Thomas Hardy

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Thomas Hardy
Thomashardy restored.jpg
Born(1840-06-02)2 June 1840
Stinsford, Dorchester, Dorset, England
Died11 January 1928(1928-01-11) (aged 87)
Dorchester, Dorset, England
Resting place
OccupationNovelist, Poet, and Short Story writer
Alma materKing's College London
Literary movementNaturalism, Victorian literature
Notable work(s)Tess of the d'Urbervilles,
Far from the Madding Crowd,
Collected Poems
Jude the Obscure
Spouse(s)

Signature
 
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Thomas Hardy
Thomashardy restored.jpg
Born(1840-06-02)2 June 1840
Stinsford, Dorchester, Dorset, England
Died11 January 1928(1928-01-11) (aged 87)
Dorchester, Dorset, England
Resting place
OccupationNovelist, Poet, and Short Story writer
Alma materKing's College London
Literary movementNaturalism, Victorian literature
Notable work(s)Tess of the d'Urbervilles,
Far from the Madding Crowd,
Collected Poems
Jude the Obscure
Spouse(s)

Signature

Thomas Hardy, OM (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928) was an English novelist and poet. A Victorian realist in the tradition of George Eliot, he was influenced both in his novels and in his poetry by Romanticism, especially William Wordsworth.[1] Charles Dickens was another important influence.[2] Like Dickens, he was highly critical of much in Victorian society, though Hardy focused more on a declining rural society.

While Hardy wrote poetry throughout his life and regarded himself primarily as a poet, his first collection was not published until 1898. Initially, therefore, he gained fame as the author of novels, including Far from the Madding Crowd (1874), The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886), Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891), and Jude the Obscure (1895). However, beginning in the 1950s Hardy has been recognised as a major poet; he had a significant influence on the Movement poets of the 1950s and 1960s, including Phillip Larkin.[3]

Most of his fictional works – initially published as serials in magazines – were set in the semi-fictional region of Wessex. They explored tragic characters struggling against their passions and social circumstances. Hardy's Wessex is based on the medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdom and eventually came to include the counties of Dorset, Wiltshire, Somerset, Devon, Hampshire and much of Berkshire, in southwest and south central England.

Life[edit]

Thomas Hardy was born in 1840 in Higher Bockhampton ("Upper Bockhampton" in his day), a hamlet in the parish of Stinsford to the east of Dorchester in Dorset, England. His father Thomas (d.1892) worked as a stonemason and local builder. His mother Jemima (d.1904) was well-read. She educated Thomas until he went to his first school at Bockhampton at age eight. For several years he attended Mr. Last's Academy for Young Gentlemen in Dorchester. Here he learned Latin and demonstrated academic potential.[4] However, Hardy's family lacked the means for a university education, and his formal education ended at the age of sixteen when he became apprenticed to James Hicks, a local architect.[5] Hardy trained as an architect in Dorchester before moving to London in 1862; there he enrolled as a student at King's College London. He won prizes from the Royal Institute of British Architects and the Architectural Association. Hardy was in charge of the excavation of the graveyard of St Pancras Old Church prior to its destruction when the Midland Railway was extended to a new terminus at St Pancras.[6]

Hardy never felt at home in London. He was acutely conscious of class divisions and his social inferiority. However, he was interested in social reform and was familiar with the works of John Stuart Mill. During this period he was introduced by his Dorset friend Horace Moule to the works of Charles Fourier and Auguste Comte. Five years later, concerned about his health, he returned to Dorset and decided to dedicate himself to writing.

In 1870, while on an architectural mission to restore the parish church of St Juliot in Cornwall,[7] Hardy met and fell in love with Emma Lavinia Gifford, whom he married in 1874.[8][9] Although they later became estranged, her death in 1912 had a traumatic effect on him. After her death, Hardy made a trip to Cornwall to revisit places linked with their courtship, and his Poems 1912–13 reflect upon her death. In 1914, Hardy married his secretary Florence Emily Dugdale, who was 39 years his junior. However, he remained preoccupied with his first wife's death and tried to overcome his remorse by writing poetry.[10]

Florence Hardy at the seashore, 1915
Grave of Thomas Hardy's heart at Stinsford parish church

