The Ten Commandments (1956 film)

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The Ten Commandments
10Command56.jpg
Original theatrical release poster
Directed byCecil B. DeMille
Produced byCecil B. DeMille
Henry Wilcoxon
(associate producer)
Screenplay byÆneas MacKenzie
Jesse L. Lasky, Jr.
Jack Gariss
Fredric M. Frank
Based onPrince of Egypt 
by Dorothy Clarke Wilson
Pillar of Fire 
by J.H. Ingraham
On Eagle's Wings 
by A.E. Southon
The Holy Scriptures
Narrated byCecil B. DeMille
StarringCharlton Heston
Yul Brynner
Anne Baxter
Edward G. Robinson
Yvonne De Carlo
Debra Paget
John Derek
Music byElmer Bernstein
CinematographyLoyal Griggs, A.S.C.
Editing byAnne Bauchens
StudioMotion Picture Associates
Distributed byParamount Pictures
Release dates
  • November 14, 1956 (1956-11-14) (Los Angeles premiere)
Running time220 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$13 million[1]
Box office$122.7 million[2]
(initial release)
 
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The Ten Commandments
10Command56.jpg
Original theatrical release poster
Directed byCecil B. DeMille
Produced byCecil B. DeMille
Henry Wilcoxon
(associate producer)
Screenplay byÆneas MacKenzie
Jesse L. Lasky, Jr.
Jack Gariss
Fredric M. Frank
Based onPrince of Egypt 
by Dorothy Clarke Wilson
Pillar of Fire 
by J.H. Ingraham
On Eagle's Wings 
by A.E. Southon
The Holy Scriptures
Narrated byCecil B. DeMille
StarringCharlton Heston
Yul Brynner
Anne Baxter
Edward G. Robinson
Yvonne De Carlo
Debra Paget
John Derek
Music byElmer Bernstein
CinematographyLoyal Griggs, A.S.C.
Editing byAnne Bauchens
StudioMotion Picture Associates
Distributed byParamount Pictures
Release dates
  • November 14, 1956 (1956-11-14) (Los Angeles premiere)
Running time220 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$13 million[1]
Box office$122.7 million[2]
(initial release)

The Ten Commandments is a 1956 American religious historical epic film produced and directed by Cecil B. DeMille, shot in VistaVision (color by Technicolor), and released by Paramount Pictures. It dramatizes the biblical story of the life of Moses, an adopted Egyptian prince who becomes the deliverer of his real brethren, the enslaved Hebrews, and therefore leads the Exodus to Mount Sinai, where he receives, from God, the Ten Commandments. It stars Charlton Heston in the lead role, Yul Brynner as Rameses, Anne Baxter as Nefretiri, Edward G. Robinson as Dathan, Yvonne De Carlo as Sephora, Debra Paget as Lilia, and John Derek as Joshua; and features Sir Cedric Hardwicke as Sethi, Nina Foch as Bithiah, Martha Scott as Yochabel, Judith Anderson as Memnet, and Vincent Price as Baka, among others.

Filmed on location in Egypt, Mount Sinai, and the Sinai Peninsula, the film is DeMille's last and most successful work.[3] It is a partial remake of his 1923 silent film of the same title, and features one of the largest sets ever created for a film.[3] At the time of its release on November 8, 1956, it was the most expensive film made up to that point.[3]

In 1957, the film was nominated for seven Academy Awards including Best Picture, winning the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects (John P. Fulton).[4] Charlton Heston was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Motion Picture (Drama) for his role as Moses.[4] Yul Brynner won the National Board of Review Award for Best Actor for his role as Rameses and his other roles in Anastasia and The King and I.[4] It is also one of the most financially successful films ever made, grossing approximately $122.7 million at the box office during its initial release; it was the most successful film of 1956 and the second-highest grossing film of the decade. According to Guinness World Records, in terms of theatrical exhibition it is the seventh most successful film of all-time when the box office gross is adjusted for inflation.

In 1999, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant." In June 2008, the American Film Institute revealed its "Ten Top Ten"—the best ten films in ten American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. The film was listed as the tenth best film in the epic genre.[5][6]

Plot[edit]

Pharaoh Rameses I of Egypt has ordered the death of all firstborn Hebrew males, but a Hebrew woman named Yochabel sets her infant son adrift on the Nile in order to save him. The infant is rescued from the Nile by Bithiah, the Pharaoh's daughter, who decides to adopt the boy even though her servant Memnet recognizes that the child is Hebrew and protests.

