The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford

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The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford

Theatrical poster
Directed byAndrew Dominik
Produced byRidley Scott
Jules Daly
Brad Pitt
Dede Gardner
David Valdes
Screenplay byAndrew Dominik
Based onThe Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford by
Ron Hansen
Narrated byHugh Ross
StarringBrad Pitt
Casey Affleck
Mary-Louise Parker
Zooey Deschanel
Sam Shepard
Sam Rockwell
Music byNick Cave
Warren Ellis
CinematographyRoger Deakins
Editing byDylan Tichenor
Michael Kahn
StudioVirtual Studios
Scott Free Productions
Plan B Entertainment
Distributed byWarner Bros. Pictures
Release date(s)
  • September 21, 2007 (2007-09-21)
Running time160 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$30 million[1]
Box office$15,001,776[2]
 
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The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford

Theatrical poster
Directed byAndrew Dominik
Produced byRidley Scott
Jules Daly
Brad Pitt
Dede Gardner
David Valdes
Screenplay byAndrew Dominik
Based onThe Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford by
Ron Hansen
Narrated byHugh Ross
StarringBrad Pitt
Casey Affleck
Mary-Louise Parker
Zooey Deschanel
Sam Shepard
Sam Rockwell
Music byNick Cave
Warren Ellis
CinematographyRoger Deakins
Editing byDylan Tichenor
Michael Kahn
StudioVirtual Studios
Scott Free Productions
Plan B Entertainment
Distributed byWarner Bros. Pictures
Release date(s)
  • September 21, 2007 (2007-09-21)
Running time160 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$30 million[1]
Box office$15,001,776[2]

The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford (often shortened to The Assassination of Jesse James) is a 2007 American Western drama film. The film is directed by Andrew Dominik, with Brad Pitt portraying Jesse James and Casey Affleck as his killer, Robert Ford.

Filming took place in rural Alberta and Winnipeg, Manitoba. Initially intended for a 2006 release, it was postponed and re-edited for a September 21, 2007 release. An adaptation of Ron Hansen's 1983 novel of the same name, the film dramatizes the relationship between James and Ford. This is Pitt's and Affleck's first collaboration outside of the Ocean's trilogy.

Contents

Plot

Robert Ford seeks out Jesse James when the James gang is planning a train robbery in Blue Cut, Missouri, making petty, unsuccessful attempts to join the gang with his brother Charley's help, an existing member of the James gang. The train turns out to be carrying only a fraction of the money originally thought, and Frank James informs Charley Ford that the robbery would be the last the James brothers would commit, and that the gang had "gave up their nightridin' for good". Jesse returns home to Kansas City, bringing the Fords, Dick Liddil and his cousin, Wood Hite. Jesse sends Charley, Wood and Dick away, but insists that Bob stay, leading Bob to believe Jesse has taken a shine to him. It transpires that Jesse only required Bob to stay to assist him moving his furniture to a new home. Jesse then allows him to stay with the James family for a few extra days. Bob spends these days obsessing over Jesse, before being sent away to return to his sister's farmhouse and rejoin Wood, Dick and Charley.

Dick Liddil reveals to Bob that he is in cahoots with another member of the James gang, Jim Cummins, to capture Jesse for a substantial bounty. Meanwhile, Jesse visits another gang member, Ed Miller, who unwittingly gives away information on Cummins' plot. Jesse kills Miller, then departs with Dick Liddil to hunt down Jim Cummins. Unable to locate Jim, Jesse viciously beats Albert Ford, a young cousin of Bob and Charley. Dick returns to the Bolton's farmhouse, and is involved in a dispute with Wood Hite, ending in Wood's death at the hands of Robert Ford. Hite's body is dumped in the woods, in an effort to conceal this from Jesse.

Jesse and Charley Ford travel to St. Joseph, Missouri, and Jesse learns of Wood's disappearance, which Charley denies knowing anything about. Meanwhile, Bob approaches Kansas City police commissioner, Henry Craig, revealing that he has information regarding Jesse James's whereabouts. To prove his allegiance with the James gang, Bob urges Craig to arrest Dick Liddil. Following Dick's arrest, and subsequent confession to his involvement in numerous James gang robberies, Bob brokers a deal with the Governor of Missouri, Thomas T. Crittenden, in which he is given 10 days to capture or kill Jesse James.

