The Phantom of the Opera (1986 musical)

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The Phantom of the Opera
Phantom.jpg
Logo
MusicAndrew Lloyd Webber
LyricsCharles Hart
Richard Stilgoe (additional)
BookAndrew Lloyd Webber
Richard Stilgoe[1]
Basis1910 book Le Fantôme de l'Opéra by Gaston Leroux
Premiere9 October 1986 – Her Majesty's Theatre, London
Productions1986 West End
1988 Broadway
1991 First US Tour
1992 Second US Tour
1993 San Francisco
2004 Film Adaptation
2005 São Paulo
2006 Las Vegas Spectacular
2008 Third US Tour
2011 25th Anniversary
2009 Buenos Aires
2012 UK Tour
2013 25th Anniversary on Broadway
2013 North American Tour
2013 Hamburg Revival
2014 Moscow
2014 Philadelphia
Various international and amateur productions
Awards1986 Laurence Olivier Award for Best New Musical
1988 Tony Award for Best Musical
 
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The Phantom of the Opera
Phantom.jpg
Logo
MusicAndrew Lloyd Webber
LyricsCharles Hart
Richard Stilgoe (additional)
BookAndrew Lloyd Webber
Richard Stilgoe[1]
Basis1910 book Le Fantôme de l'Opéra by Gaston Leroux
Premiere9 October 1986 – Her Majesty's Theatre, London
Productions1986 West End
1988 Broadway
1991 First US Tour
1992 Second US Tour
1993 San Francisco
2004 Film Adaptation
2005 São Paulo
2006 Las Vegas Spectacular
2008 Third US Tour
2011 25th Anniversary
2009 Buenos Aires
2012 UK Tour
2013 25th Anniversary on Broadway
2013 North American Tour
2013 Hamburg Revival
2014 Moscow
2014 Philadelphia
Various international and amateur productions
Awards1986 Laurence Olivier Award for Best New Musical
1988 Tony Award for Best Musical

The Phantom of the Opera is a musical with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics by Charles Hart with additions from Richard Stilgoe. Lloyd Webber and Stilgoe also wrote the musical's book together.[1] Based on the French novel Le Fantôme de l'Opéra by Gaston Leroux, its central plot revolves around a beautiful soprano, Christine Daaé, who becomes the obsession of a mysterious, disfigured musical genius.

The musical opened in London's West End in 1986, and on Broadway in 1988. It won the 1986 Olivier Award and the 1988 Tony Award for Best Musical, and Michael Crawford (in the title role) won the Olivier and Tony Awards for Best Actor in a Musical.[2] It is the longest running show in Broadway history by a wide margin, and celebrated its 10,000th Broadway performance on 11 February 2012, the first production ever to do so.[3] It is the second longest-running West End musical, and the third longest-running West End show overall.[4][5][6]

With total estimated worldwide gross receipts of over $5.6 billion (the highest in history) and total Broadway gross of US$845 million (surpassed only by The Lion King),[7] Phantom is the most financially successful entertainment event to date.[8][9] By 2011 it had been seen by over 130 million people in 145 cities in 27 countries, and continues to play in both London and New York.[8]

Development[edit]

Idea[edit]

In 1984 Lloyd Webber contacted Cameron Mackintosh, the co-producer of Cats and Song and Dance, to propose a new musical. He was aiming for a romantic piece, and suggested Gaston Leroux's book The Phantom of the Opera as a basis. They screened both the 1925 Lon Chaney and the 1943 Claude Rains motion picture versions, but neither saw an effective way to make the leap from film to stage. Later, in New York, Lloyd Webber found a second-hand copy of the original, long-out-of-print Leroux novel, which supplied the necessary inspiration to develop a musical:

"I was actually writing something else at the time, and I realized that the reason I was hung up was because I was trying to write a major romantic story, and I had been trying to do that ever since I started my career. Then with the Phantom, it was there!"[10]

Lyricists[edit]

