The Star-Spangled Banner

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The Star Spangled Banner
Defence of Fort M'Henry broadside.jpg
One of two surviving copies of the 1814 broadside printing of the "Defence of Fort McHenry", a poem that later became the lyrics of the national anthem of the United States.

National anthem of
 United States of America

LyricsFrancis Scott Key, 1814
MusicJohn Stafford Smith, 1780
Adopted1931
Music sample
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The Star Spangled Banner
Defence of Fort M'Henry broadside.jpg
One of two surviving copies of the 1814 broadside printing of the "Defence of Fort McHenry", a poem that later became the lyrics of the national anthem of the United States.

National anthem of
 United States of America

LyricsFrancis Scott Key, 1814
MusicJohn Stafford Smith, 1780
Adopted1931
Music sample
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You can download the clip or download a player to play the clip in your browser.

"The Star-Spangled Banner" is the national anthem of the United States of America. The lyrics come from "Defence of Fort McHenry",[1] a poem written in 1814 by the 35-year-old lawyer and amateur poet, Francis Scott Key, after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British Royal Navy ships in Chesapeake Bay during the Battle of Fort McHenry in the War of 1812.

The poem was set to the tune of a popular British song written by John Stafford Smith for the Anacreontic Society, a men's social club in London. "The Anacreontic Song" (or "To Anacreon in Heaven"), with various lyrics, was already popular in the United States. Set to Key's poem and renamed "The Star-Spangled Banner", it would soon become a well-known American patriotic song. With a range (tessitura) of one and a half octaves, it is known for being difficult to sing. Although the poem has four stanzas, only the first is commonly sung today.

"The Star-Spangled Banner" was recognized for official use by the Navy in 1889, and by President Woodrow Wilson in 1916, and was made the national anthem by a congressional resolution on March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1508, codified at 36 U.S.C. § 301), which was signed by President Herbert Hoover.

Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom. "Hail, Columbia" served this purpose at official functions for most of the 19th century. "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", whose melody is identical to "God Save the Queen", the British national anthem,[2] also served as a de facto anthem.[3] Following the War of 1812 and subsequent American wars, other songs would emerge to compete for popularity at public events, among them "The Star-Spangled Banner".

Contents

Early history

Francis Scott Key's lyrics

Francis Scott Key's original manuscript copy of his "Star-Spangled Banner" poem. It is now on display at the Maryland Historical Society.

On September 3, 1814, following the Burning of Washington and the Raid on Alexandria, Francis Scott Key and John Stuart Skinner set sail from Baltimore aboard the ship HMS Minden, flying a flag of truce on a mission approved by President James Madison. Their objective was to secure the exchange of prisoners, one of whom was Dr. William Beanes, the elderly and popular town physician of Upper Marlboro and a friend of Key's who had been captured in his home. Beanes was accused of aiding the arrest of British soldiers. Key and Skinner boarded the British flagship HMS Tonnant on September 7 and spoke with Major General Robert Ross and Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane over dinner while the two officers discussed war plans. At first, Ross and Cochrane refused to release Beanes, but relented after Key and Skinner showed them letters written by wounded British prisoners praising Beanes and other Americans for their kind treatment.

Because Key and Skinner had heard details of the plans for the attack on Baltimore, they were held captive until after the battle, first aboard HMS Surprise and later back on HMS Minden. After the bombardment, certain British gunboats attempted to slip past the fort and effect a landing in a cove to the west of it, but they were turned away by fire from nearby Fort Covington, the city's last line of defense.

An artist's rendering of the battle at Fort McHenry

During the rainy night, Key had witnessed the bombardment and observed that the fort's smaller "storm flag" continued to fly, but once the shell and Congreve rocket[4] barrage had stopped, he would not know how the battle had turned out until dawn. By then, the storm flag had been lowered and the larger flag had been raised.

During the bombardment, HMS Erebus provided the "rockets' red glare". HMS Meteor provided at least some of the "bombs bursting in air".

The 15-star, 15-stripe "Star Spangled Banner Flag" which inspired the poem.

Key was inspired by the American victory and the sight of the large American flag flying triumphantly above the fort. This flag, with fifteen stars and fifteen stripes, came to be known as the Star Spangled Banner Flag and is today on display in the National Museum of American History, a treasure of the Smithsonian Institution. It was restored in 1914 by Amelia Fowler, and again in 1998 as part of an ongoing conservation program.