After being persuaded by Charley, Jesse agrees to take Bob into the gang, and the Ford brothers travel to Jesse's home in St. Joseph, to stay with him, his wife Zee, and their two children. Jesse plans numerous robberies with the Fords, beginning with the Platte City bank. On the morning of 3 April, 1882, Jesse and the Ford brothers prepare to depart for the Platte City robbery. After reading the morning newspaper, Jesse learns of the arrest and confessions of Dick Liddil. The Fords excuse themselves into the living room, and put on their gun holsters. Jesse removes his own gun belt, lest he look suspicious to the neighbours, and climbs a chair to clean a dusty picture. Robert Ford shoots Jesse James in the back of the head, and the Ford brothers flee the James household, sending a telegram to the Governor to announce Jesse's killing.

After the assassination, the Fords become celebrities with a theater show in Manhattan, re-enacting the assassination with Bob playing himself, and Charley as Jesse James. Guilt-stricken, Charley pens numerous letters to Zee James asking for her forgiveness, none of which he mails. Overwhelmed with despair and terminally ill from tuberculosis, Charles Ford commits suicide in May 1884. On June 8, 1892, Bob is sought out and murdered by a man named Edward O'Kelley, while working as a saloonkeeper in Creede, Colorado. O'Kelley is later pardoned for the killing.

Cast

Gang
Women
Authorities
Other

Themes

The film was adapted from Ron Hansen's 1983 novel of the same name.

Unlike previous movies based on the outlaw, Andrew Dominik's film is presented as a psychoanalytical, historical epic - rather than a shoot-'em-up western. The movie details the outlaw's deteriorating psyche during his final months of life as he slowly succumbs to paranoia and develops a precarious friendship with his eventual assassin, Robert Ford. The strange relationship between the two men is examined over the course of the film.

Peter Bradshaw's review in The Guardian makes note of James's contribution to his own demise as well as the apparent paradox present in the title of both novel and film:

As his career draws to an end, Jesse James becomes aware of the impossibility of facing an increasingly vast army of sheriffs, federal agents and Pinkerton men. He senses that, inevitably, one of his gang will in any case sell him out for a fat reward. Unwilling to give the lawmen that satisfaction, James embraces his own death and subtly cultivates the mercurial attentions of the most obviously cringing and cowardly of his associates: 20-year-old Robert Ford. With the taunts and whims of a lover, he encourages Ford's envious, murderous fascination, and grooms him as his own killer, so that his own legend will be pristine after his death. He engineers a character-assassination of Ford, and the title, knowingly, gets it precisely the wrong way around.[3]

Ford, who grew up idolizing James and wishing to join the James-Younger Gang himself, sets off on a mission to Glendale, Missouri, where the last remains of the gang are staging the last train robbery of their careers. It is this depiction of Ford's encounter with James in the fall of 1881 which sets off the film.

Production

This working engine and train at Fort Edmonton Park was featured in the film.

In March 2004, Warner Bros. and Plan B Entertainment acquired feature film rights to Hansen's 1983 novel The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford. Andrew Dominik was hired to direct and write the film adaptation, with Pitt being eyed to portray Jesse James.[4] The role of Ford eventually was between Affleck and Shia LaBeouf; Affleck was cast because it was felt that LaBeouf was too young. Bill Clinton's presidential campaign strategist James Carville was selected to play the Governor of Missouri.[5] By January 2005, Pitt was cast in the role,[6] and filming began on August 29, 2005 in Calgary.[7] Filming also took place in other parts of Alberta, including McKinnon Flats, Heritage Park, the Fairmont Palliser Hotel, the Kananaskis area, several private ranches[8] and the historical Fort Edmonton Park.[8] The historical town of Creede, Colorado was recreated at a cost of $1 million near Goat Creek in Alberta.[9] Filming also took place in Winnipeg in the city's historic Exchange District; the Burton Cummings Theatre (formerly known as The Walker Theatre) and the Pantages Playhouse Theatre,[10] and concluded in December 2005.[9]