Lloyd Webber first approached Jim Steinman to write the lyrics because of his "dark obsessive side", but he declined in order to fulfill his commitments on a Bonnie Tyler album.[11] Alan Jay Lerner was then recruited, but he became seriously ill after joining the project and was forced to withdraw; none of his contributions (mostly involving the song "Masquerade") are credited in the show.[12][13] Richard Stilgoe, the lyricist for Starlight Express, wrote most of the original lyrics for the production. Charles Hart, a young and then-relatively unknown lyricist, later rewrote many of the lyrics, along with original lyrics for "Think of Me". Some of Stilgoe's original contributions are still present in the final version, however.[14]

Score[edit]

Inspired in part by an earlier musical version of the same story by Ken Hill,[15] Lloyd Webber's score is sometimes operatic in style but maintains the form and structure of a musical throughout. The full-fledged operatic passages are reserved principally for subsidiary characters such as Andre and Firmin, Carlotta, and Piangi. They are also used to provide the content of the fictional "operas" that are taking place within the show itself, viz., Hannibal, Il Muto, and the Phantom's masterwork, Don Juan Triumphant. "Here, Lloyd Webber pastiched various styles from the grand operas of Meyerbeer through to Mozart and even Gilbert and Sullivan."[16] These pieces are often presented as musical fragments, interrupted by dialogue or action sequences in order to clearly define the musical's "show within a show" format. The musical extracts from the Phantom's opera, "Don Juan Triumphant", during the latter stages of the show, are dissonant and modern—"suggesting, perhaps, that the Phantom is ahead of his time artistically".[17]

Design, direction, and choreography[edit]

Maria Björnson designed the sets and over 200 costumes, including the elaborate gowns in the "Masquerade" sequence. Her set designs, including the chandelier, subterranean gondola, and sweeping staircase, earned her multiple awards.[18][19] Hal Prince, director of Cabaret, Candide, Follies, and Lloyd Webber's Evita, directed the production, while Gillian Lynne, associate director and choreographer of Cats, provided the integral musical staging and choreography.

First preview at Sydmonton[edit]

A preview of the first act was staged at Sydmonton (Lloyd Webber's home) in 1985, starring Colm Wilkinson (later the star of the Toronto production) as the Phantom, Sarah Brightman as Kristin (later Christine) and Clive Carter (later a member of the London cast) as Raoul. This very preliminary production used Richard Stilgoe's original unaltered lyrics, and many songs sported names that were later changed, such as "What Has Time Done to Me" ("Think of Me"), and "Papers" ("Notes"). The Phantom's original mask covered the entire face and remained in place throughout the performance, obscuring the actor's vision and muffling his voice. Björnson designed the now-iconic half-mask to replace it, and the unmasking sequence was added.[14] Clips of this preview performance were included on the DVD of the 2004 film production.[20]

West End[edit]

Phantom began previews at Her Majesty's Theatre in London's West End on 27 September 1986 under the direction of Hal Prince, then opened on 9 October. It was choreographed by Gillian Lynne and the sets were designed by Maria Björnson, with lighting by Andrew Bridge.[21] Michael Crawford starred in the title role with Sarah Brightman as Christine and Steve Barton as Raoul. The production, still playing at Her Majesty's, celebrated its 10,000th performance on 23 October 2010, with Lloyd Webber and the original Phantom, Michael Crawford, in attendance. It is the second longest-running musical in West End (and world) history behind Les Misérables, and third overall behind The Mousetrap.[22][23]

A 25th-anniversary stage performance was held in London on 1 and 2 October 2011 at the Royal Albert Hall and was screened live in cinemas worldwide.[24] The production was produced by Cameron Mackintosh, directed by Laurence Connor, musical staging & choreography by Gillian Lynne, set design by Matt Kinley, costume design by Maria Björnson, lighting design by Patrick Woodroffe and sound design by Mick Potter. The cast included Ramin Karimloo as the Phantom, Sierra Boggess as Christine, Hadley Fraser as Raoul, Wynne Evans as Piangi, Wendy Ferguson as Carlotta, Barry James as Monsieur Firmin, Gareth Snook as Monsieur Andre, Liz Robertson as Madame Giry and Daisy Maywood as Meg Giry. Lloyd Webber and several original cast members, including Crawford and Brightman, were in attendance. A DVD and Blu-ray of the performance was released in February 2012,[25] and it began airing in March 2012 on PBS's "Great Performances" television series.[24]

