas Hardy (1936), indicates the importance of Hardy for him, even though this work is a platform for Lawrence's own developing philosophy rather than a more standard literary study. The influence of Hardy's treatment of character, and Lawrence's own response to the central metaphysic behind many of Hardy's novels, helped significantly in the development of The Rainbow (1915) and Women in Love (1920). A contemporary of Lawrence, John Cowper Powys's first novel, Wood and Stone (1915) was "Dedicated with devoted admiration to the greatest poet and novelist of our age Thomas Hardy". Hardy was clearly the starting point for the character of the novelist Edward Driffield in W Somerset Maugham's novel Cakes and Ale (1930). Thomas Hardy's works also feature prominently in the American playwright Christopher Durang's The Marriage of Bette and Boo (1985), in which a graduate thesis analysing Tess of the d'Urbervilles is interspersed with analysis of Matt's family's neuroses.

Works[edit]

The title page from a 1874 first edition of Far From The Madding Crowd by Thomas Hardy.

Prose[edit]

Hardy divided his novels and collected short stories into three classes:

Novels of Character and Environment

Romances and Fantasies

Novels of Ingenuity

Online texts: Works by Thomas Hardy at Project Gutenberg and Works by Thomas Hardy[48] at Internet Archive

Hardy also produced a number of minor tales; one story, The Spectre of the Real (1894) was written in collaboration with Florence Henniker.[49] An additional short-story collection, beyond the ones mentioned above, is A Changed Man and Other Tales (1913). His works have been collected as the 24-volume Wessex Edition (1912–13) and the 37-volume Mellstock Edition (1919–20). His largely self-written biography appears under his second wife's name in two volumes from 1928 to 1930, as The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, 1840–91 and The Later Years of Thomas Hardy, 1892–1928, now published in a critical one-volume edition as The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy, edited by Michael Millgate (1984).

Short stories (with date of first publication)

Poetry collections[edit]

Online poems: Poems by Thomas Hardy[50] at Poetry Foundation and Poems by Thomas Hardy at poemhunter.com[51]