Hardy became ill with pleurisy in December 1927 and died at Max Gate just after 9 pm on 11 January 1928, having dictated his final poem to his wife on his deathbed; the cause of death was cited, on his death certificate, as "cardiac syncope", with "old age" given as a contributory factor. His funeral was on 16 January at Westminster Abbey, and it proved a controversial occasion because Hardy and his family and friends had wished for his body to be interred at Stinsford in the same grave as his first wife, Emma. However, his executor, Sir Sydney Carlyle Cockerell, insisted that he be placed in the abbey's famous Poets' Corner. A compromise was reached whereby his heart was buried at Stinsford with Emma, and his ashes in Poets' Corner.[11]

Shortly after Hardy's death, the executors of his estate burnt his letters and notebooks. Twelve records survived, one of them containing notes and extracts of newspaper stories from the 1820s. Research into these provided insight into how Hardy kept track of them and how he used them in his later work.[12] In the year of his death Mrs Hardy published The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, 1841–1891, compiled largely from contemporary notes, letters, diaries, and biographical memoranda, as well as from oral information in conversations extending over many years.

Hardy's work was admired by many writers of a younger generation including D. H. Lawrence, John Cowper Powys, and Virginia Woolf. In his autobiography Goodbye to All That, Robert Graves recalls meeting Hardy in Dorset in the early 1920s. Hardy received him and his new wife warmly, and was encouraging about his work.

In 1910, Hardy was awarded the Order of Merit.

Hardy's birthplace in Bockhampton and his house Max Gate, both in Dorchester, are owned by the National Trust.

Novels[edit]

Thomas Hardy's birthplace at Higher Bockhampton, where Under the Greenwood Tree and Far from the Madding Crowd were written

Hardy's first novel, The Poor Man and the Lady, finished by 1867, failed to find a publisher. He showed the novel to his mentor and friend, the Victorian poet and novelist, George Meredith who felt that The Poor Man and the Lady would be too politically controversial and might damage Hardy's ability to publish in the future. So Hardy followed his advice and gave up on trying to publish it. Later, he destroyed the manuscript so that no copies of it exist today.

After he abandoned his first novel, Hardy wrote two new ones that he hoped would have more commercial appeal, Desperate Remedies (1871) and Under the Greenwood Tree (1872) which he decided to publish anonymously.

In 1873 A Pair of Blue Eyes, a novel drawing on Hardy's courtship of his first wife, was published under his own name. The term "cliffhanger" is considered to have originated with the serialised version of this story (which was published in Tinsley's Magazine between September 1872 and July 1873) in which Henry Knight, one of the protagonists, is left literally hanging off a cliff.

Hardy said that he first introduced Wessex in Far from the Madding Crowd (1874), his next novel. It was successful enough for Hardy to give up architectural work and pursue a literary career. Over the next twenty-five years Hardy produced ten more novels.

The Hardys moved from London to Yeovil and then to Sturminster Newton, where he wrote The Return of the Native (1878). In 1885, they moved for the last time, to Max Gate, a house outside Dorchester designed by Hardy and built by his brother. There he wrote The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886), The Woodlanders (1887), and Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891), the last of which attracted criticism for its sympathetic portrayal of a "fallen woman" and was initially refused publication. Its subtitle, A Pure Woman: Faithfully Presented, was intended to raise the eyebrows of the Victorian middle classes.

Jude the Obscure, published in 1895, met with even stronger negative outcries from the Victorian public for its frank treatment of sex, and was often referred to as "Jude the Obscene". Heavily criticised for its apparent attack on the institution of marriage through the presentation of such concepts as erotolepsy, the book caused further strain on Hardy's already difficult marriage because Emma Hardy was concerned that Jude the Obscure would be read as autobiographical. Some booksellers sold the novel in brown paper bags, and the Bishop of Wakefield, Walsham How, is reputed to have burnt his copy.[12] In his postscript of 1912, Hardy humorously referred to this incident as part of the career of the book: "After these [hostile] verdicts from the press its next misfortune was to be burnt by a bishop – probably in his despair at not being able to burn me".[13]

Hardy painted by William Strang, 1893

Despite this criticism, Hardy had become a celebrity in English literature by the 1900s, with several highly successful novels behind him. Even so, he felt disgust at the public reception of two of his greatest works and gave up writing fiction altogether. Other novels written by Hardy include Two on a Tower, a romance story set in the world of astronomy. With some notable exceptions – for example the 1979 Roman Polanski film Tess, an adaptation of Tess of the d'Urbervilles – and unlike the novels of Charles Dickens and George Eliot, Hardy's novels do not beg to be filmed or to be adapted for the stage.