In March 2012 a new production directed by Laurence Connor began a UK and Ireland tour to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the show, beginning at the Theatre Royal Plymouth and traveling to Manchester, Bristol, Dublin, Leeds, Edinburgh, Milton Keynes, Cardiff and Southampton. John Owen-Jones and Earl Carpenter alternate as the Phantom with Katie Hall as Christine and Simon Bailey as Raoul.[26]

Broadway[edit]

Phantom began Broadway previews at the Majestic Theatre on 9 January 1988 and opened on 26 January.[9][27] Crawford, Brightman, and Barton reprised their respective roles from the West End. The production continues to play at the Majestic, where it became the first Broadway musical in history to surpass 10,000 performances on 11 February 2012.[28] On 26 January 2013 the production celebrated its 25th anniversary with its 10,400th performance.[29] It is, by over 3,000 performances, the longest-running show in Broadway history.[21]

Amateur productions[edit]

In 2013 the rights to perform "Phantom" were released to non-professional groups.[30] CLOC musical theatre staged the world amateur premier in May 2013 at the National Theatre in Melbourne, Australia. In June 2013 Windmill Theatre Company staged the production at the Drum Theatre in Dandenong. Also in June 2013, Wellington Musical Theatre debuted the New Zealand premier starring Chris Crowe and Barbara Graham.

Casting[edit]

The original casts of the major productions of The Phantom of the Opera:[31][32]

CharacterOriginal West End CastOriginal Broadway CastOriginal Canadian CastOriginal Las Vegas Cast
The Phantom of the OperaMichael CrawfordColm WilkinsonBrent Barrett
Anthony Crivello
Christine DaaéSarah Brightman
Claire Moore
Sarah Brightman
Patti Cohenour
Rebecca Caine
Susan Cuthbert
Sierra Boggess
Elizabeth Loyacano‡
Raoul, Vicomte de ChagnySteve BartonByron NeaseTim Martin Gleason
Carlotta GiudicelliRosemary AsheJudy KayeLyse GuerinElena Jeanne Batman
Geena Jeffries Mattox‡
Madame GiryMary MillarLeila MartinKristina Marie GuiguetRebecca Spencer
Meg GiryJanet DevenishElisa HeinsohnDonna RubinBrianne Kelly Morgan
Monsieur Richard FirminJohn SavidentNick WymanGregory CrossLawson Skala
Monsieur Gilles AndréDavid FirthCris GroenendaalPaul MassellJohn Leslie Wolfe
Ubaldo PiangiJohn AronDavid RomanoPeter CormicanLarry Wayne Morbitt

† The role of Christine Daaé is double-cast in most professional productions. The secondary actress performs the role twice a week (on Broadway, Thursday evening and Saturday matinée).[33]

‡ Three roles (The Phantom, Christine, and Carlotta) were double-cast in the original Las Vegas production, with the two actors in each pair singing alternate performances.[34] Later, Las Vegas casting became identical to that in the Broadway production, with single casting for all characters except Christine.[35]

Notable West End replacements

-Dave Willetts -John Owen-Jones -Ramin Karimloo -Peter Jöback -Simon Bowman -Earl Carpenter

-Claire Moore -Rebecca Caine -Myrra Malmberg -Gina Beck -Rachel Barrell -Leila Benn Harris -Robyn North -Meredith Braun

Michael Ball -John Barrowman -Simon Bowman -Simon Burke -Clive Carter -Killian Donnelly -Ramin Karimloo -Robert Meadmore -Oliver Thornton