Aboard the ship the next day, Key wrote a poem on the back of a letter he had kept in his pocket. At twilight on September 16, he and Skinner were released in Baltimore. He completed the poem at the Indian Queen Hotel, where he was staying, and entitled it "Defence of Fort McHenry".

Much of the idea of the poem, including the flag imagery and some of the wording, is derived from an earlier song by Key, also set to the tune of The Anacreontic Song. The song, known as "When the Warrior Returns",[5] written in honor of Stephen Decatur and Charles Stewart on their return from the First Barbary War.

According to the historian Robin Blackburn, the words "the hireling and slave" allude to the fact that the British attackers had many ex-slaves in their ranks, who had been promised liberty and demanded to be placed in the battle line "where they might expect to meet their former masters".[6]

John Stafford Smith's music

Sheet music version About this sound Play

Key gave the poem to his brother-in-law, Judge Joseph H. Nicholson, who saw that the words fit the popular melody "The Anacreontic Song", by English composer John Stafford Smith. This was the official song of the Anacreontic Society, an 18th-century gentlemen's club of amateur musicians in London. Nicholson took the poem to a printer in Baltimore, who anonymously made the first known broadside printing on September 17; of these, two known copies survive.

On September 20, both the Baltimore Patriot and The American printed the song, with the note "Tune: Anacreon in Heaven". The song quickly became popular, with seventeen newspapers from Georgia to New Hampshire printing it. Soon after, Thomas Carr of the Carr Music Store in Baltimore published the words and music together under the title "The Star-Spangled Banner", although it was originally called "Defence of Fort McHenry". The song's popularity increased, and its first public performance took place in October, when Baltimore actor Ferdinand Durang sang it at Captain McCauley's tavern. Washington Irving, then editor of The Analectic Magazine in Philadelphia, reprinted the song in November 1814.

By the early 20th century, there were various versions of the song in popular use. Seeking a singular, standard version, President Woodrow Wilson tasked the U.S. Bureau of Education with providing that official version. In response, the Bureau enlisted the help of five musicians to agree upon an arrangement. Those musicians were: Walter Damrosch, William Earhart, Arnold J. Gantvoort, Oscar George Sonneck and John Philip Sousa. The standardized version that was voted upon by these five musicians premiered at Carnegie Hall on December 5, 1917 in a program that included Edward Elgar's Carillon and Gabriel Pierné's The Children's Crusade. The concert was put on by the Oratorio Society of New York and conducted by Walter Damrosch.[7] An official handwritten version of the final votes of these five men has been found and shows all five men's votes tallied, measure by measure.[8]

The Italian opera composer Giacomo Puccini used an extract of melody to write the aria "Ovunque al mondo... ", in 1904 for his work Madama Butterfly.

National anthem

Commemorative plaque in Washington, D.C. marking the site at 601 Pennsylvania Avenue where "The Star-Spangled Banner" was first publicly sung

The song gained popularity throughout the 19th century and bands played it during public events, such as July 4th celebrations. On July 27, 1889, Secretary of the Navy Benjamin F. Tracy signed General Order #374, making "The Star-Spangled Banner" the official tune to be played at the raising of the flag.

In 1916, President Woodrow Wilson ordered that "The Star-Spangled Banner" be played at military and other appropriate occasions. The playing of the song two years later during the seventh-inning stretch of the 1918 World Series, and thereafter during each game of the series is often noted as the first instance that the anthem was played at a baseball game,[9] though evidence shows that the "Star-Spangled Banner" was performed as early as 1897 at opening day ceremonies in Philadelphia and then more regularly at the Polo Grounds in New York City beginning in 1898. In any case, the tradition of performing the national anthem before every baseball game began in World War II.[10] Today, the anthem is performed before the beginning of all MLS, NBA, NFL, MLB and NHL games (when at least one American team is playing), as well as in a pre-race ceremony portion of every NASCAR and AMA motocross race.