As a young man, Prince Moses becomes a successful general, claiming victory in a war with Ethiopia and then entering Egypt into an alliance with them. Moses loves Nefretiri, who is the throne princess and must marry the next Pharaoh. She is equally in love with him. An incident occurs when an elderly woman, who is greasing the ground for the pillar of stone to move easier, is almost crushed to death when her scarf gets caught under the slab of stone, prompting Moses to scold overseer Baka. Moses frees the elderly woman from her dangerous chore, not realizing that the elderly woman was his natural mother Yochabel. While working on the building of a treasure city for Pharaoh Sethi's jubilee, Moses meets the stonecutter Joshua, who tells him of the Hebrew God.

Moses institutes numerous reforms concerning the treatment of the slaves on the project, and eventually Prince Rameses II charges Moses with planning an insurrection, pointing out that the slaves are calling Moses the "Deliverer" of prophecy. Moses defends himself against the charges, arguing that he is simply making his workers more productive by making them stronger and happier and proves his point with the impressive progress he is making. During this time, Rameses has been charged by Sethi, his father, with finding out whether there really is a Hebrew fitting the description of the Deliverer.

Nefretiri learns from Memnet that Moses is the son of Hebrew slaves

Nefretiri learns from the servant Memnet that Moses is the son of Hebrew slaves. Nefretiri kills Memnet but reveals the story to Moses only after he finds the piece of Levite cloth he was wrapped in as a baby, which Memnet had kept. Moses goes to Bithiah to learn the truth. Bithiah evades his questions, but Moses follows her to the home of Yochabel and thus learns the truth.

Moses spends time working amongst the slaves to learn more of their lives. Nefertiri urges him to return to the palace, then he can help his people when he becomes pharaoh. During this time the master builder Baka steals Lilia, who is engaged to the stonecutter Joshua. Joshua rescues Lilia but is captured himself; Moses frees Joshua but strangles Baka. Moses confesses to Joshua that he too is Hebrew; the confession is witnessed by the ambitious Hebrew overseer Dathan. Dathan uses the information to bargain with Rameses for Baka's house, a post as Governor of Goshen, and the ownership of the slave Lilia.

Based on Dathan's information, Moses is arrested and brought before Sethi. Moses tells Sethi that he is not the Deliverer, but would free the slaves if he could. Bithiah tells her brother Sethi the truth about Moses, and Sethi reluctantly orders his name stricken from all records and monuments. Moses is banished to the desert, but not before he receives the word that Yochabel had died before she delivered the piece of Levite cloth. Rameses is declared the next Pharaoh.

Moses becomes a shepherd and marries Sephora in the land of Midian

Moses makes his way across the desert, nearly dying of hunger and thirst before he comes to a well in the land of Midian. At the well, he defends seven sisters from Amalekites who try to push them away from the water. Moses finds a home in Midian with the girls' father Jethro, a Bedouin sheik, who reveals that he is a follower of "He who has no name," whom Moses recognizes as the God of Abraham. Moses impresses Jethro and the other sheiks with his wise and just trading, and marries Jethro's eldest daughter Sephora (the Greek form of Zipporah used in the film).

While herding sheep in the desert Moses finds Joshua, who has escaped from the copper mines of Ezion-Geber that he was sent to after the death of Baka. Moses sees the burning bush on the summit of Mount Sinai and hears the voice of God. God charges Moses to return to Egypt and free His chosen people. In Egypt, Sethi dies, his last word being Moses's name. Rameses succeeds him as Pharaoh.

At Pharaoh's court, Moses comes before Rameses to win the slaves' freedom, turning his staff into a cobra to show Rameses the power of God. Rameses decrees that the Hebrews be given no straw to make their bricks, but to make the same tally as before on pain of death. As the Hebrews prepare to stone Moses in anger, Nefretiri's retinue rescues him; however when she attempts to resume their relationship he spurns her, reminding her that not only is he on a mission, but that he is also married.