Julia Goss -Margaret Preece -Shan Cothi

Notable Broadway replacements

Timothy Nolen -Steve Barton -Mark Jacoby -Davis Gaines -Thomas James O'Leary -Hugh Panaro -Howard McGillin -Gary Mauer -Brad Little -John CudiaHugh Panaro -Peter Jöback

-Lisa VromanPatti Cohenour -Rebecca Luker -Rebecca Pitcher -Jennifer Hope Wills -Sierra Boggess

-Gary MauerHugh Panaro -Brad Little -John Cudia -Tim Martin Gleason

George Lee Andrews

Synopsis[edit]

Prologue[edit]

At the fictional Opera Populaire (based on the Paris Opéra House[36]) in 1905,[37][38] an auction of old theatre props is underway. Lot 665, purchased by the elderly Raoul, Vicomte de Chagny, is a music box in the shape of a monkey; he eyes it fondly, noting that its details appear "exactly as she said..." Lot 666 is a shattered chandelier that, the auctioneer says, has a connection to "the strange affair of the Phantom of the Opera…a mystery never fully explained." As the chandelier is uncovered, it illuminates and slowly rises over the audience to its old position in the rafters. The years roll back and the Opéra returns to its 1880s grandeur. ("Overture")

Act I[edit]

It is now 1881.[39] As Carlotta, the Opéra's resident soprano prima donna, rehearses for that evening's performance, a backdrop collapses without warning. "The Phantom! He's here!" the anxious cast members whisper. The Opera's new owners, Firmin and André, try to downplay the incident, but Carlotta refuses to continue and storms offstage. Madame Giry, the Opéra's ballet mistress, tells Firmin and André that Christine Daaé, a Swedish chorus girl and orphaned daughter of a prominent violinist, has been "well taught", and could sing Carlotta's role. With cancellation of the performance their only alternative, the owners reluctantly audition Christine, and to their surprise she is equal to the challenge. ("Think of Me")

Michael Crawford and Sarah Brightman performing the title song

Backstage after her triumphant début, Christine confesses to her best friend Meg (Madame Giry's daughter) that she knows her mysterious teacher only as an invisible "Angel of Music" ("Angel of Music"). The new patron, Raoul, the Vicomte de Chagny, finds Christine, his old childhood playmate, in her dressing room. ("Little Lotte") Christine reminds Raoul about the "Angel of Music" stories that her late father used to tell them, and confides that the Angel has visited her, and taught her to sing. Raoul laughs at her "fantasies", and invites her to dinner. He exits, and a jealous Phantom appears in Christine's mirror in the guise of The Angel of Music ("The Mirror/Angel of Music (Reprise)"). Christine begs him to reveal himself. The Phantom obliges, then guides her into a ghostly underground realm ("The Phantom of the Opera"). They cross a subterranean lake to his secret lair beneath the opéra house. He then explains that he has chosen Christine to sing his music and serenades her ("The Music of the Night"). During the song, she sees a mannequin resembling herself in a wedding dress. When the mannequin suddenly moves, Christine faints and The Phantom carries her to a bed.

As the Phantom composes music at his organ ("I Remember…"), Christine awakens to the sound of the monkey music box. She slips up behind the Phantom, lifts his mask, and beholds his face. The Phantom rails at her curiosity, then ruefully expresses his longing to look normal—and to be loved by her. ("Stranger Than You Dreamt It")

Meanwhile, inside the opéra house, Joseph Buquet, the Opéra's chief stagehand—who, like Madame Giry, inexplicably knows much about the Phantom—regales everyone with tales of the "Opéra Ghost" and his terrible Punjab lasso ("Magical Lasso"). Madame Giry warns Buquet to exercise restraint. In the managers' office, Madame Giry delivers a note from the Phantom: he demands that Christine replace Carlotta in the new opera, Il Muto, or there will be a terrible disaster "beyond imagination." ("Notes…") Firmin and André assure the enraged Carlotta that she will remain the star, ("Prima Donna") but during her performance, disaster strikes. ("Poor Fool, He Makes Me Laugh") The Phantom reduces Carlotta's voice to a frog-like croak. A ballet interlude begins, to keep the audience entertained—but a series of menacing shadows can be seen on the backdrop. Suddenly the corpse of Buquet, hanging from the Punjab lasso, drops from the rafters. Firmin and André plead for calm — "It was just an accident...simply an accident!" — as the Phantom's diabolical laughter is heard.