Literary themes[edit]

Hardy criticises certain social constraints that hindered the lives of those living in the 19th century. Considered a Victorian realist, Hardy examines the social constraints that are part of the Victorian status quo, suggesting these rules hinder the lives of all involved and ultimately lead to unhappiness.

Fellow British poet Philip Larkin in his essay "Wanted: Good Hardy Critic" describes Hardy's work:

"What is the intensely maturing experience of which Hardy's modern man is most sensible? In my view it is suffering, or sadness, and extended consideration of the centrality of suffering in Hardy's work should be the first duty of the true critic for which the work is still waiting . . . Any approach to his work, as to any writer's work, must seek first of all to determine what element is peculiarly his, which imaginative note he strikes most plangently, and to deny that in this case it is the sometimes gentle, sometimes ironic, sometimes bitter but always passive apprehension of suffering is, I think, wrong-headed."[14]

In Two on a Tower, Hardy seeks to take a stand against these rules and sets up a story of love that crosses the boundaries of class. The reader is forced to consider disposing of the conventions set up for love. Nineteenth-century society enforces these conventions, and societal pressure ensures conformity. Swithin St Cleeve's idealism pits him against contemporary social constraints. He is a self-willed individual set up against the coercive strictures of social rules and mores.

In a novel structured around contrasts, the main opposition is between Swithin St Cleeve and Lady Viviette Constantine, who are presented as binary figures in a series of ways: aristocratic and lower class, youthful and mature, single and married, fair and dark, religious and agnostic...she [Lady Viviette Constantine] is also deeply conventional, absurdly wishing to conceal their marriage until Swithin has achieved social status through his scientific work, which gives rise to uncontrolled ironies and tragic-comic misunderstandings (Harvey 108).

Hardy's characters often encounter crossroads, which are symbolic of a point of opportunity and transition. But the hand of fate is an important part of many of Hardy's plots. Far From the Madding Crowd tells a tale of lives that are constructed by chance. "Had Bathsheba not sent the valentine, had Fanny not missed her wedding, for example, the story would have taken an entirely different path."[15] Hardy's main characters often seem to be in the overwhelming and overpowering grip of fate.

Poetry[edit]

Thomas Hardy by Walter William Ouless, 1922
For the full text of several poems, see the External links section

In 1898 Hardy published his first volume of poetry, Wessex Poems, a collection of poems written over 30 years. Hardy claimed poetry as his first love, and after a great amount of negative criticism erupted from the publication of his novel Jude The Obscure, Hardy decided to give up writing novels permanently and to focus his literary efforts on writing poetry. After giving up the novel form, Hardy continued to publish poetry collections until his death in 1928. Although he did publish one last novel in 1897, that novel, The Well-Beloved, had actually been written prior to Jude the Obscure.

Although his poems were not initially as well received by his contemporaries as his novels were, Hardy is now recognised as one of the greatest poets of the twentieth century. His verse had a profound influence on later writers, notably Philip Larkin, who included many of Hardy's poems in the edition of the Oxford Book of Twentieth Century English Verse that Larkin edited in 1973.

In a recent biography on Hardy, Claire Tomalin argues that Hardy became a truly great English poet after the death of his first wife, Emma, beginning with the elegies he wrote in her memory. Tomalin declares these poems among "the finest and strangest celebrations of the dead in English poetry."[16]

Most of Hardy's poems, such as "Neutral Tones'" and "A Broken Appointment", deal with themes of disappointment in love and life, and mankind's long struggle against indifference to human suffering. In poems such as "Ah, Are You Digging on My Grave", Hardy employed twist endings in the last few lines or in the last stanza to convey irony. Some, like "The Darkling Thrush" and "An August Midnight", appear as poems about writing poetry, because the nature mentioned in them gives Hardy the inspiration to write. His compositions range in style from the three-volume epic closet drama The Dynasts to shorter poems such as "A Broken Appointment". A particularly strong theme in the Wessex Poems is the long shadow that the Napoleonic Wars cast over the nineteenth century, for example, in "The Sergeant's Song" and "Leipzig".