As Moses continues to challenge Pharaoh's hold over his people, Egypt is beset by divine plagues. Moses warns him that the next plague to fall upon Egypt will be summoned by Pharaoh himself. Enraged at the plagues and Moses' continuous demands, as well as his generals and advisers telling him to give in, Rameses orders all first-born Hebrews to die. Nefretiri warns Sephora to escape with her son Gershom on a passing caravan to Midian, and Moses tells the Queen that it is her own son who will die. In an eerily quiet scene, the Angel of Death creeps into Egyptian streets in a glowing green cloud, killing all the firstborn of Egypt, including the adult son of Pharaoh's top general, and Pharaoh's own child. The Hebrews who have marked their doorposts and lintels with lamb's blood are eating a hasty meal and preparing to depart. Bithiah reunites with Moses and decides to go with him and his people when they leave. Broken and despondent, Pharaoh orders Moses to take his people, and cattle, and go. In the following day, the Pharaoh's soldiers force the Hebrews to gather up their possessions and leave their homes. Among the expellees is Dathan, who is denounced for his incompetence and forced out like all the others. The Hebrews, now homeless and uprooted, begin their exodus from Egypt.

Nefretiri goads Pharaoh into a rage so that he arms himself and pursues the former slaves to the shore of the Red Sea. Held back by a pillar of fire, the Egyptian forces watch as Moses parts the waters. As the Hebrews race over the seabed, the pillar of fire dies down and the army rides in hot pursuit. The Hebrews make it to the far shore as the waters close on the Egyptian army, drowning every man and horse. Rameses looks on in despair. All he can do is return to Nefretiri, confessing to her, "His god is God."

The former slaves camp at the foot of Sinai and wait as Moses again ascends the mountain. During his absence, the Hebrews lose faith and, urged on by the evil Dathan, build a golden calf as an idol to bear before them back to Egypt, hoping to win Rameses' forgiveness. They force Aaron to help fashion the gold plating. The people indulge their most wanton desires in an orgy of sinfulness, except for a few still loyal to Moses, including Sephora and Bithiah.

High atop the mountain, Moses witnesses God's creation of the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments. When Moses finally climbs down and meets Joshua, they both behold their people's iniquity. Moses hurls the tablets at the idol in a rage. The idol explodes, and Dathan and his followers are killed. After God forces them to endure forty years' exile in the desert wandering lost, to kill off the rebellious generation, the Hebrews are about to arrive in the land of Canaan. An elderly Moses, who is not allowed to enter the promised land, because of his disobedience, appoints Joshua to succeed him as leader, says a final good bye to Sephora, and goes forth to his destiny.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Writing[edit]

The final shooting script was written by Æneas MacKenzie, Jesse L. Lasky, Jr., Jack Gariss, and Fredric M. Frank.[7] It also contained material from the books Prince of Egypt by Dorothy Clarke Wilson, Pillar of Fire by Joseph Holt Ingraham, and On Eagle's Wings by Arthur Eustace Southon.[8] Henry Noerdlinger, the film's researcher, consulted ancient historical texts such as the Midrash Rabbah, the Quran, Philo's Life of Moses, and the writings of Josephus and Eusebius in order to "fill in" the missing years of Moses' life.[8]

The expression "the son of your body" for a biological offspring is based on inscriptions found in Mehu's tomb.[9]

Casting[edit]

Other well-known talent in the film's "cast of thousands" included Herb Alpert as a Hebrew drummer, Carl "Alfalfa" Switzer as a slave, Michael Ansara as an Egyptian taskmaster, Mike Connors as an Amalekite herder, Robert Vaughn as a spearman and a Hebrew, Clint Walker as a Sardinian captain, Mary Lou Cotterman as Ishara, one of Jethro's daughters, and DeMille himself as the film's narrator, all uncredited. For the original theatrical release, DeMille filmed an onscreen introduction, which was included in home video editions of the film but not the telecasts. In some of his earlier films, DeMille had provided narration, especially at the beginning of the film. This was the first of only two times he was seen as well as heard (the other was in the 1958 remake of The Buccaneer, in which he also provided an onscreen introduction). He also narrated portions of The Ten Commandments, to provide continuity between scenes, as he had in North West Mounted Police, Reap the Wild Wind, The Story of Dr. Wassell, Samson and Delilah, and The Greatest Show on Earth.

Heston, who previously worked for DeMille on The Greatest Show on Earth, won the part after he impressed DeMille (at an audition) with his knowledge of ancient Egypt. Interestingly enough, though Moses lived sometime in the New Kingdom, it was Old Kingdom Egyptian facts Heston spouted off at his audition that won him his legendary role.