On November 3, 1929, Robert Ripley drew a panel in his syndicated cartoon, Ripley's Believe it or Not!, saying "Believe It or Not, America has no national anthem".[11] In 1931, John Philip Sousa published his opinion in favor, stating that "it is the spirit of the music that inspires" as much as it is Key's "soul-stirring" words. By a law signed on March 3, 1931 by President Herbert Hoover, "The Star-Spangled Banner" was adopted as the national anthem of the United States of America.

Lyrics

O say can you see by the dawn's early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming?
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O say does that star-spangled banner yet wave,
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

On the shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In full glory reflected now shines in the stream:
'Tis the star-spangled banner, O! long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,
A home and a country, should leave us no more?
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave,
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

O thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved home and the war's desolation.
Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the Heav'n rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation!
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: "In God is our trust."
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave![12]

Cover of sheet music for "The Star-Spangled Banner", transcribed for piano by Ch. Voss, Philadelphia: G. Andre & Co., 1862

Additional Civil War period lyrics

In indignation over the start of the American Civil War, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.[13] added a fifth stanza to the song in 1861 which appeared in songbooks of the era.[14]

When our land is illumined with liberty's smile,
If a foe from within strikes a blow at her glory,
Down, down with the traitor that tries to defile
The flag of the stars, and the page of her story!
By the millions unchained,
Who their birthright have gained
We will keep her bright blazon forever unstained;
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave,
While the land of the free is the home of the brave.

Alternative lyrics

In a version hand-written by Francis Scott Key in 1840, the third line reads "Whose bright stars and broad stripes, through the clouds of the fight".[15]

Modern history

Performances

Crowd performing the US national anthem before a baseball game at Coors Field.

The song is notoriously difficult for nonprofessionals to sing, because of its wide range – a 12th. Humorist Richard Armour referred to the song's difficulty in his book It All Started With Columbus.

In an attempt to take Baltimore, the British attacked Fort McHenry, which protected the harbor. Bombs were soon bursting in air, rockets were glaring, and all in all it was a moment of great historical interest. During the bombardment, a young lawyer named Francis Off Key [sic] wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner", and when, by the dawn's early light, the British heard it sung, they fled in terror
—Richard Armour

Professional and amateur singers have been known to forget the words, which is one reason the song is sometimes pre-recorded and lip-synced.[citation needed] Other times the issue is avoided by having the performer(s) play the anthem instrumentally instead of singing it. Such situations have been lampooned in film (see below). The pre-recording of the anthem has become standard practice at some ballparks, such as Boston's Fenway Park, according to the SABR publication The Fenway Project.[16] For instance, pop singer Christina Aguilera performed the wrong lyrics to the song prior to Super Bowl XLV, replacing the song's fourth line, "o'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming", with an alteration of the second line, "what so proudly we watched at the twilight's last gleaming".[17]

"The Star-Spangled Banner" is traditionally played at the beginning of public sports events and orchestral concerts in the United States, as well as other public gatherings. Performances at particularly large events are often ended with a military flypast. The NHL requires arenas in both the U.S. and Canada to perform both the Canadian and American national anthems at games that involve teams from both countries,[18][better source needed] and it is usual for both American and Canadian anthems to be played at Major League Baseball and National Basketball Association games involving the Toronto Blue Jays and the Toronto Raptors, the only Canadian MLB and NBA teams, respectively.

At sporting events in Baltimore, the line "O say does that Star Spangled Banner yet wave" is preceded by the crowd yelling "O!" in homage to the Baltimore Orioles, who are nicknamed "The O's."[citation needed] At sporting events in Dallas-Fort Worth, the lines "Whose broad stripes and bright stars" and "O say does that star" are followed by the crowd shouting "Stars!" in homage to the Dallas Stars.[citation needed] However, at San Jose Sharks home games versus the Dallas Stars, fans are known to boo at the two occurences of the word "star" in the song.[19][better source needed] At sporting events in Houston, the first three words of the line "And the rockets' red glare" are followed by the crowd shouting "Rockets" in homage to the Houston Rockets.[citation needed] At sporting events in Atlanta, the final word is pluralized in homage to the Atlanta Braves. Also, UCF Knights fans yell "Knights" when the line "Gave proof through the night..." is sung.[citation needed]. Fans at Arrowhead Stadium in Kansas City yell "home of the CHIEFS" in place of the anthem's final line.[20]