In the ensuing mêlée, Christine escapes with Raoul to the roof, where she tells him about her subterranean rendezvous with the Phantom. Raoul is skeptical ("Why Have You Brought Me Here?/Raoul, I've Been There"), but swears to love and to protect her always. ("All I Ask of You") The Phantom, who has overheard their conversation, is heartbroken. He angrily vows revenge against Raoul ("All I Ask of You (Reprise)"), and the Opéra's mighty chandelier crashes to the stage as the curtain falls.

Act II[edit]

Steve Barton and Sarah Brightman in the final scene

Six months later, in the midst of the gala masquerade ball, the Phantom, costumed as the Red Death, makes his first appearance since the chandelier disaster. ("Masquerade/Why So Silent?") He announces to the stunned guests that he has written an opera entitled Don Juan Triumphant. He demands that it be produced immediately, with Christine (who is now engaged to Raoul) in the lead role, and warns of dire consequences if it is not. He seizes Christine's engagement ring and vanishes in a flash of fire and smoke. Raoul demands that Madame Giry tell him about the Phantom. She reluctantly replies that he is a brilliant musician and magician born with a terrifyingly deformed face, who escaped from captivity in a traveling freak show and disappeared.

During rehearsals, Raoul hatches a plan to use Don Juan Triumphant as a trap to capture the Phantom, knowing the Phantom will be sure to attend its première. ("Notes/Twisted Every Way") Christine, torn between her love for Raoul and her gratitude for the Phantom's teaching, visits her father's grave, longing for his guidance. ("Wishing You Were Somehow Here Again") The Phantom appears, again under the guise of the Angel of Music. ("Wandering Child") Christine nearly falls under his spell, but Raoul arrives to rescue her. The Phantom taunts Raoul, launching fiery missiles at him, ("Bravo Monsieur") until Christine begs Raoul to leave with her. Furious, the Phantom sets fire to the cemetery.

Don Juan Triumphant opens with Christine and Ubaldo Piangi, the Opéra's principal tenor, singing the lead roles. ("Don Juan") During their duet, Christine suddenly realizes that she is singing not with Piangi, but with the Phantom himself. ("The Point of No Return") He expresses his love for her and gives her his ring, but Christine rips off his mask, exposing his deformed face to the shocked audience. As Piangi is found strangled to death backstage, the Phantom seizes Christine and flees the theatre. An angry mob led by Meg searches the theatre for the Phantom, while Madame Giry tells Raoul how to find the Phantom's subterranean lair, and warns him to beware his Punjab lasso.

In the lair Christine is forced to don the doll's wedding dress. ("Down Once More/Track Down This Murderer") Raoul finds the lair, but the Phantom captures him with his lasso. He tells Christine that he will free Raoul if she agrees to stay with him forever; if she refuses, Raoul will die. ("Final Lair") Christine tells the Phantom that it is his soul that is deformed, not his face, and kisses him, comforting him. The Phantom, having experienced kindness and compassion for the first time, sets them both free. Christine returns the Phantom's ring to him, and he tells her he loves her. She cries, forces herself to turn away, and exits with Raoul. The Phantom, weeping, huddles on his throne and covers himself with his cape. The mob storms the lair and Meg pulls away the cape—but the Phantom has vanished; only his mask remains.[40]

Musical numbers[edit]