Heston's newborn son, Fraser, appeared as the infant Moses. According to DVD commentary by Katherine Orrison (a protege and biographer of Henry Wilcoxon, who played Pentaur in the film and served as associate producer), DeMille deliberately timed the filming of his scenes for when Fraser Heston was about three months old. This, and other stories about the making of the film, were related to Orrison by Wilcoxon and his wife, Joan Woodbury. Orrison later wrote the book Written in Stone: Making Cecil B. DeMille's Epic, The Ten Commandments.

DeMille did not want to cast anyone who had appeared in the 1954 Michael Curtiz film The Egyptian, but did eventually hire Michael Ansara (who played the Hittite Commander), Mimi Gibson (who played Ankhsenpaaten), John Carradine (who had a cameo as a tomb robber), and Peter Coe (who played an Egyptian soldier in both films).

Art direction[edit]

The Ten Commandments (shortened version) written in 10th century BC characters, like on DeMille's tablets

Commentary for the film's DVD edition chronicles the historical research done by DeMille and associates. Katherine Orrison says that many details of Moses' life left out of the Bible are present in the Qur'an, which was sometimes used as a source. She also presents some coincidences in production. The man who designed Moses' distinctive rust-white-and-black-striped robe used those colors because they looked impressive, and only later discovered that these are the actual colors of the Tribe of Levi. Arnold Friberg would later state that he was the one who designed Moses' costume. As a gift, after the production, DeMille gave Moses' robe to Friberg, who had it in his possession until his death in 2010. Moses' robe as worn by Charlton Heston was hand-woven by Dorothea Hulse, one of the world's finest weavers. She also created costumes for The Robe, as well as textiles and costume fabrics for Samson and Delilah, David and Bathsheba, and others.

Jesse Lasky Jr., a co-writer on The Ten Commandments, described how DeMille would customarily spread out prints of paintings by Lawrence Alma-Tadema to inform his set designers on the look he wanted to achieve. Arnold Friberg, in addition to designing sets and costumes, also contributed the manner in which Moses ordained Joshua to his mission at the end of the film: by the laying on of hands, placing his hands on Joshua's head. Friberg, a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, demonstrated the LDS manner of performing such ordinations, and DeMille liked it.

Pharaoh is usually shown wearing the red-and-white crown of Upper and Lower Egypt or the nemes royal headdress. For his pursuit of the Israelites, he wears the blue Khepresh helmet-crown, which the Pharaohs wore for battle.

Sets, costumes and props from the film The Egyptian were bought and re-used for "The Ten Commandments". As the events in The Egyptian take place 70 years before the reign of Rameses II, an unintentional sense of continuity was created.

An Egyptian wall painting was also the source for the lively dance performed by a circle of young women at Seti's birthday gala. Their movements and costumes are based on art from the Tomb of the Sixth Dynasty Grand Vizier Mehu.[10]

Katherine Orrison, who gives the audio commentary for the film's DVD edition, states that all blue-eyed actors had to wear brown contact lenses to achieve the Middle-eastern look appropriate for Egyptians and Israelites. Some of the film's cast such as Anne Baxter, Debra Paget, John Derek, and Nina Foch wore contact lenses to hide their blue eyes, although they complained about the inability to see while wearing them. When Yvonne De Carlo was cast as Sephora, she was worried about having to wear these contact lenses; she also believed that her "gray-hued" blue-eyes were her best feature. She asked DeMille to make an exception for her. He agreed, expressing the idea that De Carlo's role was special, and that Moses was to fall in love with her. De Carlo was "tremendously relieved," as Orrison stated.