One especially unusual performance of the song took place on September 12, 2001, after the United States September 11 attacks: Queen Elizabeth II broke with tradition and allowed the Band of the Coldstream Guards to perform the American national anthem at Buckingham Palace, London at the ceremonial Changing of the Guard, as a gesture of support for Britain's ally.[21]

Adaptations

O'er the ramparts we watch in a 1945 United States Army Air Forces poster

The first popular music performance of the anthem heard by mainstream America was by Puerto Rican singer and guitarist Jose Feliciano. He shocked some people in the crowd at Tiger Stadium in Detroit and some Americans when he strummed a slow, bluesy rendition of the national anthem before game five of the 1968 World Series between Detroit and St. Louis. This rendition started contemporary "Star-Spangled Banner" controversies. The response from many in Vietnam-era America was generally negative, given that 1968 was a tumultuous year for the United States. Despite the controversy, Feliciano's performance opened the door for the countless interpretations of the "Star-Spangled Banner" heard today.[22] One week after Feliciano's performance, the anthem was in the news again when American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos lifted controversial raised-fists at the 1968 Olympics while the "Star-Spangled Banner" played at a medal ceremony.

Marvin Gaye gave a soul-influenced performance at the 1983 NBA All-Star Game and Whitney Houston gave a soulful rendition before Super Bowl XXV in 1991, which was released as a single that charted at number 20 in 1991 and number 6 in 2001 (the only times the anthem has been on the Billboard Hot 100). Another famous instrumental interpretation is Jimi Hendrix's version which was a set-list staple from autumn 1968 until his death in September 1970, including a famous rendition at the Woodstock music festival in 1969. Incorporating sonic effects to emphasize the "rockets' red glare", and "bombs bursting in air", it became a late-1960s emblem. Roseanne Barr gave a controversial performance of the anthem at a San Diego Padres baseball game at Jack Murphy Stadium on July 25, 1990. The comedienne belted out a screechy rendition of the song, and afterward she attempted a gesture of ball players by spitting and grabbing her crotch as if adjusting a protective cup. The performance offended some, including the sitting U.S. President.[23] Sufjan Stevens has frequently performed the "Star-Spangled Banner" in live sets, replacing the optimism in the end of the first verse with a new coda which alludes to the divisive state of the nation today.

In March 2005, a government-sponsored program, the National Anthem Project, was launched after a Harris Interactive poll showed many adults knew neither the lyrics nor the history of the anthem.[24]

References in film, television, literature

Several films have their titles taken from the song lyrics. These include two films entitled Dawn's Early Light (2000[25] and 2005);[26] two made-for-TV features entitled By Dawn's Early Light (1990[27] and 2000);[28] two films entitled So Proudly We Hail (1943[29] and 1990);[30] a feature (1977)[31] and a short (2005)[32] entitled Twilight's Last Gleaming; and four films entitled Home of the Brave (1949,[33] 1986,[34] 2004[35] and 2006).[36]

The Isaac Asimov short story "No Refuge Could Save" takes its title from a line in the third stanza. In the story, the protagonist notes that he once ferreted out a German spy during World War II because of the spy's knowledge of the third verse, which is virtually unknown by Americans.

Ken Burns' documentary Baseball consists of 9 "innings", each of which begins with a rendition of the Star-Spangled Banner that is historically appropriate for the period covered in that episode of the series.

The television series Victorious has an episode titled "Star-Spangled Tori" where Tori sings the song before the start of a basketball game, with hilarious results.

In the Simpsons episode, "Bart vs. Lisa vs. the Third Grade", Bart makes a short soliloquy foreshadowing his sabotage of the state flag project that Lisa made as part of a class project for the state governor by saying that when he gets through with it, it's going to be a "Bart-Mangled Banner".