Drama[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dennis Taylor, "Hardy and Wordsworth". Victorian Poetry, vol.24, no.4, Winter, 1986.
  2. ^ Gillian Beer, Darwin's Plots. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  3. ^ Donald Davie,Thomas Hardy and British Poetry. London: Routlefge and Kegan Paul, 1973.
  4. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/books/2006/oct/13/thomashardy
  5. ^ Claire Tomalin, Thomas Hardy: the Time-torn Man(Penguin, 2007) pp.30,36.
  6. ^ Walsh, Lauren. Introduction. The Return of the Native. By Thomas Hardy. New York: Barnes & Noble Classics, 2005. Print.
  7. ^ Burley, Peter (2012). "When steam railroaded history". Cornerstone 33 (1): 9. 
  8. ^ Gibson, James (ed.) (1975) Chosen Poems of Thomas Hardy, London: Macmillan Education; p.9.
  9. ^ Hardy, Emma (1961) Some Recollections by Emma Hardy; with some relevant poems by Thomas Hardy; ed. by Evelyn Hardy & R. Gittings. London: Oxford University Press
  10. ^ "Thomas Hardy – the Time-Torn Man" (a reading of Claire Tomalin's book of the same name), BBC Radio 4, 23 October 2006
  11. ^ "Wiltshire Days Out - Thomas Hardy at Stourhead". BBC. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  12. ^ Bradford,Charles Angell (1933). Heart Burial. London: Allen & Unwin. p. 246. ISBN 9-781162-771816. 
  13. ^ a b "Homeground: Dead man talking" at the Wayback Machine BBC Online, 20 August 2003 (Retrieved: 7 September 2009)
  14. ^ Study of Thomas Hardy and other essays (1914), edited by Bruce Steele, Cambridge University Press, 1985, ISBN 0-521-25252-0, Literary criticism and metaphysics
  15. ^ Powys's first novel, Wood and Stone (1915) is dedicated to Hardy.
  16. ^ "The Novels of Thomas Hardy", The Common Reader, Second Series.
  17. ^ Hardy, Thomas (1998). Jude the Obscure. Penguin Classics. p. 466. ISBN 0-14-043538-7. 
  18. ^ "Thomas Hardy", The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 7th edition, vol.2 . New York: W. W. Norton, 2000, p.1916.
  19. ^ Larkin, Philip 1983, "Wanted: Good Hardy Critic" in Required Writing, London: Faber and Faber.
  20. ^ Geoffrey Harvey, Thomas Hardy: The Complete Critical Guide to Thomas Hardy. New York: Routledge, 2003, p.108.
  21. ^ "Far from the Madding Crowd, Thomas Hardy – Introduction (Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Linda Pavlovski. Vol. 153. Gale Group, Inc., 2005". Enotes.com. 12 March 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2009. 
  22. ^ "Thomas Hardy", The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 7th edition, vol.2 . New York: W. W. Norton, 2000, p.1916.
  23. ^ "Introduction" to the Penguin edition of Jude the Obscure (1978). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1984, p.13.
  24. ^ a b "Thomas Hardy (British writer) - Encyclopedia Britannica". Britannica.com. 2013-11-06. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  25. ^ "Thomas Hardy", The Bloomsbury Guide to English Literature, ed. Marion Wynne Davies. New York: Prentice Hall, 1990, p.583.
  26. ^ The Bloomsbury Guide, p.583.
  27. ^ a b "Thomas Hardy | Academy of American Poets". Poets.org. 1928-01-11. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  28. ^ Axelrod, Jeremy. "Thomas Hardy". The Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  29. ^ Axelrod, Jeremy. "Thomas Hardy". The Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  30. ^ Katherine Kearney Maynard, Thomas Hardy's Tragic Poetry: The Lyrics and The Dynasts. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1991, pp.8-12.
  31. ^ Axelrod, Jeremy. "Thomas Hardy". The Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  32. ^ Tomalin, Claire. "Thomas Hardy." New York: Penguin, 2007.
  33. ^ "The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 7th edition, vol. 2, p.1916.
  34. ^ Katherine Kearney Maynard, Thomas Hardy's Tragic Poetry: The Lyrics and The Dynasts. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1991, pp8-12.
  35. ^ Herbert N. Schneidau. Waking Giants: The Presence of the Past in Modernism. Retrieved 16 April 2008.  (Google Books)
  36. ^ "Biography « Gerald Finzi Official Site". Geraldfinzi.com. 1956-09-27. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  37. ^ Song cycle "Winter Words (1953)
  38. ^ "Gustav Holst (The Lied, Art Song, and Choral Texts Archive: Texts and Translations to Lieder, mélodies, canzoni, and other classical vocal music)". Recmusic.org. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  39. ^ "Poetry.org". Poets.org. 1928-01-11. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  40. ^ "Thomas Hardy", The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 7th edition, vol.2, p.1916.
  41. ^ Claire Tomalin, Thomas Hardy, The Time Torn Man(Penguin, 2007), pp.46–47.
  42. ^ Wotton, George. Thomas Hardy: Towards A Materialist Criticism. Lanham,: Rowman & Littlefield, 1985, p.36.
  43. ^ a b Ellman, Richard, & O'Clair, Robert (eds.) 1988. "Thomas Hardy" in The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry, Norton, New York.
  44. ^ [1][dead link]
  45. ^ "Adelene Buckland: Thomas Hardy, Provincial Geology and the Material Imagination". Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  46. ^ "Thomas Hardy's Wessex". St-andrews.ac.uk. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  47. ^ "Thomas Hardy's Wessex: The Evolution of Wessex". St-andrews.ac.uk. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  48. ^ "Internet Archive Search: creator:thomas hardy -contributor:gutenberg". Archive.org. 1928-01-11. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  49. ^ Purdy, Richard (October 1944). "Thomas Hardy And Florence Henniker: The Writing Of "The Spectre Of The Real". Colby Library Quarterly, series 1, no.8: 122–6. 
  50. ^ Axelrod, Jeremy. "Thomas Hardy". The Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  51. ^ http://www.poemhunter.com/i/ebooks/pdf/thomas_hardy_2004_9.pdf

Biographies and criticism[edit]

