The Ghan

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The Ghan
The Ghan route map.png
Background
LocaleAustralia
Transit typeTranscontinental passenger rail
Number of lines1
Number of stations14
Operation
Began operation1878
Operator(s)Great Southern Railway
Pacific National
Technical
System length2,979 km (1,851 mi)
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) (standard gauge)
 
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The Ghan
The Ghan route map.png
Background
LocaleAustralia
Transit typeTranscontinental passenger rail
Number of lines1
Number of stations14
Operation
Began operation1878
Operator(s)Great Southern Railway
Pacific National
Technical
System length2,979 km (1,851 mi)
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) (standard gauge)
The Ghan Route
Head station
Darwin
Stop on track
Katherine
Stop on track
Tennant Creek
Station on track
Alice Springs
Stop on track
Kulgera
Unrestricted border on track
Northern Territory / South Australia border
Stop on track
Chandler
Stop on track
Marla
Stop on track
Coober Pedy (Manguri)
Stop on track
Tarcoola
Stop on track
Kingoonya
Stop on track
Pimba
Stop on track
Port Augusta
Stop on track
Coonamia near Port Pirie
End station
Adelaide Parklands Terminal

The Ghan is a passenger train operating between Adelaide, Alice Springs, and Darwin on the Adelaide–Darwin railway in Australia.[1] Operated by Great Southern Railway and with locomotives provided by Pacific National, the entire journey takes 48 hours to travel the 2,979 kilometres (1,851 mi) and around half that (24 hours) to the midpoint at Alice Springs.[2][3][4]

Contents

Etymology

The service's name is an abbreviated version of its previous nickname The Afghan Express, unofficially bestowed on the "express passenger" service of the Commonwealth Railways in 1923, by one of its crews.[5] The train's name honours Afghan camel drivers who arrived in Australia in the late 19th century to help find a way to reach the country's unexplored interior.[6]

Operations

The Ghan normally runs twice-weekly from Adelaide through to Darwin.[7] The current world financial crisis has reduced the frequency to one service a week during the low season (November to March).

In addition to Adelaide, Alice Springs, and Darwin, the train also makes a stop at Katherine. The stops at Katherine and Alice Springs allow time for optional tours.[8] The average length of the train is 686 metres, but trains up to 49 carriages long (1.2 kilometres in length) have been run.[9] The Ghan is operated by Great Southern Railway Ltd, part of the Serco Group.

History

The railway line used by "The Ghan" was originally built as a 1067 mm (3 feet 6 inches) narrow-gauge railway as far north as Alice Springs. In 1980 this line was completely replaced by a new 1435 mm (4 feet 8½ inches) standard gauge built to the west of the original line. This new line was extended northwards from Alice Springs to Darwin in 2004.

Original Ghan

See Also:Central Australian Railway
The route of the Old Ghan.

Construction of what was then known as the Port Augusta to Government Gums Railway began in 1878 when Premier of South Australia Sir William Jervois broke ground at Port Augusta.[5] The 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Cape gauge line reached Hawker in June 1880, Beltana in July 1881, Marree in January 1884 and Oodnadatta on 7 January 1891.[10] It was not until 1926 that development to Alice Springs began,[11] and that section was completed in 1929. Until then, final leg of the train journey was still made by camel.[12]

While there were plans from the beginning to extend the line through to Darwin, by the time the Alice Springs connection was complete, the Ghan was running at a financial loss, and plans for connection to Darwin were put on indefinite hold.[13] The original Ghan line followed the same track as the overland telegraph, which is believed to be the route taken by John McDouall Stuart during his 1862 crossing of Australia.[14]

The original Ghan was notorious for washouts and other delays on the line, and the flatcar immediately behind the tender carried spare sleepers and railway tools, so that if a washout was encountered the passengers and crew could work as a railway gang to repair the line and permit the train to continue. This appalling service was tolerated because steam trains needed water, and Stuart's route to Alice Springs was the only one that had available water.