A few of Hardy's poems, such as "The Blinded Bird" (a melancholy polemic against the sport of vinkenzetting), display his love of the natural world and his firm stance against animal cruelty, exhibited in his antivivisectionist views and his membership in the RSPCA.[17]

A number of notable composers, including Gerald Finzi, Benjamin Britten, and Gustav Holst, have set poems by Hardy to music.

Most of Hardy's short poems have been readily understood when explicated, but one early (1866) poem, though widely known, has been the object of misunderstandings and disagreements. This may be because the essential feature of "Hap" is an unanswered question, a philosophical dilemma that Hardy does not resolve in the poem: whether the metaphysical condition ruling the universe is chance and indifference or negative determinism and enmity. The speaker of "Hap" says, in effect, that, if the condition ruling the universe were definitely known to be negative determinism, then he would understand why evil rather than good invariably happens to him. But he knows (through reason) that the ruling condition is not negative determinism but rather chance. Therefore, he asks, how does it come about that only evil happens to him rather than a mixture of both evil and good (as a condition of chance would be expected to produce)? The poem ends with this question because the speaker has no answer for it. He remains puzzled at what seems a contradiction in life.

Although this unresolved dilemma has been noted in Hardy's novels and generally in his philosophy, it has not been noted in the poem, and so differing and contradictory resolutions have been forced upon "Hap"—that this universe ruled by chance produces only negative-determinist experiences (a contradiction) or that this universe ruled by chance produces a mixture of both evil and good (a misreading) or that cosmic chance or indifference is itself an evil (a blending of what are opposites in the poem).[18]

Religious beliefs[edit]

Hardy's family was Anglican, but not especially devout. He was baptised at the age of five weeks and attended church, where his father and uncle contributed to music. However, he did not attend the local Church of England school, instead being sent to Mr Last's school, three miles away. As a young adult, he befriended Henry R. Bastow (a Plymouth Brethren man), who also worked as a pupil architect, and who was preparing for adult baptism in the Baptist Church. Hardy flirted with conversion, but decided against it.[19] Bastow went to Australia and maintained a long correspondence with Hardy, but eventually Hardy tired of these exchanges and the correspondence ceased. This concluded Hardy's links with the Baptists.

The irony and struggles of life and a curious mind led him to question the traditional Christian view of God:

The Christian god – the external personality – has been replaced by the intelligence of the First Cause...the replacement of the old concept of God as all-powerful by a new concept of universal consciousness. The 'tribal god, man-shaped, fiery-faced and tyrannous' is replaced by the 'unconscious will of the Universe' which progressively grows aware of itself and 'ultimately, it is to be hoped, sympathetic'.[20]

Hardy's religious life seems to have mixed agnosticism, deism, and spiritism. Once, when asked in correspondence by a clergyman about the question of reconciling the horrors of pain with the goodness of a loving God, Hardy replied,

Mr. Hardy regrets that he is unable to offer any hypothesis which would reconcile the existence of such evils as Dr. Grosart describes with the idea of omnipotent goodness. Perhaps Dr. Grosart might be helped to a provisional view of the universe by the recently published Life of Darwin and the works of Herbert Spencer and other agnostics.[21]

Nevertheless, Hardy frequently conceived of and wrote about supernatural forces that control the universe, more through indifference or caprice than any firm will. Also, Hardy showed in his writing some degree of fascination with ghosts and spirits.[21] Despite these sentiments, Hardy retained a strong emotional attachment to the Christian liturgy and church rituals, particularly as manifested in rural communities, that had been such a formative influence in his early years, and Biblical references can be found woven throughout many of Hardy's novels.

Hardy's friends during his apprenticeship to John Hicks included Horace Moule (one of the eight sons of Henry Moule), and the poet William Barnes, both ministers of religion. Moule remained a close friend of Hardy's for the rest of his life, and introduced him to new scientific findings that cast doubt on literal interpretations of the Bible,[22] such as those of Gideon Mantell. Moule gave Hardy a copy of Mantell's book The Wonders of Geology (1848) in 1858, and Adelene Buckland has suggested that there are "compelling similarities" between the "cliffhanger" section from A Pair of Blue Eyes and Mantell's geological descriptions. It has also been suggested that the character of Henry Knight in A Pair of Blue Eyes was based on Horace Moule.[23]

Locations in novels[edit]

Influence[edit]