Release[edit]

The Ten Commandments premiered at New York City's Criterion Theatre on November 8, 1956.[11] Among those who attended the premiere were Cecil B. DeMille and his daughter Cecilia DeMille Harper, Charlton Heston and his wife Lydia Clarke, Yul Brynner, Anne Baxter, Edward G. Robinson, Yvonne De Carlo and her husband Bob Morgan, Martha Scott and her husband and son, John Wayne and his wife Pilar Pallete, Tony Curtis, Janet Leigh, and Barney Balaban. It played on a roadshow basis with reserved seating until mid-1958, when it finally entered general release.[12] It was re-released in 1966 and 1972, and one more time in 1990 with a restored print.[13]

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

The Ten Commandments was the highest-grossing film of 1956 and the second most successful film of the decade. By April 1957, the film had earned an unprecedented $10 million from engagements at just eighty theaters, averaging about $1 million per week, with more than seven million people paying to watch it.[12] During its initial release, it earned theater rentals (the distributor's share of the box office gross) of $31.3 million in North America and $23.9 from the foreign markets, for a total of $55.2 million (equating to approximately $122.7 million in ticket sales).[2] It was hugely profitable for its era, earning a net profit of $18,500,000,[14] against a production budget of $13.27 million (the most a film had cost up to that point).[1]

By the time of its withdrawal from distribution at the end of 1960, The Ten Commandments had overtaken Gone with the Wind at the box office in the North American territory,[15] and mounted a serious challenge in the global market—the worldwide takings for Gone with the Wind were reported to stand at $59 million at the time.[16] Gone with the Wind would be re-released the following year as part of the American Civil War Centennial, and reasserted its supremacy at the box office by reclaiming the US record.[15] Also at this time, Ben-Hur—another biblical epic starring Charlton Heston released at the end of 1959—would go on to eclipse The Ten Commandments at the box office.[2][17] A 1966 reissue earned $6,000,000,[18] and further re-releases brought the total American theater rentals to $43 million,[19] equivalent to gross ticket sales of $89 million at the box office.[13] Globally, it ultimately collected $90,066,230 in revenues up to 1979.[20]

It remains one of the most popular films ever made. Adjusted for inflation, it has earned a box office gross equivalent to $2 billion at 2011 prices, according to Guinness World Records; only Gone with the Wind (1939), Avatar (2009), Star Wars (1977), Titanic (1997), The Sound of Music (1965) and E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982) have generated higher grosses in constant dollars.[21]

Critical response[edit]

The Ten Commandments received generally positive reviews after its release, although some reviewers noted its divergence from the biblical text. Bosley Crowther for The New York Times was among those who lauded DeMille's work, acknowledging that "in its remarkable settings and décor, including an overwhelming facade of the Egyptian city from which the Exodus begins, and in the glowing Technicolor in which the picture is filmed—Mr. DeMille has worked photographic wonders."[22] Variety described the "scenes of the greatness that was Egypt, and Hebrews by the thousands under the whip of the taskmasters" as "striking," and believed that the film "hits the peak of beauty with a sequence that is unelaborate, this being the Passover supper wherein Moses is shown with his family while the shadow of death falls on Egyptian first-borns."[23]

The film's cast was also complimented. Variety called Charlton Heston an "adaptable performer" who, as Moses, reveals "inner glow as he is called by God to remove the chains of slavery that hold his people."[23] It considered Yul Brynner "expert" as Rameses, too.[23] Anne Baxter's performance as Nefretiri was criticized by Variety as leaning "close to old-school siren histrionics,"[23] but Crowther believed that it, along with Brynner's, is "unquestionably apt and complementary to a lusty and melodramatic romance."[22] The performances of Yvonne De Carlo and John Derek were acclaimed by Crowther as "notably good."[22] He also commended the film's "large cast of characters" as "very good, from Sir Cedric Hardwicke as a droll and urbane Pharaoh to Edward G. Robinson as a treacherous overlord."[22]

Leonard Maltin, another film critic, has described the film as "vivid storytelling at its best... parting of the Red Sea, writing of the holy tablets are unforgettable highlights."[24]

Rotten Tomatoes retrospectively collected 32 reviews and gave the film a rating of 91%, with the site's consensus stating: "Bombastic and occasionally silly but extravagantly entertaining, Cecil B. DeMille's all-star spectacular is a muscular retelling of the great Bible story."[25]

Accolades[edit]

The film won the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects. DeMille was reluctant to discuss technical details of how the film was made, especially the optical tricks used in the parting of the Red Sea. It was eventually revealed that footage of the Red Sea was spliced with film footage (run in reverse) of water pouring from large U-shaped trip-tanks set up in the studio back lot.[26][27][28]

