The Who's Tommy

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The Who's Tommy
Original Broadway Recording
MusicPete Townshend
LyricsPete Townshend
BookPete Townshend
Des McAnuff
BasisTommy rock opera by The Who
Productions1992 La Jolla Playhouse
1993 Broadway
1995 Canada
1996 West End revival
2013 The Stratford Festival

Tony Award for Best Score
Tony Award for Best Direction of a Musical
Tony Award for Best Original Score
Tony Award for Best Choreography
Tony Award for Best Scenic Design
Tony Award for Best Lighting Design
Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Director of a Musical
Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Lighting Design
Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Sound Design
Grammy Award for Best Musical Show Album

Theatre World Award
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The Who's Tommy
Original Broadway Recording
MusicPete Townshend
LyricsPete Townshend
BookPete Townshend
Des McAnuff
BasisTommy rock opera by The Who
Productions1992 La Jolla Playhouse
1993 Broadway
1995 Canada
1996 West End revival
2013 The Stratford Festival

Tony Award for Best Score
Tony Award for Best Direction of a Musical
Tony Award for Best Original Score
Tony Award for Best Choreography
Tony Award for Best Scenic Design
Tony Award for Best Lighting Design
Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Director of a Musical
Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Lighting Design
Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Sound Design
Grammy Award for Best Musical Show Album

Theatre World Award

The Who's Tommy is a rock musical by Pete Townshend and Des McAnuff based on The Who's 1969 double album rock opera Tommy, also by Pete Townshend, with additional material by John Entwistle, Keith Moon and Sonny Boy Williamson


The musical opened at La Jolla Playhouse in San Diego, California on 1 July 1992. The Broadway debut was at the St. James Theatre on 29 March 1993 with 27 previews running thru 10 April. The show then officially "Opened" on 22 April 1993 and closed on 17 June 1995, after 899 performances. Directed by Des McAnuff with choreography by Wayne Cilento, the original cast included Michael Cerveris (Tommy), Marcia Mitzman (Mrs. Walker), Jonathan Dokuchitz (Captain Walker) and Cheryl Freeman (The Gypsy/Acid Queen) plus an ensemble that included Alice Ripley, Christian Hoff, Norm Lewis, Paul Kandel, Tracy Nicole Chapman, Michael Gardner and Sherie Rene Scott. The play subsequently was produced by various touring companies throughout North America and Europe.

Although the official website for the original cast recording [1] indicates that it was produced by RCA Victor and released on 13 July 1993, based on recordings from May 9th & May 10th, 1993, I personally attended the 1st night of previews on 29 March 1993 and received a copy of this soundtrack signed by Pete Townshend, George Martin (not yet "Sir") and Michael Cerveris. I must conclude that these initial CD's must have been recorded at the La Jolla Playhouse performances, as they were available during intermission of the 1st Broadway performance, before the 1st Broadway show had even completed.

This musical inspired Data East's production of a pinball machine called The Who's Tommy Pinball Wizard (1994), which used music, sound effects, and artwork based on the original Broadway production.

A Canadian Production opened at the Elgin Theatre in Toronto on 1 March 1995, and played throughout the year.[2] The production featured an entirely Canadian cast, and the lead character of Tommy was played by Tyley Ross.[3] Once the Toronto run ended, the production went on a Cross-Canada tour.

A revival ran in the West End at the Shaftesbury Theatre from 5 March 1996 until 8 February 1997, featuring Paul Keating (Tommy) and Kim Wilde (Mrs. Walker).[4]

The original Broadway cast performed a one night only reunion benefit concert at the August Wilson Theatre in New York City on 15 December 2008. Produced by The Path Fund/Rockers on Broadway, the concert was a benefit for Broadway Cares/Equity Fights AIDS, the Broadway Dreams Foundation and the Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia and Parkinson Foundation.[5]

Des McAnuff revived the musical at the Stratford Festival of Canada from May 4 to October 19, 2013 at the Avon Theatre in Stratford Ontario. [6]


Note that there are slight plot differences between the music album, the film, and the stage production.

