The Once and Future King

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The Once and Future King
Once future king cover.jpg
First edition cover
AuthorT. H. White
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
GenreFantasy, Novel
PublisherCollins
Publication date
1958
Media typePrint (Hardback & Paperback)
OCLC35661057
823/.912 21
LC ClassPR6045.H2 O5 1996
 
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The Once and Future King
Once future king cover.jpg
First edition cover
AuthorT. H. White
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
GenreFantasy, Novel
PublisherCollins
Publication date
1958
Media typePrint (Hardback & Paperback)
OCLC35661057
823/.912 21
LC ClassPR6045.H2 O5 1996

The Once and Future King is an Arthurian fantasy novel written by T. H. White. It was first published in 1958 and is mostly a composite of earlier works written between 1938 and 1941. The central theme is an exploration of human nature regarding power and justice, as the boy Arthur becomes king and attempts to quell the prevalent "might makes right" attitude with his idea of chivalry. But in the end, even chivalry comes undone since its justice is maintained by force.

The title comes from the inscription that, according to Le Morte d'Arthur, was said by "many men" to be written upon King Arthur's tomb: the internally rhymed hexameter Hic iacet Arthurus, rex quondam, rexque futurus – "Here lies Arthur, king once, and king to be".[1]

Plot introduction[edit]

Most of the book "takes place on the isle of Gramarye", and it chronicles the raising and educating of King Arthur, his rule as a king, and the romance between Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevre. It ends immediately before Arthur's final battle against his illegitimate son Mordred. Though White admits his book's source material is loosely derived from Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur (The Death of Arthur), he reinterprets the epic events, filling them with renewed meaning for a world recovering from World War II.

The book is divided into four parts:

A final part called The Book of Merlyn (written 1941, published 1977) was published separately (ISBN 0-292-70769-X) following White's death. It chronicles Arthur's final lessons from Merlin before his death, although some parts of it were incorporated into the final editions of the previous books.

An oft-quoted passage from the book is the story that the badger calls his "dissertation", a retelling of the Creation story from Genesis.

Plot[edit]

The story starts in the last years of the rule of king Uther Pendragon. The first part, The Sword in the Stone, chronicles Arthur's upbringing by his foster father Sir Ector, his rivalry and friendship with his foster brother Kay, and his initial training by Merlin, a wizard who lives through time backwards. Merlin, knowing the boy's destiny, teaches Arthur (known as "Wart") what it means to be a good king by turning him into various kinds of animals: fish, hawk, ant, goose, and badger. Each of the transformations is meant to teach Wart a lesson, which will prepare him for his future life.

In fact, Merlin instills in Arthur the concept that the only justifiable reason for war is to prevent another from going to war, and that contemporary human governments and powerful people exemplify the worst aspects of the rule of Might.

Neither the ant nor goose episodes were in the original Sword in the Stone when it was published as a stand-alone book. The original novel also contains a battle between Merlin and sorceress Madam Mim that was not included in The Once and Future King but was included in the Disney film.

In part two, The Queen of Air and Darkness, White sets the stage for Arthur's demise by introducing the Orkney clan and detailing Arthur's seduction by their mother, his half-sister Morgause. While the young king suppresses initial rebellions, Merlin leads him to envision a means of harnessing potentially destructive Might for the cause of Right: the Round Table.

The third part, The Ill-Made Knight, shifts focus from King Arthur to the story of Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere's forbidden love, the means they go through to hide their affair from the King (although he already knows of it from Merlin), and its effect on Elaine, Lancelot's sometime lover and the mother of his son Galahad.

The Candle in the Wind unites these narrative threads by telling how Mordred's hatred of his father and Agravaine's hatred of Sir Lancelot caused the eventual downfall of King Arthur, Queen Guinevre, Sir Lancelot, and the entire ideal kingdom of Camelot.

The book begins as a quite light-hearted account of the young Arthur's adventures, and King Pellinore's interminable search for the Questing Beast. Parts of The Sword in the Stone read almost as a parody of the traditional Arthurian legend by virtue of White's prose style, which relies heavily on anachronisms. However, the tale gradually changes tone until Ill-Made Knight becomes more meditative and The Candle in the Wind finds Arthur brooding over death and his legacy.

Characterization in the work[edit]

Perhaps most striking about White's work is how he reinterprets the traditional Arthurian characters, often giving them motivations or traits more complex or even contradictory to those in earlier versions of the legend. For example:

White allows Thomas Malory to have a cameo appearance towards the end of the final book. Also of note is his treatment of historical characters and kings as mythological within the world that he creates. In addition, due to his living backwards, Merlin makes many anachronistic allusions to events in more recent times; of note are references to World War II, telegraphs, tanks, and "an Austrian who … plunged the civilized world into misery and chaos" (i.e. Adolf Hitler).[3]

Reception[edit]

Floyd C. Gale praised The Sword in the Stone as "blithely comic and entirely delightful", stating that it was "in utter contrast to the mounting tragedy" of the other three volumes of the series.[4] Fantasy historian Lin Carter wrote, "... the single finest fantasy novel written in our time, or for that matter, ever written, is, must be, by any conceivable standard, T. H. White's The Once and Future King. I can hardly imagine that any mature, literate person who has read the book would disagree with this estimate. White is a great writer."[5]

Film, television, and theatrical adaptations[edit]

Although Walt Disney initially purchased the film rights to The Ill-Made Knight in 1944,[6] he eventually produced an adaptation of The Sword in the Stone, released in 1963. This movie reflects more the sense of humour of Disney's team of animators than White's. The movie adds a more comical side to the original story, including song and dance, as in most Walt Disney films. Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe's 1960 musical Camelot (which was made into a movie in 1967) is based mostly on the last two books of The Once and Future King, and features White's idea of having Thomas Malory make a cameo appearance at the end, again as "Tom of Warwick".

BBC Radio 4 serialised the book in six one-hour episodes dramatised by Brian Sibley beginning on Sunday 9 November, 2014 with Paul Ready as Arthur and David Warner as Merlyn.[7]

Other references[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sir Thomas Malory (1485). Le Morte d'Arthur. William Caxton. "And many men say that there ys wrytten uppon the thumbe thys: HIC IACET ARTHURUS, REX QUONDAM REXQUE FUTURUS."
  2. ^ Spivack, Charlotte and Roberta Lynne Staples. The Company of Camelot: Arthurian Characters in Romance and Fantasy. Greenwood Press, 1994, p. 130.
  3. ^ (White 266–267)
  4. ^ Gale, Floyd C. (1959-08). "Galaxy's 5 Star Star Shelf". Galaxy. pp. 138–142. Retrieved 14 June 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  5. ^ Carter, Lin (1973). Imaginary Worlds. Ballantine Books. p. 125. ISBN 0-345-03309-4. 
  6. ^ http://efanzines.com/FWD/FWD37.htm
  7. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/radio4/posts/The-Once-and-Future-King-New-Drama
  8. ^ Strange Horizons magazine, November 2009

External links[edit]