Thibault is a first name (French form of Theobald) and a common French surname.
- Bernard Thibault (b. 1959), the current secretary of the Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT), a French workers' union,
- Emmanuel Thibault (b. 1974), a French dancer,
- Jean-Baptiste Thibault (1810 – 1879), a Canadian Roman Catholic priest and missionary
- Jocelyn Thibault (b. 1975), a retired Canadian ice hockey goaltender,
- Lise Thibault (b. 1939), a Canadian civil servant and former Lieutenant Governor of Quebec
- Louis Michel Thibault (1750 - 1815), a French-born South African architect and engineer
- Louise Thibault (b. 1947), a Canadian politician,
- Mike Thibault (b. 1951), an American basketball head coach,
- Robert Thibault (b. 1959), a Canadian politician.
- Joachim Thibault de Courville (died 1581), a French composer, singer, lutenist, and player of the lyre, of the late Renaissance.
- Gérard Thibault (1574-1629), a Dutch fencing master.