Prologue
  • "Overture" – Instrumental
Act I
  • A Rehearsal for Hannibal / "Think of Me (Introduction)" – Carlotta, Piangi, Chorus and Ballet Girls / Carlotta, Ballet Girls, André and Buquet
  • "Think of Me" – Christine and Raoul
  • "Angel of Music" – Meg and Christine
  • "Little Lotte / The Mirror" – Christine, Raoul, and The Phantom
  • "The Phantom of the Opera" – The Phantom and Christine
  • "The Music of the Night" – The Phantom
  • "I Remember... / Stranger Than You Dreamt It" § – Christine and The Phantom
  • "Magical Lasso" – Buquet, Meg, Madame Giry, and Ballet Girls
  • "Notes" – Firmin, André, Raoul, Carlotta, Madame Giry, Meg, Piangi, and The Phantom
  • "Prima Donna" – Firmin, André, Raoul, Carlotta, Madame Giry, Meg, Piangi, and The Phantom
  • "Poor Fool, He Makes Me Laugh" – Carlotta, Piangi and Company
  • "Why Have You Brought Us Here? / Raoul, I've Been There" § – Raoul and Christine
  • "All I Ask of You" – Raoul and Christine
  • "All I Ask of You (Reprise)" – Raoul, Christine, and The Phantom
Act II
  • "Entr’acte" – Instrumental
  • "Masquerade" – Ensemble
  • "Why So Silent?" – The Phantom
  • "Notes (Reprise)" – Firmin, André, Carlotta, Piangi, Raoul, Christine, Madame Giry, and The Phantom
  • "We Have All Been Blind / Twisted Every Way" § – Raoul, Firmin, André, and Christine
  • A Rehearsal for Don Juan Triumphant – Carlotta, Piangi, Christine and Chorus
  • "Wishing You Were Somehow Here Again" – Christine
  • "Wandering Child / Bravo, Monsieur!" § – Phantom, Christine, and Raoul
  • Music from Don Juan Triumphant – Piangi, Carlotta, Christine and Company
  • "The Point of No Return" – The Phantom and Christine
  • "Down Once More / Track Down This Murderer" § – The Phantom, Christine, Raoul, and Company
  • "Finale" – Instrumental

Notes:

Orchestra[edit]

The Broadway production utilizes a 28-piece pit orchestra:

  • Reed I: Flute/Piccolo
  • Reed II: Flute/Clarinet
  • Reed III: Oboe/English horn
  • Reed IV: B-flat Clarinet/Bass Clarinet/E-flat Clarinet
  • Reed V: Bassoon
  • Horns I–III
  • Trumpets I–II
  • Trombone
  • Percussion I–II
  • Keyboards I–II: Piano, Synthesiser
  • Violins I-VIII
  • Violas I–II
  • Cellos I–II
  • Double Bass
  • Harp

Recordings[edit]

Cast recordings have been made of the London,[41] German,[42] and Canadian productions.[43]

The recording of the 1986 original London cast, released by Polydor Records in 1987, was released in both a single CD Highlights From The Phantom of the Opera and a two CD Phantom of the Opera, both of which have been certified 4× Platinum in the US.[44] Phantom was also certified 3× Platinum in the UK.[45] The Canadian cast recording went 2× Platinum in Canada.[46] In Switzerland, Phantom was certified 3× Platinum and Highlights was certified 2× Platinum.[47] Recordings of the Vienna cast and the Hamburg cast were certified Gold and triple Platinum, respectively, in Germany.[48] It is believed[by whom?] that the original album recording has sold over 40 million copies worldwide.

A live recording of The Phantom of the Opera at the Royal Albert Hall was released in the UK on 15 November 2011 and subsequently in the U.S. and Canada on 7 February 2012,[49] along with Blu-ray and DVD videos, and a collectors' box set of the Royal Albert concert, the original cast recording, and the sequel, Love Never Dies.[49][50]

Certifications[edit]

Original 1986 London production sales and certifications[edit]

RegionCertificationSales/shipments
Canada (Music Canada)[51]2× Platinum200,000^
Poland (ZPAV)[52]Gold50,000*
Sweden (GLF)[53]Gold50,000^
United Kingdom (BPI)[54]3× Platinum900,000^
United States (RIAA)[55]4× Platinum4,000,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone
xunspecified figures based on certification alone

