The Drifters

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The Drifters
OriginNew York City, U.S.
GenresR&B, doo wop, soul
Years active1953-present
LabelsAtlantic
Bell
Neon Records
Associated actsBen E. King
Clyde McPhatter
Websitetheofficialdrifters.com
Members
Michael Williams
Pierre Herelle
Ryan King
Carlton Powell
Past members
Clyde McPhatter
Gerhart Thrasher
Andrew Thrasher
Bill Pinkney
Willie Ferbee
Walter Adams
Ben E. King
Doc Green
Beary Hobbs
Rudy Lewis
Charlie Thomas
Tommy Evans
Eugene Pearson
Johnny Terry
Johnny Moore
Bobby Hendricks
Rudy Ivan
Jimmy Lewis
Ray Lewis
Louis Price
Maurice Cannon
 
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The Drifters
OriginNew York City, U.S.
GenresR&B, doo wop, soul
Years active1953-present
LabelsAtlantic
Bell
Neon Records
Associated actsBen E. King
Clyde McPhatter
Websitetheofficialdrifters.com
Members
Michael Williams
Pierre Herelle
Ryan King
Carlton Powell
Past members
Clyde McPhatter
Gerhart Thrasher
Andrew Thrasher
Bill Pinkney
Willie Ferbee
Walter Adams
Ben E. King
Doc Green
Beary Hobbs
Rudy Lewis
Charlie Thomas
Tommy Evans
Eugene Pearson
Johnny Terry
Johnny Moore
Bobby Hendricks
Rudy Ivan
Jimmy Lewis
Ray Lewis
Louis Price
Maurice Cannon

The Drifters are a long-lived American doo-wop and R&B/soul vocal group with a peak in popularity from 1953 to 1963[citation needed], though several splinter Drifters continue to perform today. They were originally formed to serve as backing group for Clyde McPhatter (of Billy Ward & the Dominoes) in 1953.

Rolling Stone magazine states that the Drifters were the least stable of the vocal groups due to being low-paid hired musicians under the direct control of their management,[1] headed by George Treadwell, who owned the Drifters name. The Treadwell Drifters website states that there have been 60 vocalists in the history of the Treadwell Drifters line, [2] including several splinter groups by former Drifters members (not under Treadwell's management) These splinter groups are usually identified with a possessive credit such as "Bill Pinckney's Original Drifters", "Charlie Thomas' Drifters", etc. Only one splinter Drifters group features a classic Drifters member, Charlie Thomas' Drifters. Nevertheless, there are two versions of the Drifters that are notable. The first classic Drifters formed by Clyde McPhatter was inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame as "The Drifters" or "The Original Drifters".[3] The second Drifters formed by Treadwell featuring Ben E. King was separately inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame as Ben E. King and the Drifters.[4] In their induction, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame eclectically selected four members from the classic Drifters, two from the second Drifters, and one from the post-King Treadwell Drifters.[5]

According to the Vocal Group Hall of Fame, "Through turmoil and changes the (original) Drifters managed to set musical trends and give the public 13 chart hits, most of which are legendary recordings today."[3] Matching that feat more or less, the non-original Drifters managed to give the public 13 Hot 100 top 30 chart hits.

Contents

History

The classic first Drifters and Clyde McPhatter

Clyde McPhatter began his professional recording career as lead tenor for Billy Ward and His Dominoes in 1950 after winning "Amateur Night" at the famed Apollo Theater. Three years later, on May 7, 1953, McPhatter left the group hoping to continue in entertainment and make a name for himself. The Dominoes once made an appearance at Birdland without McPhatter, and Ahmet Ertegün of Atlantic Records noticed McPhatter was not present, only to learn that Clyde was no longer with the group. As Jerry Wexler recalls, "Ahmet exited Birdland like a shot and headed directly uptown. He raced from bar to bar looking for Clyde and finally found him in a furnished room. That very night Ahmet reached an agreement with McPhatter under which Clyde would assemble a group of his own. They became known as The Drifters."[6] Wanting to blend gospel and secular sounds, Clyde's first effort was to get 4 out of 5 members of his old church group, the Mount Lebanon Singers. They were William “Chick” Anderson (tenor), David Baldwin (baritone), James “Wrinkle” Johnson (bass), and David “Little Dave” Baughan (tenor). After a single recording session of four songs on June 29, 1953, Ertegün saw this combination didn't work and prompted McPhatter to recruit another lineup.