AwardCategoryNameOutcome
Academy Awards[29]Art Direction (Color)Art direction: Hal Pereira, Walter H. Tyler, Albert Nozaki Set decoration: Sam Comer, Ray MoyerNominated
Cinematography (Color)Loyal GriggsNominated
Costume Design (Color)Edith Head, Ralph Jester, John Jensen, Dorothy Jeakins, Arnold FribergNominated
Film EditingAnne BauchensNominated
Best Motion PictureCecil B. DeMille (producer)Nominated
Sound RecordingParamount Studio Sound Department, Loren L. Ryder (sound director)Nominated
Special EffectsJohn P. FultonWon
Boxoffice Magazine[30]Blue Ribbon Award for the Best Picture of the Month
(January 1957)
Cecil B. DeMilleWon
The Christian Herald[31]Reader's Award for the 1957 Picture of the YearCecil B. DeMilleWon
The Film Daily Magazine[31]Ten Best Pictures of 1956Paramount PicturesWon
Fotograma de Plata Awards[32]Best Foreign Performer (Mejor intérprete de cine extranjero)Charlton HestonWon
Golden Globe Awards[33]Best Performance by an Actor in a Motion Picture - DramaCharlton HestonNominated
Laurel Awards[31]Top Producer-DirectorCecil B. DeMilleWon
Los Angeles Examiner[31]Los Angeles Examiner AwardCecil B. DeMilleWon
National Board of Review of Motion Pictures[34]Best ActorYul Brynner (also for Anastasia and The King and I)Won
National Film Preservation Board[35]National Film RegistryWon
Photoplay Magazine[31]The Photoplay Achievement AwardCecil B. DeMilleWon

Popularity[edit]

Critics have argued that considerable liberties were taken with the biblical story of Exodus, compromising the film's claim to authenticity, but neither this nor its nearly four-hour length has had any effect on its popularity. In fact, many of the supposed "inaccuracies" were actually adopted by DeMille from extra-biblical ancient sources, such as Josephus, the Sepher ha-Yashar, and the Chronicle of Moses. Moses's career in Ethiopia, for instance, is based on ancient midrashim.[36] For decades, a showing of The Ten Commandments was a popular fundraiser among revivalist Christian Churches, while the film was equally treasured by film buffs for DeMille's "cast of thousands" approach and the heroic but antiquated early-talkie-type acting.

Home media[edit]

The artist's rendering of Charlton Heston as Moses was bulked up to modern physique standards when the DVD was released

The Ten Commandments has been released on DVD in the United States on four occasions: The First Edition was released on March 30, 1999 as a two disc set, the Second Edition was released on March 9, 2004 as a two disc set (Special Collector's Edition) with commentary by Katherine Orrison, the Third Edition was released on March 21, 2006 as a three disc set (50th Anniversary Collection). The film was released on DVD again in a two-disc set on March 29, 2011 and for the first time on Blu-ray in a two-disc set and a six-disc gift set with the 1923 version and DVD copies.[37]

Television broadcast[edit]

The film has been broadcast annually on the ABC network since 1973, traditionally during the Easter holiday, as well as Passover. Like the commercial network telecasts of Ben-Hur, the lengthy film is always shown in one evening instead of being split up into two, making it pre-empt the entire network schedule between 7:00 pm and midnight/ET-PT on the nights that it is shown, although local affiliates have the right to tape delay the showing an hour ahead to 8 pm ET/PT to keep their schedules in line for early evening. The film is shown the Saturday before Easter as part of the ABC Saturday Night Movie lineup. In 2010, the film was broadcast in HDTV for the first time, which allowed the television audience to see it in its original VistaVision aspect ratio.

Ratings by year (between 2007 and 2013)
YearAirdateRatingShareRating/Share
(18–49)
Viewers
(millions)
Rank
(timeslot)
Rank
(night)
2007April 7, 2007TBATBATBA7.87TBATBA
2008March 22, 20084.792.3/77.9111
2009April 11, 20094.281.7/66.8111
2010[38]April 3, 2010TBATBA1.4/55.8823
2011[39]April 23, 2011TBATBA1.6/57.0511
2012[40]April 7, 2012TBATBA1.6/56.90TBATBA
2013[41]March 30, 2013TBATBA1.2/45.9022