The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford was initially edited by director Dominik to be "a dark, contemplative examination of fame and infamy,"[11] similar to the style of director Terrence Malick. The studio opposed Dominik's approach, preferring less contemplation and more action. One version of the film had a running time of more than three hours. Pitt and Ridley Scott, producers of the film, and editors Dylan Tichenor (who left the production early to cut There Will Be Blood, and was replaced with editor Curtis Clayton, who ultimately finished the production) and Michael Kahn (who was brought in for several weeks as the studio's "go to" editor), collaborated to assemble and test different versions, which did not receive strong scores from test audiences. Despite the negative response, the audiences considered the performances by Pitt and Affleck to be some of their careers' best.[12] Brad Pitt had it written into his contract that the studio could not change the name of the film.[13]

Cinematography

Cinematographer Roger Deakins used palettes of brown and black to produce a bleak yet oneiric quality to the film, reminiscent of the paintings of Andrew Wyeth.[14]
An exterior shot. Notice the color aberration around the edges, imitating the look of old photographs.

One of the most well-known sequences of the film is the scene of a train robbery at night time. Cinematographer Roger Deakins used various cinematographic techniques to give the train more of a presence when it was in pitch darkness. The idea was to generate a heavy sense of atmosphere using only the lanterns held up by the outlaws and the 5K PAR light mounted on the front of the train.[citation needed]

In order to enhance the blacks, Deakins did a slight bleach bypass on the negative, which was especially important in terms of rendering detail.[citation needed]

Some scenes in the film have a blurred effect around the borders of the frame, which were achieved by taking old wide-angle lenses and mounting them onto the front several cameras (Arri Macros in this case). Deakins claimed to have pioneered this technique, naming these combinations of lenses "Deakinizers", which created the effect of vignetting and a slight color aberration around the edges. Deakins recalls:

Most of those shots were used for transitional moments, and the idea was to create the feeling of an old-time camera. We weren’t trying to be nostalgic, but we wanted those shots to be evocative. The idea sprang from an old photograph Andrew [Dominik] liked, and we did a lot of tests to mimic the look of the photo. Andrew had a whole lot of photographic references for the look of the movie, mainly the work of still photographers, but also images clipped from magazines, stills from Days of Heaven, and even Polaroids taken on location that looked interesting or unusual. He hung all of them up in the long corridor of the production office. That was a wonderful idea, because every day we'd all pass by [images] that immediately conveyed the tone of the movie he wanted to make.

Several time-lapse sequences appear throughout the film, which were shot by Steadicam operator Damon Moreau. According to Moreau, he would be sent out to do these shots when the crew wasn't ready to shoot a scene yet.[citation needed] Often accompanied by the film's melancholic score, these time-lapse sequences remind the audience of the passing time, developing an uneasiness that eventually builds up to the inevitable yet unsettling climax.

Music

The music for the film was composed by Australian musicians Nick Cave and Warren Ellis.[15] Both men also collaborated to create the award winning score for the Australian film The Proposition in 2005.[16]

Nick Cave has a minor part in the latter stages of the film, playing a strolling balladeer in a crowded bar, where, unrecognized by the other patrons, Bob Ford must endure the humiliating lyrics of "The Ballad of Jesse James" as performed by Cave.

Cave and Ellis released a double disc album titled White Lunar in September 2009, which contains several tracks from the Jesse James score, as well as tracks they composed for other films up to 2009.[17]

Release

The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford was originally slated for a September 15, 2006 release.[18] The release date was postponed to February 2007 at first,[19] but ultimately set for a September 21, 2007 release,[20] almost two years after filming was completed.[12]

The film opened in limited release on September 21, 2007, in 5 theaters and grossed $147,812 in its opening weekend, an average of $29,256 per theater.[21] The film has a total gross of less than $4 million.