D. H. Lawrence's Study of Thomas Hardy (1936), indicates the importance of Hardy for him, even though this work is a platform for Lawrence's own developing philosophy rather than a more standard literary study. The influence of Hardy's treatment of character, and Lawrence's own response to the central metaphysic behind many of Hardy's novels, helped significantly in the development of The Rainbow (1915) and Women in Love (1920). A contemporary of Lawrence, John Cowper Powys's first novel, Wood and Stone (1915) was "Dedicated with devoted admiration to the greatest poet and novelist of our age Thomas Hardy". Hardy was clearly the starting point for the character of the novelist Edward Driffield in W Somerset Maugham's novel Cakes and Ale (1930). Thomas Hardy's works also feature prominently in the American playwright Christopher Durang's The Marriage of Bette and Boo (1985), in which a graduate thesis analysing Tess of the d'Urbervilles is interspersed with analysis of Matt's family's neuroses.

Works[edit]

Prose[edit]

Hardy divided his novels and collected short stories into three classes:

Novels of Character and Environment

Romances and Fantasies

Novels of Ingenuity

Hardy also produced a number of minor tales; one story, The Spectre of the Real (1894) was written in collaboration with Florence Henniker.[24] An additional short-story collection, beyond the ones mentioned above, is A Changed Man and Other Tales (1913). His works have been collected as the 24-volume Wessex Edition (1912–13) and the 37-volume Mellstock Edition (1919–20). His largely self-written biography appears under his second wife's name in two volumes from 1928–30, as The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, 1840–91 and The Later Years of Thomas Hardy, 1892–1928, now published in a critical one-volume edition as The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy, edited by Michael Millgate (1984).

Short stories (with date of first publication)

  • "How I Built Myself A House" (1865)
  • "Destiny and a Blue Cloak" (1874)
  • "The Thieves Who Couldn't Stop Sneezing" (1877)
  • "The Duchess of Hamptonshire" (1878)
  • "The Distracted Preacher" (1879)
  • "Fellow-Townsmen" (1880)
  • "The Honourable Laura" (1881)
  • "What The Shepherd Saw" (1881)
  • "A Tradition of Eighteen Hundred and Four" (1882)
  • "The Three Strangers" (1883)
  • "The Romantic Adventures of a Milkmaid" (1883)
  • "Interlopers at the Knap" (1884)
  • "A Mere Interlude" (1885)
  • "A Tryst at an Ancient Earthwork" (1885)
  • "Alicia's Diary" (1887)
  • "The Waiting Supper" (1887–88)
  • "The Withered Arm" (1888)
  • "A Tragedy of Two Ambitions" (1888)
  • "The First Countess of Wessex" (1889)
  • "Anna, Lady Baxby" (1890)
  • "The Lady Icenway" (1890)
  • "Lady Mottisfont" (1890)
  • "The Lady Penelope" (1890)
  • "The Marchioness of Stonehenge" (1890)
  • "Squire Petrick's Lady" (1890)
  • "Barbara of the House of Grebe" (1890)
  • "The Melancholy Hussar of The German Legion" (1890)
  • "Absent-Mindedness in a Parish Choir" (1891)
  • "The Winters and the Palmleys" (1891)
  • "For Conscience' Sake" (1891)
  • "Incident in Mr. Crookhill's Life"(1891)
  • "The Doctor's Legend" (1891)
  • "Andrey Satchel and the Parson and Clerk" (1891)
  • "The History of the Hardcomes" (1891)
  • "Netty Sargent's Copyhold" (1891)
  • "On The Western Circuit" (1891)
  • "A Few Crusted Characters: Introduction" (1891)
  • "The Superstitious Man's Story" (1891)
  • "Tony Kytes, the Arch-Deceiver" (1891)
  • "To Please His Wife" (1891)
  • "The Son's Veto" (1891)
  • "Old Andrey's Experience as a Musician" (1891)
  • "Our Exploits At West Poley" (1892–93)
  • "Master John Horseleigh, Knight" (1893)
  • "The Fiddler of the Reels" (1893)
  • "An Imaginative Woman" (1894)
  • "The Spectre of the Real" (1894)
  • "A Committee-Man of 'The Terror'" (1896)
  • "The Duke's Reappearance" (1896)
  • "The Grave by the Handpost" (1897)
  • "A Changed Man" (1900)
  • "Enter a Dragoon" (1900)
  • "Blue Jimmy: The Horse Stealer" (1911)
  • "Old Mrs. Chundle" (1929)
  • "The Unconquerable"(1992)