This second group of newly recruited Drifters consisted of gospel vocalists in second tenor Gerhart Thrasher, baritone Andrew Thrasher (both formerly of the gospel group the "Thrasher Wonders"), Bill Pinkney (of the Jerusalem Stars) on baritone, Willie Ferbee as bass, and Walter Adams on guitar.

This is the group on the second session, which produced the group's first major hit, "Money Honey", released September 1953, with the record label proudly displaying the group name Clyde McPhatter & The Drifters. McPhatter was barely known during his time with The Dominoes. He was sometimes passed off as "Clyde Ward, Billy's little brother." Others assumed it was Billy Ward doing the singing. "Lucille" (written by McPhatter) from the first session was put on the B side, making a recording industry rarity as a single released with songs from two essentially separate groups of the same name on the A and B sides. "Money Honey" was a huge success and propelled The Drifters to immediate fame.

More lineup changes followed after the session when Ferbee was involved in an accident and left the group, and then Adams died, to be replaced by Jimmy Oliver. Ferbee was not replaced and the voice parts were shifted around. Gerhart Thrasher became first tenor, Andrew Thrasher was now the baritone, and Bill Pinkney shifted down to bass. This group released several more hits ("Such A Night" in November 1953,[7][8] "Honey Love" June 1954, "Bip Bam" October 1954, "White Christmas" November 1954, and "What'cha Gonna Do" in March 1955) before McPhatter received his draft letter in May 1954. Initially stationed in Buffalo, New York, he was able to continue for a time, with "What'cha Gonna Do" being Clyde's last recording with his group, after which he pursued a successful but somewhat short-lived solo career with 16 R&B and 21 Pop hits.

McPhatter had demanded a large share of the group's profits, which he had been denied in the Dominoes, but, upon his departure, did not ensure that this would continue for his successor. He sold his share of the group to George Treadwell, manager, former jazz trumpeter, and husband of singer Sarah Vaughan. As a result, the Drifters cycled through many members, none of whom made much money. McPhatter later expressed regret at this action, recognizing that it doomed his fellow musicians to unprofitability.

McPhatter was first replaced by David Baughn, who was on the new group's first session. While his voice was similar to McPhatter's, his erratic behavior proved him difficult to work with and made him unsuitable in the eyes of Atlantic Records executives. Baughn soon left the group to form the Harps (1955) (finding his way back into Bill Pinkney's Original Drifters in 1958), and was replaced by Selma native Johnny Moore (formerly of The Hornets). September 1955 saw this lineup record a major double-sided R&B hit with the A side's "Adorable", reaching number one and the B side, "Steamboat," going to number five. These were followed by "Ruby Baby" in February 1956, and "I Got To Get Myself A Woman".

Low salaries contributed to burnout among the members, particularly Bill Pinkney, who was fired after asking Treadwell for more money. In protest, Andrew Thrasher left as well. Pinkney formed another group, called "The Flyers", with lead singer Bobby Hendricks, who would leave to join the Drifters the next year. Bill Pinkney was replaced by Tommy Evans (who had replaced Jimmy Ricks in The Ravens). Charlie Hughes, a baritone, replaced Andrew Thrasher. Moore, G. Thrasher, C. Hughes, and Evans were the last quality lineup with the top ten hit, "Fools Fall in Love" in 1957 (number 69 Pop and number 10 R&B).

Moore and Hughes were drafted in 1957 and replaced by Bobby Hendricks and Jimmy Millender. By early 1958, the lineup was: Bobby Hendricks (lead tenor), Gerhart Thrasher (first tenor), Jimmy Millender (baritone), Tommy Evans (bass), and Jimmy Oliver (guitar). This lineup had one moderate hit, the original version of "Drip Drop" (number 58 Pop), released in April 1958.

With declining popularity, the last of the original Drifters were reduced to working the club scene and doing double duty with gigs under The Coasters and the Ravens names.[3] By May 1958, both Hendricks and Oliver had quit, returning only for a week's appearance at the Apollo Theater. During that week, one of the members got into a fight with the owner of the Apollo, Ralph Cooper. That was the last straw for manager George Treadwell, who fired the entire group.