Act 1[edit]

1940: Against the backdrop of World War II in London appears a montage of Captain and Mrs. Walker meeting, their marriage, Captain Walker's deployment to parachute into Germany, and his capture and imprisonment in a Prisoner-of-war camp ("Overture"). Back in London at 22 Heathfield Gardens, Uncle Ernie delivers a care package to his pregnant sister-in-law just as two officers arrive to bring them the tragic news that Captain Walker is missing and presumed dead ("Captain Walker").
Scene One
1941: Two nurses gently hand Mrs. Walker her newborn son ("It's a Boy").
Scene Two
1945: American troops liberate Walker's POW camp, and tell him the war in Europe is over ("We've Won").
Scene Three
Believing her husband dead, Mrs. Walker has a new lover, and they celebrate her twenty-first birthday and discuss getting married together with now four-year-old Tommy. To their surprise, Captain Walker enters the house as Mrs. Walker and her lover embrace ("Twenty-One"). In shock, Mrs. Walker reaches out to touch him, but a fight erupts between Walker and the boyfriend. Tommy is watching the fight, and Mrs. Walker turns him towards the mirror in hopes of him not seeing the fight. Through the mirror, Tommy sees his father shoot dead his mother's new boyfriend. Mr. and Mrs. Walker embrace, but soon realise what Tommy has witnessed, and violently shake him, telling him he didn't see or hear anything ("What About the Boy"). The police arrive to investigate, while Tommy gazes at the mirror. A narrator (Tommy's older self) appears, visible only to Tommy, and invites the audience to witness Tommy's journey ("Amazing Journey").
Scene Four
Captain Walker is tried for the lover's murder, but found not guilty by reasons of self-defense. However, the family celebration dies down as they realise Tommy is now deaf, dumb, and blind, when he fails to show emotion towards his father's release.
Scene Five
Mr. and Mrs. Walker take him to a hospital, where a battery of doctors and nurses, to no avail, examine Tommy ("Sparks"). 1950: Tommy is nearly ten years old but the narrator reiterates that his state remains the same ("Amazing Journey (Reprise)").
Scene Six
1950: The Walkers take ten-year-old Tommy to church and host a family dinner ("Christmas"). Although they try to enjoy the party, they can't help but think that Tommy doesn't know that it is Christmas or understand its meaning. Everyone is stunned when Tommy responds to Uncle Ernie's playing the French Horn. Mr. Walker, in a desperate attempt to reach his son, shouts "Tommy, can you hear me?" multiple times. Older Tommy, only visible to young Tommy, sings to him. ("See Me, Feel Me").
Scene Seven
Back home, the Walkers worry about whether to leave Tommy with his alcoholic uncle Uncle Ernie ("Do You Think It's Alright?"), but they convince themselves that Tommy will be fine. After the two leave, Ernie molests him ("Fiddle About").
Scene Eight
Tommy's parents leave him in the care of his cousin Kevin, a sadist who bullies and abuses the boy mercilessly ("Cousin Kevin"). Cousin Kevin and his friends then take Tommy to a youth club where, to everyone's astonishment, he plays pinball brilliantly ("Sensation").
Scene Nine
Encouraged, the Walkers try yet another doctor, a psychiatrist, who tests Tommy without success ("Sparks (Reprise)").
Scene Ten
The desperate Mr. Walker is approached by The Hawker and Harmonica Player ("Eyesight to the Blind") who promise a miraculous cure for Tommy. They take Mr. Walker and young Tommy to the Isle of Dogs to find a prostitute called The Gypsy.
Scene Eleven
The Gypsy tries to convince Mr. Walker to let her spend time alone with Tommy, introducing him to sex and drugs ("The Acid Queen"). Mr. Walker, horrified by the Gyspy's methods, snatches the boy and runs away.
Scene Twelve
1958: The act ends as Cousin Kevin and a group of teenagers await 17-year-old Tommy's appearance at the amusement arcade as his skills propel his rise to local popularity ("Pinball Wizard").

