Thelocactus

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Thelocactus
Thelocactus rinconensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Core eudicots
Order:Caryophyllales
Family:Cactaceae
Subfamily:Cactoideae
Tribe:Cacteae
Genus:Thelocactus
(K.Schum.) Britton & Rose[1]
Type species
Thelocactus hexaedrophorus
Species

See text.

Synonyms

Hamatocactus Britton & Rose
Thelomastus Fric[1]

 
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Thelocactus
Thelocactus rinconensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Core eudicots
Order:Caryophyllales
Family:Cactaceae
Subfamily:Cactoideae
Tribe:Cacteae
Genus:Thelocactus
(K.Schum.) Britton & Rose[1]
Type species
Thelocactus hexaedrophorus
Species

See text.

Synonyms

Hamatocactus Britton & Rose
Thelomastus Fric[1]

Thelocactus leucacanthus
Thelocactus hexaedrophorus, by Charles Antoine Lemaire, circa 1845.
Thelocactus macdowellii

Thelocactus is a genus in the cactus family, Cactaceae. Members of the genus are native to the arid lands of Central and Northern Mexico.

Description[edit]

Thelocactus species are globe-shaped, short and cylindrical. They are small cacti, although there are one or two species which, while only about 15 cm high, can be 25 cm in diameter; for example, T. nidulans. Thelocactus species are generally solitary, but some varieties will cluster in groups.

The ribs on Thelocactus species are very clearly marked and are sometimes twisted in a spiral. There can be from 8 to 20 ribs, are rather low and normally marked with raised, angular or hexagonal tubercles. These tubercles can sometimes be difficult to distinguish. Areoles sit in a furrow directly above where the spines grow and there can be up to twenty radial/radiating spines. They are often needle-like, spread out and can be from 1.3 – 1.5 cm long. The central spines are mostly coarser, number up to six, stand vertically out from the plant and can be 2.5 – 7.5 cm long. Colours of all of the spines vary and include white, gray, golden-yellow and red-brown.

Flowers grow from the new areoles at the very top of the plant. They are funnel-shaped, have a diameter of 2.5 – 7.5 cm and their colours vary from white to shades of yellow, red or purple. They are diurnal. Fruits are small, globe-shaped and plain. They are dehiscent through the large basal pore, green to brownish purple [to magenta], spherical to short cylindrical, 5 - 18 x 6 - 17 mm, not juicy, drying immediately after ripening, scaly, spineless, hairless and with floral remnant persistent.

Distribution[edit]

Thelocactus species grow in the wild in central and North Mexico and in the USA in Texas. In Mexico, the species are generally concentrated along and to the west of the Sierra Madre Oriental beginning with T. hastifer in Querétaro State, about 150km NNW of Mexico City. One sub-species (T. bicolor ssp. flavidispinus) grows on the other (northern) side of the Rio Grande, well distributed in the Big Bend area of Texas. Other occurrences of T. bicolor in Texas have been reported but cited verification is sketchy although it would be odd if they did not occur there. Some species are distributed over a wide area of many Mexican states (T. bicolor and its sub-species and T. hexaedrophorus) with T. bicolor and its current (2013) botanically accepted subspecies bolaensis, flavidispinus, heterochromus and schwarzii having the widest distribution. In contrast, one species, T. lausseri, only occurs in one known remote locality in central Coahuila state. Species are distributed in mountainous stony/rocky places or grassy territory with clay soil.

Cultivation[edit]

Thelocactus species are generally easy to cultivate, even if many species fail to flower until they are five years old. Soils should be composed of equal proportions of sand and humus. Water normally from Spring to Autumn. In Winter, keep most species at a minimum temperature of 8°C. They can survive at lower temperatures but the roots then must be kept dry. The dark brown or black seeds can be relatively large for the size of cactus and they germinate readily.

Reproduction is nearly always from seed, since the plant rarely produces plantlets. The seed should be put in a sand and compost mixture, kept moist, maintained at a temperature of 21°C and placed in a shady position.

Thelocactus bicolor has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[2]

Synonymy[edit]

The following genera have been brought to synonymy with Thelocactus:

This genus contained 8 species and was known from the Southwest United States and in northern Mexico. The name Hamatocactus means "hooked cactus" in Latin.

Species[edit]

Species recognized by International Cactaceae Systematics Group. (Anderson E. F., 2001)

Thelocactus bicolor (Galeotti ex Pfeiffer) Britton & Rose 1922

Thelocactus bicolor subsp. flavidispinus (Backeberg) N. P.Taylor 1998
Thelocactus bicolor subsp. schwarzii (Backeberg) N. P.Taylor 1998
(synonymum Thelocactus bicolor var. bolaensis, var. schotti, var. texensis, var. tricolor)

Thelocactus conothelos (Regel & Klein) Backeberg and F. M. Knuth 1935

Thelocactus conothelos subsp. argenteus (Glass & R. Foster) Glass 1998
Thelocactus conothelos subsp. aurantiacus (Glass & R. Foster) Glass 1998,
(synonymum Thelocactus conothelos subsp. flavus)

Thelocactus garciae Glass & M. Mendoza 1998

Thelocactus hastifer Werdermann & Boedeker) F. M. Knuth 1935

Thelocactus heterochrontus (F. A. C. Weber) Oosten 1940

Thelocactus hexaedrophorus (Lemaire) Britton & Rose 1922

Thelocactus hexaedrophorus subsp. lloydii (Britton & Rose) N. P. Taylor 1998
(synonymum Thelocactus fossulatus)

Thelocactus lausseri Riha & Busek 1986

Thelocactus leucacanthus (Zuccarini) Britton & Rose 1923

Thelocactus leucacanthus subsp. schmollii (Werdermann) Mosco &Zanovello 1999

Thelocactus macdowellii (Rebut ex Quehl) Glass 1969

Thelocactus rinconensis (Poselger) Britton & Rose 1923

Thelocactus rinconensis subsp. hintonii M. Luthy 1997
(synonymum Thelocactus nidulans, T. lophothele, T. phymathothelos)

Thelocactus setispinus (Engelmann) E. F. Anderson 1987

(synonymum Hamatocactus setispinus)

Thelocactus tulensis (Poselger) Britton & Rose 1923

Thelocactus tulensis subsp. buekii (Klein) N. P.Taylor 1998
Thelocactus tulensis subsp. matudae (Sanchez-Mejorada & A. B. Lau) N. P. Taylor 1998

Formerly placed here[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Genus: Thelocactus (K. Schum.) Britton & Rose". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2004-02-13. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  2. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Theolcactus bicolor". Retrieved 06 June 2013. 
  3. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Thelocactus". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 

Literature[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Thelocactus at Wikimedia Commons