Warner Home Video released the film on DVD on February 5, 2008[22] in the US, and on March 31 in the UK. So far, about 566,537 DVD units have been sold, bringing $9,853,258 in revenue.[23]

Reception

Critical reception

As of December 7, 2007 on the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the film received a 75% fresh rating from 142 reviews and 58 percent from 31 the Cream of the Crop .[24] On Metacritic, the film had an average score of 68 out of 100, based on 31 reviews.[25]

Brian Tallerico of UGO gave the film an "A" and said that it is "the best western since Unforgiven." Tallerico also said, "Stunning visuals, award-worthy performances, and a script that takes incredibly rewarding risks, Jesse James is a masterpiece and one of the best films of the year."[26] Kurt Loder of MTV said, "If I were inclined to wheel out clichés like 'Oscar-worthy', I'd certainly wheel them out in support of this movie, on several counts."[27] Richard Roeper on the television show Ebert & Roeper said, "If you love classic and stylish mood Westerns such as McCabe and Mrs. Miller and The Long Riders, this is your film."[28] The Star-Ledger film critic Stephen Whitty gave the film four stars and called it an "epic film that's part literary treatise, part mournful ballad, and completely a portrait of our world, as seen in a distant mirror." Whitty also said that the film is "far superior" and "truer to its own world" than 3:10 to Yuma.[29] Josh Rosenblatt of The Austin Chronicle gave the film 3½ stars and said the film "grabs on to many of the classic tropes of the Western — the meandering passage of time, the imposing landscapes, the abiding loneliness, the casual violence — and sets about mapping their furthest edges."[30]

Film critic Emanuel Levy gave the film an "A" and wrote, "Alongside Joel and Ethan Coen's No Country for Old Men, which is a Western in disguise, or rather a modern Western, Assassination of Jesse James is the second masterpiece of the season." Levy also wrote, "Like Bonnie & Clyde, Dominik's seminal Western is a brilliant, poetic saga of America's legendary criminal as well as meditative deconstruction of our culture's most persistent issues: link of crime and fame, myths of heroism and obsession with celebrity."[31] Lewis Beale of Film Journal International said "Impeccably shot, cast and directed, this is a truly impressive film from sophomore writer-director Andrew Dominik...but suffers from an unfortunate case of elephantiasis." Beale said Affleck is "outstanding in a breakout performance" and said Pitt is "scary and charismatic." Beale wrote, "The director seems so in love with his languorous pacing, he’s incapable of cutting the five or ten seconds in any number of scenes that could have given the film a more manageable running time. In the scheme of things, however, this amounts to little more than a quibble." Beale said that ultimately, the film is "a fascinating, literary-based work that succeeds as both art and genre film."[32]

British critic Mark Kermode named the film as his best of 2007 in his end-of-year review on Simon Mayo's BBC radio programme.[33] Kermode later wrote that historians a hundred years from now will consider it "one of the most wrongly neglected masterpieces of its era."[34]

Many critics opined that the film is too long. Kirk Honeycutt of The Hollywood Reporter said that the relationship between Pitt and Affleck "gets smothered in pointlessly long takes, repetitive scenes, grim Western landscapes and mumbled, heavily accented dialogue."[35] Los Angeles Daily News critic Bob Strauss gave the film 2½ stars out of 4 and said, "To put it most bluntly, the thing is just too long and too slow." Strauss also said, "Every element of this Western is beautifully rendered. So why is it a chore to sit through?"[36] Pam Grady of Reel.com gave the film 2 stars out of 4 and said, "The movie is merely a long, empty exercise in style."[37] Stephanie Zacharek of Salon.com said that the film "represents a breakthrough in the moviegoing experience. It may be the first time we've been asked to watch a book on tape."[38]

Jesse James's descendants have effusively praised the film, specifically singling out Affleck and Pitt for their performances.[citation needed]

Top ten lists

The film appeared on many critics' top ten lists of the best films of 2007.[39]

Historical accuracy

The film is considered as one of the most historically accurate portrayals of Jesse James and Robert Ford, even by James's descendants, who found both performances more realistic and true to history than the dozens that came before them.[42]

Accolades

The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford was identified by the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures as one of the top 10 films of 2007. The board also named Casey Affleck as Best Supporting Actor in the film.[43] The San Francisco Film Critics Circle named The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford as the Best Picture of 2007. The circle also awarded Affleck as best supporting actor for the film. Affleck was nominated for Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role in a Motion Picture for the 65th Golden Globe Awards.[44]

The film received two Academy Award nominations for the 80th Academy Awards. Affleck was nominated for Best Supporting Actor and Roger Deakins was nominated for Best Cinematography.[45] Earlier in the year, Brad Pitt won the prestigious Volpi Cup for Best Actor when the film premiered at the annual Venice Film Festival. Several other awards circles also awarded composers Nick Cave and Warren Ellis for their music in the film (see below).