Act II[edit]

1960: Tommy has become the pinball champion and hero of the neighbourhood lads. ("Underture").
Scene Thirteen
The father, still in search of a cure, convinces his wife to try once more ("There's a Doctor").
Scene Fourteen
They take Tommy to specialists ("Go to the Mirror!") for elaborate tests, but to no avail. The doctors discover that Tommy's senses do work but are for some reason not processing what he sees or hears and that no one can free Tommy from his catatonic state but himself.
Scene Fifteen
On the street a group of local louts surround Tommy ("Tommy, Can You Hear Me?") and carry him home.
Scene Sixteen
The parents, at their wits' end and considering having Tommy institutionalised, compassionately confront one another ("I Believe My Own Eyes"). Tommy stares into the mirror as his mother tries desperately to reach him one last time ("Smash the Mirror"). Out of rage, frustration, and desperation, she shatters the mirror that Tommy continually gazed at for years. With the mirror in pieces, Tommy becomes conscious ("I'm Free") and leaves home.
Scene Seventeen
1961-1963: While his cure hits the news ("Miracle Cure"), Tommy is idolised by the public and the press ("Sensation (Reprise)"), and begins appearing in stadiums, playing pinball with a helmet that temporarily blinds and deafens him ("Pinball Wizard (Reprise)").
Scene Eighteen
Uncle Ernie tries to capitalise on Tommy's newfound stardom, by selling Tommy souvenirs in a carnival-like setting ("Tommy's Holiday Camp").
Scene Nineteen
On the night of the grand opening party for Tommy's holiday camp, teenager Sally Simpson manages to sneak out of her parents' home to attend Tommy's appearance. She gets on stage and tries to touch Tommy but in the commotion he unknowingly pushes her off the stage, she falls and is pummelled by the guards ("Sally Simpson"). Tommy, in horror, stops the show and tends to her.
Scene Twenty
Realising how caught up in the celebrity machine he is due to the remarkable recovery of his senses, Tommy wishes to do something in return for his fans and invites them all back to his house ("Welcome"). Once there, the fans grow and grow in size, though Tommy wishes to make room for one and all. Sally then asks Tommy how she can be more like him and less like herself ("Sally Simpson's Question"). He is confused, and insists that there is no reason for anyone to be like him, when everyone else already possesses the gifts that he was deprived of most of his life. He suddenly realises that although he had thought his fame came from his miraculous recovery, it in fact arose because others hoped he would assume the role of a kind of spiritual leader, based on his knowledge of what it is like not to hear, see, or communicate for so long. Now, disenchanted with their hero for failing to provide the answers they wanted to be told, the crowd turns on him and leaves ("We're Not Gonna Take It"). Tommy hears the voice of his ten-year-old self ("See Me, Feel Me") and for a moment, to the horror of his family, seems to be reverting to his old state. But instead he turns to his family, whom he has ignored during his stardom, embraces them in acceptance, and reunites with his younger selves ("Listening to You"). The entire ensemble joins him and his family on stage. After they all leave, the 4 year old Tommy, 10 year old Tommy, and adult Tommy dramatically end looking out in different directions.

Plot differences between the three productions[edit]

The original 1969 album was much more ambiguous in its specific plot points. Originally, the song "Twenty-One" was called "1921" as the album version took place in a post-World War I setting. In the film, the story was changed to be post-World War II and the song was changed to "1951". In both the album and stage versions, the father comes home and kills the lover in the confrontation. Ken Russell's film made a reversal and killed Mr. Walker's character, having the lover then assume the role of a step-father to Tommy.

The film added a handful of new songs which were not on the original album and weren't retained for the stage production. For the 1993 Broadway version, Pete Townshend wrote a new piece called "I Believe My Own Eyes" in which the Walkers resign themselves to accepting Tommy's fate after years of trying.

Tommy's experience with the Acid Queen (Scene 11) is also handled differently between the Album, Movie, & Stage productions. In both the album and movie, Tommy appears to have taken a drug from the Acid Queen which produced a visceral response in the otherwise mostly catatonic child. In the musical, his step-father brings him to see the Acid Queen, then changes his mid and leaves before Tommy partakes of her "charms".

The most fundamental difference in the story is the finale, which was rewritten in 1993. Originally, Tommy instructs his followers to become deaf, dumb, and blind themselves to find a heightened state of enlightenment. The crowd rejects this and turns on him. In the stage version, Tommy tells them the opposite: to not try to emulate him, but to rather live out their own normal lives. Upon hearing this message, the crowd still rejects him out of a desire to hear a bolder message from him.