Bill Pinkney's Original Drifters

Though Treadwell represented ownership of the Drifters brand, original members felt they were the real Drifters and were determined to keep the group alive. Bill Pinkney was the first, and he joined with the Thrashers and David Baughan to begin touring as "The Original Drifters" after receiving exclusive and irrevocable ownership of the name/mark "The Original Drifters" in a binding arbitration brought by Pinkney (also recording as "The Harmony Grits", "Bill Pinkney & The Turks", and "Bill Pinkney & the Originals" during that time). Several original Drifters came in and out of this group over time, as well as other new artists, but these Drifters never had the success of their earlier Drifters days.

Baughan left after a short time. Bobby Lee Hollis joined in 1964 and took over the lead spot. Later that year, Andrew Thrasher was out and Jimmy Lewis was in. Bobby Hendricks returned, making the group a quintet for a short time, before Lewis left. Andrew Thrasher returned, replacing Hollis. Hollis and Baughan bounced in and out through the 1960s. By 1968, the group was Pinkney, Gerhart Thrasher, Hollis, and Hendricks. Pinkney then met with an existing group, The Tears, and recruited them to perform as part of his group on a short tour. The Tears were Benny Anderson, George Wallace, Albert Fortson, and Mark Williams. Shortly after that, they broke away from Pinkney. Learning that they were continuing to tour as the Original Drifters, Pinkney later filed suit and successfully stopped them from using his name/mark The Original Drifters.

Pinkney then brought in new members Bruce Caesar, Clarence Tex Walker, and Bruce Richardson, but the lineup changed rapidly. In 1979 the group was Pinkney, Andrew Lawyer, Chuck Cockerham, Harriel Jackson, and Tony Cook. Their 1995 album Peace in the Valley, on Blackberry Records, credited vocals to Pinkney, Cockerham, Richard Knight Dunbar, (Vernon Young), and Greg Johnson.[9] They appeared on the 2001 PBS special Doo Wop 51 with Pinkney, Dunbar, Johnson, and Bobby Hendricks. The lineup in the early 2000s was Pinkney, Cockerham, Dunbar, Young, and Ronald Jackson, the son of singer Ruth Brown and Clyde McPhatter.[10] Young died in 2005[11] and Pinkney in 2007.

The other members continue performing under the auspices of Original Drifters, Inc. It is the only Drifters group with a United States Patent and Trademark Office Service Mark and engaging in compliance with all state Truth in Music laws. The present Original Drifters lineup is Russell Henry, Chuck Cockerham, Richard Knight Dunbar, Vernon Taylor, Kingsley O'Brian McIntosh, and Joseph Turner. The Vocal Group Hall of Fame links to Bill Pinkney's Original Drifters Official and Authentic Website at "[1]".[3]

The New Drifters

Treadwell owned the rights to the name "Drifters", and still had a year's worth of bookings for the Apollo when he fired the group. In the summer of 1958, he approached Lover Patterson, the manager of The Five Crowns featuring lead singer Ben E. Nelson, better known by his later stage name of Ben E. King. The new line-up consisted of King (lead tenor), Charlie Thomas (tenor), Doc Green (baritone), and Elsbeary Hobbs (bass). James "Poppa" Clark was the fifth "crown"; he was not included due to an alcohol problem, which Treadwell had considered to be a problem with the first group.[12] The group went out on the road to tour for almost a year. Since this new group had no connection to the prior Drifters, they often played to hostile audiences.[4]

This new lineup, widely considered the "true" golden age of the group, released several singles with King on lead that became chart hits. "There Goes My Baby", the first commercial rock-and-roll recording to include a string orchestra, was a Top 10 hit, and number 193 on Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. "Dance with Me" followed, and then "This Magic Moment" (number 16 on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1960). "Save the Last Dance for Me" reached # 1 on the U.S. pop charts and #2 in the UK. This was followed by "I Count The Tears." This version of The Drifters was inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 2000 as Ben E. King and the Drifters. The writeup indicates an award primarily as a tribute to Ben E. King with a nod to his time in The Drifters, with only one of five paragraphs exclusively devoted to The Drifters, though Charlie Thomas was also cited by the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (and the Vocal Group Hall of Fame's induction of the original Drifters, which technically was only through 1958).