During World War 2 the service was greatly expanded, putting pressure on the limited water supplies. As a result, de-mineralisation towers were built along the track so that bore water could be used, and some survive to this day. When steam was replaced by diesel, there was no need for water, and the line was re-routed to the waterless (but more reliable) route from Tarcoola to Alice Springs.

The original Ghan featured in an episode of BBC Television's series Great Railway Journeys of the World in 1980, presented by Michael Frayn.

New line

The original Ghan ran for the last time in 1980[12] and now its preservation is in the hands of The Ghan Preservation Society, which repairs sections of the old narrow gauge track and some notable sidings.[15] It was not until October 1980 that a new standard gauge line from Tarcoola, South Australia (a siding on the Trans-Australian Railway) to Alice Springs was constructed, and the train took the form it has today. The new line is located approximately 160 kilometres (99 mi) west of the former line, in an effort to prevent washout due to rain.[12] It was also hoped that the construction of the new line would improve the on-time performance of the train.[13]

Connection to Darwin

Construction of Alice Springs–Darwin line was believed to be the second-largest civil engineering project in Australia, and the largest in the 50 years[16] since the creation of the Snowy Mountains Scheme (built 1949–1974).[17] Line construction began in July 2001, with the first passenger train reaching Darwin on 4 February 2004, after 126 years of planning and waiting[18] and at a cost of A$1.3 billion.[19]

The Ghan's arrival in Darwin signified a new era of tourism in the Northern Territory,[20] making travel to the region easier and more convenient as well as providing better access to and for Aboriginal communities in the region.[21] The rail link will allow for more freight to travel through the region, leading to a hope that Darwin will serve as another trade link with Asia.[22]

External videos
The Ghan meeting the Indian Pacific

In preparation for the connection to Darwin, one of the locomotives was named for Steve Irwin in a hope that the internationally-recognized face of Australia would help promote the new service and tourism to the region.[23]

The Ghan at Alice Springs, 12 March 2007.
Locomotive of The Ghan
The Ghan Second Class Restaurant Car