Custom

Plaque detailing how the custom of standing during the Anthem came about in Tacoma, Washington, on October 18, 1893, in the Bostwick building

United States Code, 36 U.S.C. § 301, states that during a rendition of the national anthem, when the flag is displayed, all present except those in uniform should stand at attention facing the flag with the right hand over the heart; Members of the Armed Forces and veterans who are present and not in uniform may render the military salute; men not in uniform should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold the headdress at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart; and individuals in uniform should give the military salute at the first note of the anthem and maintain that position until the last note; and when the flag is not displayed, all present should face toward the music and act in the same manner they would if the flag were displayed. Military law requires all vehicles on the installation to stop when the song is played and all individuals outside to stand at attention and face the direction of the music and either salute, in uniform, or place the right hand over the heart, if out of uniform. Recently enacted law in 2008 allows military veterans to salute out of uniform, as well.[37][38]

However, this statutory suggestion does not have any penalty associated with violations. 36 U.S.C. § 301 This behavioral requirement for the national anthem is subject to the same First Amendment controversies that surround the Pledge of Allegiance.[39] For example, Jehovah's Witnesses do not stand for or sing the national anthem.[40][41][42]

Translations

As a result of immigration to the United States, as well as the incorporation of non-English speaking people into the country, the lyrics of the song have been translated into other languages. In 1861, it was translated into German.[43] The Library of Congress also has record of a Spanish-language version from 1919.[44] It has since been translated into Hebrew[45] and Yiddish by Jewish immigrants,[46] Latin American Spanish (with one version popularized during immigration reform protests in 2006),[47] French by Acadians of Louisiana,[48] Samoan,[49] and Irish.[50] The third verse of the anthem has also been translated into Latin.[51]

With regard to the indigenous languages of North America, there are versions in Navajo[52][53][54] and Cherokee.[55]

Media

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(1944)
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(1940)