With this brief golden age lasting only two years, personnel changes quickly followed. Lover Patterson (now the Drifters' road manager) got into a fight with George Treadwell. Since Patterson had King under personal contract, he refused to let him tour with the group. Thus King was only able to record with the group for about a year. Johnny Lee Williams, who sang lead on "True Love, True Love", the flipside of "Dance with Me", handled the vocals on tour along with Charlie Thomas. When the group passed through Williams' hometown of Mobile, Alabama, Williams left the group. (Williams died on December 19, 2004, at age 64.[13]) When King asked Treadwell for a raise and a fair share of royalties, a request that wasn't honored, he left and began a successful solo career. Williams left at the same time, and new lead Rudy Lewis (of The Clara Ward Singers) was recruited.[12] Lewis led the Drifters on hits such as "Some Kind Of Wonderful", "Up On The Roof", "Please Stay" and "On Broadway", which reached #5 on the U.S. pop singles chart and #4 on the U.S. R&B singles chart in 1963. Lewis was also named in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Drifters induction.

Hobbs was drafted for military service and eventually replaced by the returning Tommy Evans (from the first group). Green left in 1962 and was replaced by Eugene Pearson (of The Rivileers and The Cleftones). Evans left again in 1963 and was replaced by Johnny Terry, an original member of James Brown's singing group, The Famous Flames,(who was co-writer of their first hit, Please Please Please).[14] After his military service and a failed solo career, Johnny Moore returned in 1964, making the group a quintet of Moore, Thomas, Lewis, Pearson, and Perry.

Later that year, the group was scheduled to record "Under the Boardwalk" on May 21. However, Rudy Lewis died the night before the session, and Johnny Moore took over as the sole lead (he and Lewis had been alternating).[15] Terry was replaced in 1966 by Dan Dandridge for a couple of months, then by William Brent, who had been with Johnny Moore in the Hornets in 1954. Gene Pearson was replaced by Rick Sheppard that same year. By late 1966, baritone/bass Bill Fredricks replaced William Brent. Charlie Thomas, the group's last member from the Five Crowns, left in mid-1967 and was replaced by Charles Baskerville, a former member of The Limelites. Baskerville stayed only a short time. It was in 1972 that The Drifters quietly left the talent roster of Atlantic artists.

Post-Atlantic career

After this, the Drifters moved to England and continued with unstable personnel lineups. Although early lineups included golden era singers Moore, and later Ben E. King, they virtually fell off the radar, having left the US, but continued to have UK chart successes, notably "Like Sister & Brother", "Kissing in the Back Row of the Movies", "There Goes My First Love" and "You're More Than a Number in My Little Red Book". Butch Leake and former Ink Spot Grant Kitchings replaced Sheppard and Thomas. Fredricks was replaced by Clyde Brown the next year, and Kitchings by Billy Lewis[disambiguation needed] the year after. Leake was replaced by Joe Blunt in 1976, making the lineup Johnny Moore, Clyde Brown, Joe Blunt, and Billy Lewis. This year, Faye Treadwell renamed the group's management company Treadwell Drifters Inc.

Moore left in 1978 and was replaced by Ray Lewis. Blunt and Billy Lewis left in 1979 and were replaced by the returning Johnny Moore and former Temptations lead Louis Price. Moore left again in late 1982, along with Clyde Brown. They were replaced by two returning members, Benjamin Earl Nelson (a.k.a. Ben E. King) and Bill Fredricks.

Fredricks, Lewis, and Price all left in 1983, and were replaced by the returning Johnny Moore, Joe Blunt, and Clyde Brown. In 1986, the group split up, and the a new lineup was constructed by Treadwell, consisting of new member Jonah Ellis and former members Ray Lewis, Billy Lewis, and Louis Price. The next year, more former members came in as replacements, making the group Moore, Billy and Ray Lewis, and Gene Jenkins (replaced shortly after by George Chandler, then John Thurston[disambiguation needed]). Ray Lewis was out in 1988, and was replaced by Joe Cofie. In 1989, Billy Lewis left, and was replaced by the returning George Chandler, then Tony Jackson, Keith John, and finally Peter Lamarr in 1990.