Incidents

References

  1. ^ "Media Watch : The Advertiser's happy travels". http://www.abc.net.au/mediawatch/transcripts/s1237203.htm. Retrieved 16 December 2009. 
  2. ^ "The Ghan Homepage". Archived from the original on 22 July 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080722043511/http://www.gsr.com.au/our-trains/the-ghan/the-journey.php. Retrieved 16 December 2009. 
  3. ^ "Great Southern Rail History". http://www.trainways.com.au/about-us/our-history.php. Retrieved 16 December 2009. [dead link]
  4. ^ "Ghan Railway Journey Lengths". http://www.travelaust.com/adelaide-alice-springs/rail/train-tickets/australia/059. Retrieved 14 March 2011. 
  5. ^ a b Barrington R, Babbage J; 1980 The History of the Pichi Richi Railway PRRPS ISBN 0-9598509-6-1
  6. ^ "Australia: Going, going, Ghan". CNN. 3 March 2004. Archived from the original on 11 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070911043750/http://www.cnn.com/2004/TRAVEL/DESTINATIONS/03/03/outback.ghan.ap/. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  7. ^ "Fares and Timetables". Great Southern Railways. http://www.gsr.com.au/scheduledservices/index.php?t=tg. Retrieved 3 May 2009. [dead link]
  8. ^ "Fares and Timetables: April 2007 – March 2008". Great Southern Railways. 2007-05. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071007085046/http://www.gsr.com.au/pdf/fares-timetables/faresandtt-0708.pdf. Retrieved 28 January 2008. 
  9. ^ LAUREN CRAWLEY (21 January 2010). "Ghan opts to hitch a really long ride south". www.ntnews.com.au. http://www.ntnews.com.au/article/2010/01/21/117631_travel.html. Retrieved 21 January 2010. 
  10. ^ "Interpreting Beltana’s History, interpretative signs around the town". Heritage South Australia, Government of South Australia. 2006. http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/heritage/shas/sha_beltana.html. Retrieved 10 September 2006. 
  11. ^ Mitchell, Barry (26 May 2006). "The Ghan". Australia Wide (ABC 2). http://www.abc.net.au/tv/australiawide/stories/s1648039.htm. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  12. ^ a b c Tregaskis, Moana (16 September 1990). "On the 2 P.M. from Adelaide to Alice". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE2DE1F3CF935A2575AC0A966958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=print. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  13. ^ a b Pfeiff, Margo (5 September 2004). "Slicing Through Australia's Center". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article/article?f=/c/a/2004/09/05/TRG2F8HL6P1.TMP. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  14. ^ Burton, Rosamund (9 December 2006). "Into the Red". The Australian. http://www.news.com.au/travel/story/0,25917,20932060-5012673,00.html. Retrieved 28 January 2008. 
  15. ^ "Alice Springs". The Age (Melbourne). 8 February 2004. http://www.theage.com.au/news/Northern-Territory/Alice-Springs/2005/02/17/1108500201577.html. Retrieved 28 January 2008. 
  16. ^ Ian Hammond (1 August 2000). "Work Starts This Month on Alice-Darwin Line". International Railway Journal. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-65171913.html. Retrieved 16 March 2008. 
  17. ^ "Tunnels, Dams & Power Stations". Heritage Office News. Heritage Council of NSW. 1998-04. http://www.heritage.nsw.gov.au/heritagensw/mar99/7_art.htm. Retrieved 16 March 2008. 
  18. ^ Barker, Anne (17 January 2004). "Century-old Rail Dream Becomes Reality". ABC News. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2004/01/14/1025620.htm. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  19. ^ "Croc Hunter Launches Another Beast". The Age (Melbourne). 25 September 2003. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/09/25/1064083124591.html. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  20. ^ Barker, Anne (3 February 2004). "International Journalists Cover the Ghan's Journey". The World Today Archive. http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2004/s1037234.htm. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  21. ^ "Train Track Opens Awesome Outback". CNN. 1 February 2004. Archived from the original on 19 March 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070319083723/http://edition.cnn.com/2004/TRAVEL/01/31/australia.train.ap/. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  22. ^ Squires, Nick (15 January 2004). "Mile-long Train Blazes New Trail Through Parched Heart of Outback". The Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/01/16/wtrain16.xml. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  23. ^ "Ghan's New 'Steve Irwin' Loco to Bring Tourists to Top End". ABC News. 26 September 2003. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2003/09/26/954373.htm. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  24. ^ Debelle, Penelope (25 October 2002). "Four Die After Ghan Collides with Packed School Bus". The Age (Melbourne). http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2002/10/24/1035416934419.html. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  25. ^ "Ghan derailment victim critical". Sydney Morning Herald (AAP). 13 December 2006. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/ghan-derailment-victim-critical/2006/12/13/1165685714582.html. Retrieved 13 December 2006. 
  26. ^ "Truck Driver Denies Ignoring Ghan Train". The Age (Melbourne). 15 October 2007. http://www.theage.com.au/news/National/Truck-driver-denies-ignoring-Ghan-train/2007/10/15/1192300677994.html. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  27. ^ "Truckie Who Crashed into Ghan: Guilty". National Nine News. 30 November 2007. http://news.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=170350. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  28. ^ "Rains Wash Section of Ghan Rail Link". The Age (Melbourne). 4 March 2007. http://www.theage.com.au/news/National/Rains-wash-section-of-Ghan-rail-link/2007/03/04/1172943259959.html. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  29. ^ "Ghan train smashes into truck". The Age (Melbourne: AAP). 6 August 2007. http://www.theage.com.au/news/travel/ghan-train-smashes-into-truck/2007/08/06/1186252597897.html. Retrieved 6 August 2007. 
  30. ^ "Tourist clings to Australia train". BBC News. 7 June 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8087633.stm. Retrieved 7 June 2009. 

External links