Local productions sales and certifications[edit]

RegionCertificationSales/shipments
Austria (IFPI Austria)[56]Platinum50,000x
Canada (Music Canada)[57]8× Platinum800,000^
Germany (BVMI)[58]3× Platinum1,500,000^
Germany (BVMI)[59]Gold250,000^
Sweden (GLF)[60]Gold50,000^
Switzerland (IFPI Switzerland)[61]3× Platinum150,000x

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone
xunspecified figures based on certification alone

Highlights From The Phantom of the Opera sales and certifications[edit]

RegionCertificationSales/shipments
Canada (Music Canada)[62]8× Platinum800,000^
Switzerland (IFPI Switzerland)[63]2× Platinum100,000x
United States (RIAA)[64]4× Platinum4,000,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone
xunspecified figures based on certification alone


Allegations of plagiarism[edit]

In 1987 the heirs of Giacomo Puccini charged in a lawsuit that the climactic phrase in "Music of the Night" closely resembled a similar phrase in the sequence "Quello che tacete" from Puccini's opera Girl of the Golden West.[65][66] The litigation was settled out of court for an undisclosed amount.[67][68]

In 1990 a Baltimore songwriter named Ray Repp filed a lawsuit alleging that the title song from Phantom was based on a song that he wrote in 1978 called "Till You." After eight years of litigation – including an unsuccessful countersuit by Lloyd Webber claiming that "Till You" was itself a plagiarism of "Close Every Door" from Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat[69] — the jury found in Lloyd Webber's favor.[70]

Roger Waters has repeatedly claimed in interviews that the signature descending/ascending half-tone chord progression from Phantom's title song was plagiarised from the bass line of a track on the Pink Floyd 1971 album Meddle called "Echoes."[71] He has never taken any legal action ("Life's too long to bother with suing Andrew fucking Lloyd Webber"), but he did add an insulting reference to Lloyd Webber in his song "It's a Miracle": "We cower in our shelters/With our hands over our ears/Lloyd Webber's awful stuff/Runs for years and years and years/An earthquake hits the theatre/But the operetta lingers/Then the piano lid comes down/And breaks his fucking fingers./It's a miracle!".[72]

Other productions[edit]

Phantom has been translated into several languages and produced in over 28 countries on six continents. With only the exception of Hungary, Poland, New Zealand and the 25th Anniversary UK and US Tours, these productions have all been "clones", using the original staging, direction, sets and costume concepts.[73] International productions include the following:

Feature film version[edit]

A film version, starring Gerard Butler as the Phantom, Emmy Rossum as Christine, Patrick Wilson as Raoul, Minnie Driver as Carlotta, and Miranda Richardson as Madame Giry opened in limited release on 22 December 2004 in the U.S. and later in nationwide release on 21 January 2005.[83]

Phantom: The Las Vegas Spectacular[edit]

An edited production renamed Phantom – The Las Vegas Spectacular opened 24 June 2006 at The Venetian Resort Hotel Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada, in a theatre built specifically for the show to resemble the Opéra Garnier in Paris.[84] The production ran 95 minutes with no intermission, and was directed and choreographed by Harold Prince and Gillian Lynne, with scenic designs by David Rockwell. The show featured updated technology and effects, including a re-engineered chandelier capable of reassembling in midair during the overture while the entire interior of the venue (not merely the stage) returned to its 1880s halcyon days.[34] Almost 45 minutes' worth of material was eliminated, such as the Don Juan Triumphant rehearsal. "Poor Fool, He Makes Me Laugh" and "The Point of No Return" were significantly shortened.[34] Other changes resembled those in the 2004 film, such as staging the chandelier crash at the plot's climax (during performance of "The Point of No Return") rather than mid-story.[35][85] The Las Vegas production closed on 2 September 2012.