Thurston was out at the end of the year and was replaced by Roy Hemmings. Patrick Alan was in for Peter Lamarr briefly, before Lamarr left in 1991, and was permanently replaced by Rohan Delano Turney. Johnny Stewart joined the group in 1963 and left in the early 1990s in Las Vegas. He later joined The Platters and continued his singing career. This lineup lasted until 1996, when Cofie was out and Jason Leigh was in. Leigh was replaced after two years by the returning Peter Lamar. Jason leigh later returned on the next tour and Peter was replaced by the returning Patrick Allen. Between 1995 and 2001 there were alternate members.--Jahson 23:22,

Tragedy struck on December 30, 1998 when the group's longest-serving member, Johnny Moore, John Alfred Moore! died in London.[16] Patrick Alan returned to the group, keeping it a quartet.

In 2001 Faye Treadwell left the United Kingdom and apparently abandoned the Treadwell Drifters franchise[17] (even though in January 2000 a US court had previously overturned a 1999 jury verdict declaring that it was abandoned.)[18] In this environment, two members of her company, Mark Lundquist and Phil Lunderman, started a new management company, Drifters UK Limited, to run the group. Their new duties included stopping a patent by a UK group calling themselves American Drifters.[19][20] Lamarr left again in 2003, and was replaced by Victor Bynoe. Hemmings left in 2004 and was replaced by the again-returning Peter Lamarr. The group's lineup as of 2007 was Peter Lamarr, Rohan Delano Turney, Patrick Alan, and Victor Bynoe.[21] On June 20, 2007 this lineup performed at Prime Minister Tony Blair's Farewell Party in London.[22] In 2008 Tina Treadwell won her case in a UK court establishing her ownership of the Treadwell Drifters franchise, so this lineup lost the right to use the Drifters name (see below).

Court case

In December 2006, writs were served in the London High Court by Tina Treadwell, daughter of George and Faye, against Mark Lundquist and Philip Luderman Drifters UK Ltd, alleging they are not the rightful controllers of The Drifters.

In July 2008, The Treadwell family and Prism Music Group Ltd won their legal battle.[23] The court order prohibited Phil Luderman, Mark Lundquist, Rohan Delano Turney, Peter Lamarr, Patrick Alan or Victor Bynoe from using the Drifters name.[24][25]

Ownership of The Drifters name continues with The Treadwell family in the form of George Treadwell’s daughter, Tina, and the UK-based company Prism Music Group Ltd. The line-up features Michael Williams, Pierre Herelle, Ryan King and Carlton Powell.

The current Drifters line up performed at the IndigO2 at London's O2 with special guests The Drifter Legends, made up of some of the most prestigious former members of the group. Lifetime Achievement Awards were made at the concert to Joe Blunt and Butch Leake from Sony Music.

This is the only line up, with the exception of Johnny Moore, to have recorded on both of the group's former labels, having recorded new material on Atlantic/Warner in 2009 and now in 2011 on Sony Music (Bell Arista) with the new release on March 21, 2011.

Splinters

In the early 1970s, promoter Larry Marshak decided to reunite the Drifters (not realizing that they were still performing with a newer lineup). He found Doc Green, Charlie Thomas, and Elsbeary Hobbs, and began to promote them as "The Drifters". This brought swift legal action from Faye Treadwell, wife of George Treadwell, who was managing the Drifters. In an attempt to grant his group the sole rights to the name, Marshak convinced Hobbs, Thomas, and Green to apply for a trademark on the Drifters name in 1976. The trademark was granted, but due to Treadwell's legal action it was revoked in 2000 in U.S. Federal Court. The trio of original Drifters split afterward into separate groups.

Bill Pinkney's Original Drifters (Pinkney died July 4, 2007) continue to tour and record. Charlie Thomas leads another group billed as "Charlie Thomas' Drifters."

Rick Sheppard also tours with a group. Sheppard owns the Canadian Trademark for the Drifters name and has recently won a lawsuit in Canada, so that no other Drifters are permitted to perform there.[citation needed] Ray Lewis and Roy Hemmings have led a Drifters group. Bobby Hendricks leads a group, as does Billy Lewis (Trademark battle between him and Faye Treadwell). Don Thomas leads a group, Don Thomas and the Drifters Review.