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Reported budgets:
  2. ^ a b c Block & Wilson 2010, p. 327.
  3. ^ a b c "Life Magazine - Nov 12, 1956, pg. 115.". Life. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c "Internet Movie Database – Awards for The Ten Commandments (1956)". Retrieved November 17, 2011. 
  5. ^ American Film Institute (June 17, 2008). "AFI Crowns Top 10 Films in 10 Classic Genres". ComingSoon.net. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  6. ^ "Top 10 Epic". American Film Institute. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  7. ^ Orrison 1999, p. 36.
  8. ^ a b Eyman 2010, p. 440.
  9. ^ The Tomb of Mehu at Saqqara in Egypt
  10. ^ Party Time in Ancient Egypt
  11. ^ Eyman, Scott (2010). Empire of Dreams: The Epic Life of Cecil B. DeMille. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 1439180415. 
  12. ^ a b "The Ten Commandments (1956) – Notes". TCM database. Turner Broadcasting System. Retrieved October 2, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b Block & Wilson 2010, p. 392.
  14. ^ Steinberg, Cobbett (1980). Film Facts. New York: Facts on File, Inc. p. 23. ISBN 0-87196-313-2. 
  15. ^ a b Hall & Neale 2010, pp. 160–161.
  16. ^ Oviatt, Ray (April 16, 1961). "The Memory Isn't Gone With The Wind". Toledo Blade. p. 67–68. 
  17. ^ Block & Wilson 2010, p. 324.
  18. ^ Holston, Kim R. (2012). Movie Roadshows: A History and Filmography of Reserved-Seat Limited Showings, 1911-1973. McFarland. ISBN 0786460628. 
  19. ^ Stempel, Tom (2001). American Audiences on Movies and Moviegoing. University Press of Kentucky. p. 24. ISBN 9780813121833. 
  20. ^ Birchard 2004, ch. 70. The Ten Commandments.
  21. ^ Glenday, Craig, ed. (2011). Гиннесс. Мировые рекорды 2012 [Guinness World Records 2012] (in Russian, translated by Andrianov, P.I. & Palova, I.V.). Moscow: Astrel. p. 211. ISBN 978-5-271-36423-5. 
  22. ^ a b c d Crowther, Bosley. New York Times Film Reviews: Best Picture Picks from the 1950s. The New York Times Company. ISBN 1625395590. 
  23. ^ a b c d "Review: "The Ten Commandments"". Variety. Retrieved 11 September 2013. 
  24. ^ Maltin, Leonard (2009). Leonard Maltin's 2010 Movie Guide. Penguin. ISBN 1101108762. 
  25. ^ The Ten Commandments at Rotten Tomatoes
  26. ^ Den of Geek. "Top 50 Movie Special Effects Shots". Retrieved January 2, 2009. 
  27. ^ PBS. "NOVA Online/Special Effects/All About Special Effects/Trivia Quiz (Answers)". Retrieved January 2, 2009. 
  28. ^ "The Parting Of The Red Sea". The Art & Science of Movie Special Effects. Retrieved 29 September 2013. 
  29. ^ "The 29th Academy Awards (1957) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved August 21, 2011. 
  30. ^ "Boxoffice Magazine - February 16, 1957, pg. 26.". Boxoffice. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  31. ^ a b c d e "Register of the Cecil B. DeMille Photographs, ca. 1900s-1950s, 1881-1959". Brigham Young University. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  32. ^ "Palmarés década 50 - Fotogramas de Plata". fotogramas.es. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  33. ^ "The Ten Commandments (1 nomination)". goldenglobes.org. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  34. ^ "National Board of Review of Motion Pictures - Awards - Best Actor". nbrmp.org. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  35. ^ "National Film Registry (National Film Preservation Board, Library of Congress)". loc.gov. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  36. ^ L. Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews, Philadelphia 1967; A. Shinan, "Moses and the Ethiopian Woman: Sources of a Story in The Chronicle of Moses", Scripta Hierosolymitana 27 (1978).
  37. ^ Tom Woodward (January 12, 2011). "Paramount has revealed official details on the 1956 Charlton Hestone movie". DVD Active. Retrieved January 12, 2011. 
  38. ^ Robert Seidman (April 4, 2010). "TV Ratings: Duke Blows Past West Virginia, Moses". TVbytheNumbers. 
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  40. ^ Berman, Marc. "The Ten Commandments Lifts ABC to Saturday Victory". TV Media Insights. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  41. ^ "TV Ratings Saturday: NCAA Basketball Easily Wins Pre-Easter Saturday". http://tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com. March 31, 2013. Retrieved March 31, 2013. 

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