  • Armstrong, Tim. "Player Piano: Poetry and Sonic Modernity" in Modernism/Modernity 14.1 (January 2007), 1–19.
  • Beatty, Claudius J.P. Thomas Hardy: Conservation Architect. His Work for the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings. Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society 1995. ISBN 0-900341-44-0
  • Blunden, Edmund. Thomas Hardy. New York: St. Martin's, 1942.
  • Brennecke, Jr., Ernest. The Life of Thomas Hardy. New York: Greenberg, 1925.
  • D'Agnillo, Renzo, "Music and Metaphor in Under the Greenwood Tree, in The Thomas Hardy Journal, 9, 2 (May 1993), pp.39–50.
  • D'Agnillo, Renzo, “Between Belief and Non-Belief: Thomas Hardy’s ‘The Shadow on the Stone’”, in Thomas Hardy, Francesco Marroni and Norman Page (eds), Pescara, Edizioni Tracce, 1995, pp.197–222.
  • Deacon, Lois and Terry Coleman. Providence and Mr. Hardy. London: Hutchinson, 1966.
  • Draper, Jo. Thomas Hardy: A Life in Pictures. Wimborne, Dorset: The Dovecote Press.
  • Ellman, Richard & O'Clair, Robert (eds.) 1988. "Thomas Hardy" in The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry, Norton, New York.
  • Gatrell, Simon. Hardy the Creator: A Textual Biography. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.
  • Gibson, James. Thomas Hardy: A Literary Life. London: Macmillan, 1996.
  • Gittings, Robert. Thomas Hardy's Later Years. Boston : Little, Brown, 1978.
  • Gittings, Robert. Young Thomas Hardy. Boston : Little, Brown, 1975.
  • Gittings, Robert and Jo Manton. The Second Mrs Hardy. London: Heinemann, 1979.
  • Gossin, P. Thomas Hardy's Novel Universe: Astronomy, Cosmology, and Gender in the Post-Darwinian World. Aldershot, Ashgate, 2007 (The Nineteenth Century Series).
  • Halliday, F. E. Thomas Hardy: His Life and Work. Bath: Adams & Dart, 1972.
  • Hands, Timothy. Thomas Hardy : Distracted Preacher? : Hardy's religious biography and its influence on his novels. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.
  • Hardy, Evelyn. Thomas Hardy: A Critical Biography. London: Hogarth Press, 1954.
  • Hardy, Florence Emily. The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, 1840–1891. London: Macmillan, 1928.
  • Hardy, Florence Emily. The Later Years of Thomas Hardy, 1892–1928 London: Macmillan, 1930.
  • Harvey, Geoffrey. Thomas Hardy: The Complete Critical Guide to Thomas Hardy. New York: Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), 2003.
  • Hedgcock, F. A., Thomas Hardy: penseur et artiste. Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1911.
  • Holland, Clive. Thomas Hardy O.M.: The Man, His Works and the Land of Wessex. London: Herbert Jenkins, 1933.
  • Jedrzejewski, Jan. Thomas Hardy and the Church. London: Macmillan, 1996.
  • Johnson, Lionel Pigot. The art of Thomas Hardy (London: E. Mathews, 1894).
  • Kay-Robinson, Denys. The First Mrs Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1979.
  • Langbaum, Robert. "Thomas Hardy in Our Time." New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995, London: Macmillan, 1997.
  • Marroni, Francesco, "The Negation of Eros in 'Barbara of the House of Grebe’ ", in "Thomas Hardy Journal", 10, 1 (February 1994) pp. 33–41
  • Marroni, Francesco and Norman Page (eds.), Thomas Hardy. Pescara: Edizioni Tracce, 1995.
  • Marroni, Francesco, La poesia di Thomas Hardy. Bari: Adriatica Editrice, 1997.
  • Marroni, Francesco, "The Poetry of Ornithology in Keats, Leopardi, and Hardy: A Dialogic Analysis", in "Thomas Hardy Journal", 14, 2 (May 1998) pp. 35–44
  • Millgate, Michael (ed.). The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy by Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1984.
  • Millgate, Michael. Thomas Hardy: A Biography. New York: Random House, 1982.
  • Millgate, Michael. Thomas Hardy: A Biography Revisited. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
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  • Morgan, Rosemarie, Cancelled Words: Rediscovering Thomas Hardy (Routledge, Chapman & Hall),1992
  • Morgan, Rosemarie, Women and Sexuality in the Novels of Thomas Hardy (Routledge & Kegan Paul), 1988; paperback: 1990.
  • Musselwhite, David, Social Transformations in Hardy's Tragic Novels: Megamachines and Phantasms, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
  • O'Sullivan, Timothy. Thomas Hardy: An Illustrated Biography. London: Macmillan, 1975.
  • Orel, Harold. The Final Years of Thomas Hardy, 1912–1928. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1976.
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  • Wotton, George. Thomas Hardy: Towards A Materialist Criticism. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 1985.
  • Letter from Hardy to Bertram Windle, transcribed by Birgit Plietzsch, from CL, vol 2, pp.131–133 The letter is contained in the maps section of the TTHA website.

Research resources[edit]

External links[edit]