Poetry collections[edit]

Drama[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dennis Taylor, "Hardy and Wordsworth". Victorian Poetry, vol.24, no.4, Winter, 1986.
  2. ^ Gillian Beer, Darwin's Plots. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  3. ^ Donald Davie,Thomas Hardy and British Poetry. London: Routlefge and Kegan Paul, 1973.
  4. ^ Claire Tomalin, Thomas Hardy: the Time-torn Man(Penguin, 2007) pp.30,36.
  5. ^ Walsh, Lauren. Introduction. The Return of the Native. By Thomas Hardy. New York: Barnes & Noble Classics, 2005. Print.
  6. ^ Burley, Peter (2012). "When steam railroaded history". Cornerstone 33 (1): 9. 
  7. ^ Gibson, James (ed.) (1975) Chosen Poems of Thomas Hardy, London: Macmillan Education; p.9.
  8. ^ Hardy, Emma (1961) Some Recollections by Emma Hardy; with some relevant poems by Thomas Hardy; ed. by Evelyn Hardy & R. Gittings. London: Oxford University Press
  9. ^ "Thomas Hardy – the Time-Torn Man" (a reading of Claire Tomalin's book of the same name), BBC Radio 4, 23 October 2006
  10. ^ "Thomas Hardy at Stourhead" BBC Online, 10 March 2004 (Retrieved: 7 September 2009)
  11. ^ Bradford,Charles Angell (1933). Heart Burial. London: Allen & Unwin. p. 246. ISBN 9-781162-771816. 
  12. ^ a b "Homeground: Dead man talking" BBC Online, 20 August 2003 (Retrieved: 7 September 2009)
  13. ^ Hardy, Thomas (1998). Jude the Obscure. Penguin Classics. p. 466. ISBN 0-14-043538-7. 
  14. ^ Larkin, Philip 1983, "Wanted: Good Hardy Critic" in Required Writing, London: Faber and Faber.
  15. ^ "Far from the Madding Crowd, Thomas Hardy – Introduction" (Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Linda Pavlovski. Vol. 153. Gale Group, Inc., 2005. eNotes.com. 2006. 12 March 2008) eNotes.com (Retrieved: 7 September 2009)
  16. ^ Tomalin, Claire. "Thomas Hardy." New York: Penguin, 2007.
  17. ^ Herbert N. Schneidau. Waking Giants: The Presence of the Past in Modernism. Retrieved 16 April 2008.  (Google Books)
  18. ^ Kenneth B. Newell, "New Conservative Explications: Reasoning with some Classic English Poems," Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011, ch. 9.
  19. ^ Claire Tomalin, Thomas Hardy, The Time Torn Man(Penguin, 2007), pp.46–47.
  20. ^ Wotton, George. Thomas Hardy: Towards A Materialist Criticism. Lanham,: Rowan & Littlefield, 1985, p.36.
  21. ^ a b Ellman, Richard, & O'Clair, Robert (eds.) 1988. "Thomas Hardy" in The Norton Anthology of Modern Poetry, Norton, New York.
  22. ^ "Biography: Thomas Hardy" wps.Ablongman.com, (Retrieved: 7 September 2009)
  23. ^ "Adelene Buckland: Thomas Hardy, Provincial Geology and the Material Imagination". Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  24. ^ Purdy, Richard (October 1944). "Thomas Hardy And Florence Henniker: The Writing Of "The Spectre Of The Real". Colby Library Quarterly, series 1, no.8: 122–6. 

References[edit]

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  • D'Agnillo, Renzo, “Between Belief and Non-Belief: Thomas Hardy’s ‘The Shadow on the Stone’”, in Thomas Hardy, Francesco Marroni and Norman Page (eds), Pescara, Edizioni Tracce, 1995, pp.197–222.
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  • Gittings, Robert. Young Thomas Hardy. Boston : Little, Brown, 1975.
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  • Hands, Timothy. Thomas Hardy : Distracted Preacher? : Hardy's religious biography and its influence on his novels. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.
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  • Letter from Hardy to Bertram Windle, transcribed by Birgit Plietzsch, from CL, vol 2, pp.131–133 The letter is contained in the maps section of the TTHA website.

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