Aside from the official post-2008 lineup, Treadwell managed a second group, The Drifters Legends, composed of former members Rick Sheppard, Butch Leake, Joe Blunt and Clyde Brown.[26] Faye Treadwell died of breast cancer, aged 84, on 22 May 2011.[27]

Awards

The Vocal Group Hall of Fame has inducted both "The Original Drifters'" (1998) and "Ben E. King and The Drifters" (2000). In 2004, Rolling Stone Magazine ranked The Drifters #81 on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.[1] In 1988, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducted The Drifters; naming members Clyde McPhatter, Bill Pinkney, Gerhardt Thrasher, Johnny Moore, Ben E. King, Charlie Thomas, and Rudy Lewis. Bill Pinkney, Charlie Thomas, and Johnny Moore (posthumously) received Pioneer Awards from the Rhythm & Blues Foundation in 1999.[3] The Songwriters Hall of Fame include The Drifters among their Songwriters Friends, the artists who popularized the songs written by inductees.[28]

Discography

References

  1. ^ a b "The Immortals: The First Fifty". Rolling Stone Issue 946. Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/5939214/the_immortals_the_first_fifty. 
  2. ^ "Treadwell Presents The Drifters". http://www.thedrifters.co.uk/index.php. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "The Drifters (Inducted 1998)". http://www.vocalgroup.org/inductees/the_drifters.html. 
  4. ^ a b "Ben E. King and the Drifters (Inducted 2000)". http://www.vocalgroup.org/inductees/ben_e_king.html. 
  5. ^ "The Drifters: inducted in 1988 | The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum". Rockhall.com. http://www.rockhall.com/inductee/the-drifters. Retrieved 2012-05-10. 
  6. ^ Honkers And Shouters. The Golden Years Of Rhythm And Blues. Crowell-Collier Press, New York, 1978, pg. 382
  7. ^ The Drifters Official Website - Discography
  8. ^ Second Hand Songs - Song: Such a Night - Elvis Presley
  9. ^ Djangos.com
  10. ^ Camera Debut for Ruth Brown's Son, Ronald David Jackson - Jet Magazine, March 24, 1955
  11. ^ Soul Music HQ The Drifters
  12. ^ a b Marv Goldberg
  13. ^ "Soul Music HQ The Drifters". Soulmusichq.com. http://www.soulmusichq.com/news.htm. Retrieved 2012-05-10. 
  14. ^ American Singing Groups: A History from 1940s to Today - Jay Warner - Google Books. Books.google.com. 2006-05-31. http://books.google.com/books?id=mTM_9JTeoMIC&pg=PA164&lpg=PA164&dq=johnny+terry+flames+drifters&source=bl&ots=EJO3kVe8H_&sig=gsF4SMdbuY_pAxf1XtAdyKi4KTU&hl=en&ei=QAB0Sve9GpGgswOi1tXhCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved 2012-05-10. 
  15. ^ "Rudy Lewis: Information from". Answers.com. 1964-05-20. http://www.answers.com/topic/rudy-lewis. Retrieved 2012-05-10. 
  16. ^ "Obituary: Johnny Moore"
  17. ^ "The Drifters, Tony Milton, Ray Charles, Leiber and Stoller, Impressions". Soul Music HQ. http://www.soulmusichq.com/earshot12.html. Retrieved 2012-05-10. 
  18. ^ United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, MARSHAK V. TREADWELL, paragraphs 22 and 23
  19. ^ Trade marks inter parte decision,O/220/05
  20. ^ Lucas Management - The American Dream - info@lucasmanagement.biz
  21. ^ The Drifters Official Website - The Drifters Family Tree
  22. ^ "Mark Lundquist News, The Drifters at the PM Party". http://www.marklundquist.com/news.html. 
  23. ^ The Drifters settle name dispute - Yahoo! News UK
  24. ^ Music Week - The Drifters triumph in court case
  25. ^ The Drifters win legal battle | News|NME.COM
  26. ^ The Drifters Legends
  27. ^ Obituary, Faye Treadwell, The Guardian
  28. ^ "Artists". Songwriters Hall of Fame. http://www.songwritershalloffame.org/artists/home. Retrieved 2012-05-10. 

External links