Other Tommys
Supporting roles

Song list[edit]

Act One
  • "Overture" – Company
  • "Captain Walker" – Officers
  • "It's a Boy" – Nurses and Mrs. Walker
  • "We've Won" – Captain Walker and Allied Soldiers
  • "Twenty One" / "What About the Boy?" – Mrs. Walker and Boyfriend / Captain Walker and Mrs. Walker
  • "Amazing Journey" – Tommy
  • "Courtroom Scene" – Judge
  • "Sparks" – Instrumental
  • "Amazing Journey" (Reprise) – Tommy
  • "Christmas" / "See Me, Feel Me" – Captain Walker, Mrs. Walker, Minister, Minister's Wife and Ensemble / Tommy
  • "Do You Think It's Alright?" – Captain Walker and Mrs. Walker
  • "Fiddle About" (music and lyrics by John Entwistle) – Uncle Ernie and Ensemble
  • "See Me, Feel Me" (Reprise) – Tommy
  • "Cousin Kevin" (music and lyrics by John Entwistle) – Cousin Kevin and Ensemble
  • "Sensation" – Tommy and Ensemble
  • "Sparks (Reprise)"
  • "Eyesight to the Blind" (lyrics by Sonny Boy Williamson II, music and additional lyrics by Pete Townshend) – Hawker, Harmonica Player and Ensemble
  • "The Acid Queen" – The Gypsy
  • "Pinball Wizard" – Local Lads, Cousin Kevin and Ensemble
Act Two
  • "Underture (Entr'acte)" – Ensemble
  • "It's a Boy (Reprise)" / "There's a Doctor" – Captain Walker and Mrs. Walker
  • "Go to the Mirror!" / "Listening to You" – Specialist, Specialist's Assistant, Captain Walker and Mrs. Walker / Tommy, Tommy (Age 10) and Tommy (Age 4)
  • "Tommy, Can You Hear Me?" – Local Lads
  • "I Believe My Own Eyes" – Captain Walker and Mrs. Walker
  • "Smash the Mirror" – Mrs. Walker
  • "I'm Free" – Tommy
  • "Streets of London 1961–3 (Miracle Cure)" – News Vendor and Local Lads
  • "Sensation (Reprise)" – Tommy and Ensemble
  • "I'm Free" (Reprise) / "Pinball Wizard" (Reprise) – Tommy and Company
  • "Tommy's Holiday Camp" (music and lyrics credited to Keith Moon) – Uncle Ernie
  • "Sally Simpson" – Cousin Kevin, Security Guards, Sally Simpson, Mr. Simpson and Mrs. Simpson
  • "Welcome" – Tommy and Ensemble
  • "Sally Simpson's Question" – Sally Simpson, Tommy
  • "We're Not Gonna Take It" – Tommy and Ensemble
  • "See Me, Feel Me" (Final Reprise) / "Listening to You" (Reprise) – Tommy and Company

Awards and nominations[edit]

Original Broadway production[edit]

1993Tony AwardBest MusicalNominated
Best Book of a MusicalPete Townshend and Des McAnuffNominated
Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a MusicalMichael CerverisNominated
Paul KandelNominated
Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a MusicalMarcia MitzmanNominated
Best Direction of a MusicalDes McAnuffWon
Best ChoreographyWayne CilentoWon
Best Original ScorePete TownshendWon
Best Scenic DesignJohn ArnoneWon
Best Costume DesignDavid C. WoolardNominated
Best Lighting DesignChris ParryWon
Drama Desk AwardOutstanding MusicalNominated
Outstanding OrchestrationsSteven MargoshesNominated
Outstanding Director of a MusicalDes McAnuffWon
Outstanding ChoreographyWayne CilentoNominated
Outstanding Set DesignJohn ArnoneNominated
Outstanding Costume DesignDavid C. WoolardNominated
Outstanding Lighting DesignChris ParryWon
Outstanding Sound DesignSteve Canyon KennedyWon
Grammy AwardBest Musical Show Album (as producer of The Who's Tommy)Sir George MartinWon
Theatre World AwardMichael CerverisWon

Original London production[edit]

1997Laurence Olivier AwardBest Musical RevivalWon
Best Actor in a MusicalPaul KeatingNominated
Best Performance in a Supporting Role in a MusicalJames GillanNominated
Best DirectorDes McAnuffWon
Best Theatre ChoreographerWayne CilentoNominated
Best Set DesignJohn ArnoneNominated
Best Costume DesignDavid C. WoolardNominated
Best Lighting DesignChris ParryWon


External links[edit]