The road to hell is paved with good intentions

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The road to hell is paved with good intentions is a proverb or aphorism. An alternative is "hell is full of good meanings, but heaven is full of good works".[1] The meaning of the phrase is that individuals may have the intention to undertake good actions but nevertheless fail to take action.[2][3] This inaction may be due to procrastination, laziness or other subversive vice.[4] As such, the saying is an admonishment that a good intention is meaningless unless followed through, which is notoriously difficult for common good intentions such as losing weight through dieting or quitting smoking.[5]

Origin[edit]

The saying is thought to have originated with Saint Bernard of Clairvaux who wrote (c. 1150), "L'enfer est plein de bonnes volontés et désirs" (hell is full of good wishes and desires).[6] An earlier saying occurs in Virgil's Aeneid: "facilis descensus Averno (It is easy to go to hell)".[7]

Meaning[edit]

A different interpretation of the saying that is sometimes found, is that good intentions, when acted upon, may have unforeseen bad consequences.

An example are the economic policies of the 1920s and 1930s. Intended to be a prudent response to the economic turmoil following World War I and the Wall Street Crash respectively, these had unintended consequences and were a major cause of the Great Depression and thus eventually of World War II in which millions of people suffered and died.[8]

Another example is the introduction of alien species such as the Asian carp, which may become a nuisance due to unexpected proliferation and behaviour.[9]

Studies[edit]

Psychological studies of the effect of intention upon task completion by professors Peter Gollwitzer, Paschal Sheeran and Sheina Orbell indicate that there is some truth in the proverb.[10] Perfectionists are especially prone to have their intentions backfire in this way.[11] When judging intentions, people are more likely to interpret good intentions for their own actions than they are for those of others.[12]

Attempts to improve the ethical behaviour of groups are often counter-productive. If legislation is used then people will observe the letter of the law rather than improving the desired behaviour. During negotiation, groups that are encouraged to understand the point of view of the other parties do worse than those whose perspective is not enlightened. The threat of punishment may worsen ethical behaviour rather than improving it.[13] Studies of business ethics indicate that most wrongdoing is not due directly to wickedness but is performed by people who did not plan to err.[14]

Stephen Garrard Post, writing about altruism, suggests that good intentions are often not what they seem and that mankind normally acts from less worthy, selfish motives—"If the road to hell is paved with good intentions, it is partly because that is the road they generally start out on."[15]

Artistic references[edit]

Authors who have used the phrase include Samuel Johnson,[16] Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Sir Walter Scott,[17] Søren Kierkegaard,[citation needed] and Karl Marx.[18]

In the movie, Highway to Hell, the phrase is taken literally to create one particular scene. The Good Intentions Paving Company has a team of Andy Warhols who grind good-intentioned souls into pavement. "I was only sleeping with my husband's boss to advance his career", says one.[19]

The phrase appears in the song "4 Minutes" by Madonna on her 2008 album Hard Candy.

The phrase is also used as the title for a song by Metalcore band In Fear And Faith.

A version of the phrase is used in the song "Road to Hell" by Bruce Dickinson.

The phrase is used by Benjamin Sisko in the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode In the Pale Moonlight regarding his actions in "tricking" the Romulan Empire to join the United Federation of Planets in war against the Dominion.[20]

The phrase was also used as the title of the 2009 film 'Hell's Pavement' (Dir. Andy Kemp) in which the good intentions of a social care system critically failed to meet the needs of a child in foster care. The film won three international awards including the coveted 'People's Choice' award at the 2010 Beloit International Film Festival.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "the road to hell is paved with good intentions", Proverbs, Infobase Publishing, 2007, p. 234, ISBN 9780816066735 
  2. ^ "The road to hell is paved with good intentions". The American Heritage New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy (Third ed.) (Dictionary.com/Houghton Mifflin Company). 2005. Retrieved March 28, 2013. 
  3. ^ "The road to hell is paved with good intentions". Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary & Thesaurus (Third ed.) (Dictionary.cambridge.org/Cambridge University Press). 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2013. 
  4. ^ Collis, Harry; Risso, Mario (1992), "The Road to Hell is Paved with Good Intentions", 101 American English proverbs: understanding language and culture through commonly used sayings, Lincolnwood, Ill: Passport Books, ISBN 9780844254128 
  5. ^ Bowden, Charles L., editor; Burstein, Alvin George, editor (1983). Psychosocial Basis of Health Care. Williams & Wilkins. p. 98. ISBN 0-683-00993-1. 
  6. ^ Ammer, Christine (1997), The American Heritage dictionary of idioms, ISBN 9780395727744 
  7. ^ Mawr, Mrs E. B. (1885), "Hell is paved with good intentions", Analogous Proverbs In Ten Languages, Elliot Stock 
  8. ^ Hall, Thomas Emerson; Ferguson, J. David (1998), The Great Depression: an international disaster of perverse economic policies, ISBN 9780472066674 
  9. ^ Kalman, Izzy (August 16, 2010), Principle Number One: The Road to Hell is Paved with Good Intentions, "A Psychological Solution to Bullying", Psychology Today 
  10. ^ Gollwitzer, Peter; Sheeran, Paschal (2006-05-30), "Implementation intentions and goal achievement", Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 38, ISBN 9780120152384 
  11. ^ Powers, T. A. (2005), "Implementation Intentions, Perfectionism, and Goal Progress: Perhaps the Road to Hell Is Paved With Good Intentions", Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31 (7): 902–912, doi:10.1177/0146167204272311 
  12. ^ Kruger, Justin; Gilovich, Thomas (2004), "Actions, Intentions, and Self-Assessment: The Road to Self-Enhancement Is Paved with Good Intentions", Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30 (3): 328–339, doi:10.1177/0146167203259932, PMID 15030624 
  13. ^ Messick, David (2006-07-11), "The Road to Hell", Ethics in groups 8, pp. 273–274, ISBN 9780762313006 
  14. ^ Nash, Laura L. (1993), Good intentions aside: a manager's guide to resolving ethical problems, ISBN 9780875844299 
  15. ^ Post, Stephen Garrard (2002), Altruism & altruistic love, Oxford University Press, p. 203, ISBN 9780195143584 
  16. ^ "Hell is paved with good intentions." April 14, 1775 Boswell, James (1791). Life of Samuel Johnson II. 
  17. ^ Pell, Robert Conger (1857), Milledulcia, p. 89 
  18. ^ Marx, Karl. "Seven, Section 2". Das Kapital The Production of Surplus-Value — Der weg zur Hölle ist jedoch mit guten Absichten One. Retrieved February 25, 2014. 
  19. ^ Muir, John Kenneth (2011), Horror Films of the 1990s, McFarland, p. 236, ISBN 9780786440122 
  20. ^ Fields, Allan; Taylor, Michael, Teleplay; Lobl, Victor, Director (January 26, 1999), In the pale moon light script, line 600, retrieved February 25, 2914 
  21. ^ > "Hell's Pavement". IMDB. 2009. Retrieved 25 February 2014.