See also


References

  1. ^ "The Star-Spangled Banner and the War of 1812". Encyclopedia Smithsonian. http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmah/starflag.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
  2. ^ "My country 'tis of thee [Song Collection"]. The Library of Congress. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/loc.natlib.ihas.200000012/default.html. Retrieved 2009-01-20.
  3. ^ Snyder, Lois Leo (1990). Encyclopedia of Nationalism. Paragon House. p. 13. ISBN 1-55778-167-2.
  4. ^ British Rockets at the US National Parks Service, Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine. Retrieved February 2008.
  5. ^ "When the Warrior Returns". http://www.potw.org/archive/potw340.html.
  6. ^ Blackburn, Robin (1988). The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776–1848. pp. 288–290.
  7. ^ The Star Spangled Banner: Part of the History of The Oratorio Society of New York [1] by the Oratorio Society of New York
  8. ^ Standardization Manuscript for The Star Spangled Banner [2] on Antiques Roadshow (U.S.).
  9. ^ "Cubs vs Red Sox 1918 World Series: A Tradition is Born". http://baseballisms.com/cubs-vs-red-sox-1918-world-series-a-tradition-is-born.html.
  10. ^ "Musical traditions in sports". CNN. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/multimedia/photo_gallery/0711/music.traditions.sports/content.3.html.
  11. ^ Bizarre Magazine Robert L. Ripley[dead link]. Published February 2006.
  12. ^ Francis Scott Key, The Star Spangled Banner (lyrics), 1814, MENC: The National Association for Music Education National Anthem Project. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  13. ^ Butterworth, Hezekiah; Brown, Theron (1906). The Story of the Hymns and Tunes. George H. Doran Co.. p. 335. http://books.google.com/?id=yL0MAAAAIAAJ&dq=%22When+our+land+is+illumined+with+liberty's+smile%22
  14. ^ The soldier's companion: dedicated ... – Google Books. Books.google.com. 1865. http://books.google.com/?id=9EE3pSozSX4C&pg=PA19&dq=When+our+land+is+illumined+with+liberty%27s+smile&q=When%20our%20land%20is%20illumined%20with%20liberty%27s%20smile. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  15. ^ "Library of Congress image". http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/images/uc05112x.jpg. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  16. ^ "The Fenway Project – Part One". Red Sox Connection. May 2004. http://www.redsoxconnection.com/fenwayproject.html.
  17. ^ "Aguilera flubs national anthem at Super Bowl". CNN. 2011-02-06. http://news.blogs.cnn.com/2011/02/06/aguilera-flubs-national-anthem-at-super-bowl/?hpt=C2.
  18. ^ Allen, Kevin (2003-03-23). "NHL Seeks to Stop Booing For a Song". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/hockey/nhl/2003-03-23-anthem-booing_x.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-29.
  19. ^ http://www.wikihow.com/Be-a-San-Jose-Sharks-Fan
  20. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_City_Chiefs#Fan_base
  21. ^ Graves, David (14 September 2001) Palace breaks with tradition in musical tribute The Telegraph. Retrieved August 24, 2011
  22. ^ Jose Feliciano Personal account about the anthem performance
  23. ^ Letofsky, Irv (July 28, 1990). "Roseanne Is Sorry – but Not That Sorry". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1990-07-28/local/me-537_1_roseanne-barr. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
  24. ^ "Harris Interactive poll on "The Star-Spangled Banner"". Tnap.org. http://www.tnap.org/factsheet.html. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  25. ^ Dawn's Early Light (2000) on the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  26. ^ Dawn's Early Light (2005) on the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  27. ^ Dawn's Early Light TV (1990) on the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  28. ^ Dawn's Early Light TV (2000) on the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  29. ^ So Proudly We Hail (1943) on the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  30. ^ So Proudly We Hail (1990) on the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  31. ^ Twilight's Last Gleaming (1977) on the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  32. ^ Twilight's Last Gleaming (2005) on the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  33. ^ Home of the Brave (1949) on the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved December 5, 2007.
  34. ^ Home of the Brave (1986) on the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved December 5, 2007.
  35. ^ Home of the Brave (2004) on the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved December 5, 2007.
  36. ^ Home of the Brave (2006) on the Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  37. ^ Duane Streufert. "A website dedicated to the Flag of the United States of America – United States Code". USFlag.org. http://www.usflag.org/uscode36.html#171. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  38. ^ "U.S. Code". Uscode.house.gov. http://uscode.house.gov/uscode-cgi/fastweb.exe?getdoc+uscview+t33t36+1643+6++%28%29%20%20A. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  39. ^ The Circle School v. Phillips, 270 F. Supp. 2d 616, 622 (E.D. Pa. 2003).
  40. ^ "Retrieved 2009-12-13". Towerwatch.com. http://www.towerwatch.com/Witnesses/Beliefs/their_beliefs.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  41. ^ Botting, Gary Norman Arthur (1993). Fundamental freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Calgary Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-895176-06-3. http://books.google.com/?id=QGSFAAAAMAAJ&dq=national+anthem+jehovah%27s+witness. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
  42. ^ Love, Charles (2005). 20 Questions Jehovah's Witnesses Cannot Answer. Xulon Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-59781-507-9. http://books.google.com/?id=d9fxL4Noen4C&pg=PA23&dq=national+anthem+jehovah's+witness&cd=13#v=onepage&q=national%20anthem%20jehovah's%20witness. Retrieved 2009-12-13.
  43. ^ Das Star-Spangled Banner, US Library of Congress. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  44. ^ La Bandera de las Estrellas, US Library of Congress. Retrieved May 31, 2005.
  45. ^ Hebrew Version
  46. ^ Abraham Asen, The Star Spangled Banner in pool, 1745, Joe Fishstein Collection of Yiddish Poetry, McGill University Digital Collections Programme. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  47. ^ Day to Day. "A Spanish Version of 'The Star-Spangled Banner'". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5369145. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  48. ^ David Émile Marcantel, La Bannière Étoilée on Musique Acadienne. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  49. ^ Zimmer, Benjamin (2006-04-29). "The ''Samoa News'' reporting of a Samoan version". Itre.cis.upenn.edu. http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/003082.html. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  50. ^ "''An Bhratach Gheal-Réaltach'' – Irish version". Daltai.com. http://www.daltai.com/padraig/USA.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  51. ^ Christopher M. Brunelle, Third Verse in Latin, 1999
  52. ^ "Gallup Independent, 25 March 2005". Gallupindependent.com. 2005-03-25. http://www.gallupindependent.com/2005/mar/032505navajo.html. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  53. ^ New Mexico Department of Veterans' Services[dead link]
  54. ^ "Schedule for the Presidential Inauguration 2007, Navajo Nation Government". Navajo.org. 2007-01-09. http://www.navajo.org/navbar/Dinner.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-14.
  55. ^ "Cherokee Phoenix, Accessed 2009-08-15". Cherokeephoenix.org. http://www.cherokeephoenix.org/235/Article.aspx. Retrieved 2010-06-14.

External links

Historical texts

Historical audio