Copyright release[edit]

In 2011 The Really Useful Group (copyright owners of Phantom) released certain rights to the play in celebration of its 25th anniversary. Any educational or non-profit organization, including schools and amateur dramatic groups, can now perform the musical without copyright fees. In April 2011 Central High School in Knoxville, Tennessee became the first school to perform Phantom under the new rights.[86][87]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Original London production[edit]

YearAward CeremonyCategoryNomineeResult
1986Laurence Olivier Award[88][89]Best New MusicalWon
Best Actor in a MusicalMichael CrawfordWon
Designer of the YearMaria BjörnsonNominated
2002Most Popular ShowWon

Original Broadway production[edit]

YearAward CeremonyCategoryNomineeResult
1988Drama Desk AwardOutstanding MusicalNominated
Outstanding Actor in a MusicalMichael CrawfordWon
Outstanding Actress in a MusicalSarah BrightmanNominated
Outstanding Director of a MusicalHarold PrinceWon
Outstanding MusicAndrew Lloyd WebberWon
Outstanding OrchestrationsDavid Cullen and Andrew Lloyd WebberWon
Outstanding Set DesignMaria BjörnsonWon
Outstanding Costume DesignWon
Outstanding Lighting DesignAndrew BridgeWon
Tony Award[90]Best MusicalWon
Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a MusicalMichael CrawfordWon
Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a MusicalJudy KayeWon
Best Direction of a MusicalHarold PrinceWon
Best Book of a MusicalRichard Stilgoe and Andrew Lloyd WebberNominated
Best Original ScoreAndrew Lloyd Webber, Charles Hart and Richard StilgoeNominated
Best Scenic DesignMaria BjörnsonWon
Best Costume DesignWon
Best Lighting DesignAndrew BridgeWon
Best ChoreographyGillian LynneNominated

Sequel[edit]

The sequel to Phantom, written by Lloyd Webber, Glenn Slater and Ben Elton with lyrics by Slater, is called Love Never Dies.[91] It was loosely adapted from the 1999 novel The Phantom of Manhattan by Frederick Forsyth in collaboration with Lloyd Webber. Set in 1907 (a decade after the conclusion of Phantom according to the production's announcement,[92] but actually 26 years later, as the original show was set in 1881[39]), Christine is invited to perform at Phantasma, a new attraction at Coney Island, by an anonymous impresario. With her husband Raoul and son Gustave in tow she journeys to Brooklyn, unaware that it is the Phantom who has arranged her appearance at the popular beach resort.[92][93]

The original production was directed by Jack O'Brien and choreographed by Jerry Mitchell with set and costume designs by Bob Crowley,[91] and opened at the Adelphi Theatre in the West End on 9 March 2010.[94] Though it ran for over 17 months and closed on 27 August 2011, the production received mixed reviews.[95][96][97] A scheduled Broadway opening in November 2010 was postponed until Spring 2011[98] and later canceled.[99] A revamped Australian production, starring Ben Lewis and Anna O'Byrne, opened 21 May 2011 at the Regent Theatre in Melbourne to more favorable notices.[100][101][102][103] After the Melbourne run ended on 12 December 2011 the production moved to the Capitol Theatre in Sydney where it played from January to April 2012.[104][105]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The Phantom of the Opera: The most commercially successful stage musical ever". Really Useful Licensing. Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  2. ^ "The Phantom of the Opera – The Show – Awards". 
  3. ^ Gerald Martin Bordman (2004). The Oxford companion to American theatre p.496. Oxford University Press. "A British musical based on Leroux's famous novel".
  4. ^ Top 10 Longest-Running London Theatre Shows Londonist.com. Retrieved 11 February 2012
  5. ^ The A to Z of the Broadway Musical p.266. Scarecrow Press, 2009
  6. ^ Smith, Tim (11 April 2010) 'Phantom of the Opera’ at the Hippodrome The Baltimore Sun
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  105. ^ Andrew Lloyd Webber's Love Never Dies Ends Australian Run 1 April

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Cats
Longest-running Broadway show
2006–present
Succeeded by