The film also holds a place on Empire's recent list of The 500 Greatest Films of All Time, coming in at #396.[46]

AwardCategoryRecipients and nomineesOutcome
Academy AwardsBest Performance by an Actor in a Supporting RoleCasey AffleckNominated
Best CinematographyRoger DeakinsNominated
American Society of Cinematographers (ASC)Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical ReleasesRoger DeakinsNominated
Broadcast Film Critics (BFCA)Best Supporting ActorCasey AffleckNominated
Chicago Film CriticsBest CinematographyRoger DeakinsWon
Best Original ScoreNick Cave
Warren Ellis
Nominated
Best Supporting ActorCasey AffleckNominated
Chlotrudis AwardsBest ActorCasey AffleckNominated
Dallas-Fort Worth Film CriticsTop Ten Films of the Year-9th
Best CinematographyRoger DeakinsWon
Best Supporting ActorCasey Affleck3rd
Detroit Film CriticsBest Supporting ActorCasey AffleckNominated
Empire AwardsBest Film-Nominated
Film Critics Circle of Australia AwardsBest Foreign Film - English LanguageAndrew DominikNominated
Florida Film Critics CircleBest CinematographyRoger DeakinsWon
Golden GlobesBest Performance by an Actor in a Supporting RoleCasey AffleckNominated
Golden Reel AwardsBest Sound Editing - Music in a Feature FilmGerard McCann
William B. Kaplan
Jonathan Karp
Nominated
Golden Trailer AwardsBest Drama Poster-Won
Best Voice Over-Won
Houston Film CriticsBest CinematographyRoger DeakinsWon
International Cinephile SocietyTop Ten Films of the Year-4th
Best Supporting ActorCasey AffleckWon
Best CinematographyRoger DeakinsWon
Best Original ScoreNick Cave
Warren Ellis
2nd
Italian Online Movie AwardsBest Cinematography-Won
Best Actor in a Supporting RoleBrad PittNominated
Las Vegas Film CriticsTop Ten Films of the Year-4th
London Film CriticsActor of the YearCasey AffleckNominated
Film of the Year-Nominated
National Board of ReviewTop Ten Films of the Year-Nominated
Best Supporting ActorCasey AffleckWon
National Society of Film CriticsBest Supporting ActorCasey AffleckWon
Online Film Critics SocietyBest CinematographyRoger DeakinsNominated
Best ScoreNick Cave
Warren Ellis
Nominated
Best Supporting ActorCasey AffleckNominated
San Francisco Film CriticsBest Picture-Won
Best Supporting ActorCasey AffleckWon
Satellite AwardsBest Supporting ActorCasey AffleckWon
Best Art Direction and Production DesignPatricia Norris
Martin Gendron
Troy Sizemore
Nominated
Best CinematographyRoger DeakinsNominated
Best ScoreNick CaveNominated
Screen Actors Guild AwardsOutstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting RoleCasey AffleckNominated
Southeastern Film CriticsTop Ten Films of the Year-7th
St. Louis Gateway Film CriticsBest Picture-Nominated
Best Supporting ActorCasey AffleckWon
Best CinematographyRoger DeakinsWon
Best ScoreNick Cave
Warren Ellis
Nominated
Utah Film Critics AssociationTop Ten Films of the Year-Nominated
Best ActorCasey AffleckNominated
Vancouver Film CriticsBest Supporting ActorCasey AffleckNominated
Venice Film FestivalGolden LionAndrew DominikNominated
Volpi Cup for Best ActorBrad PittWon
Western Writers of AmericaBest Western DramaAndrew DominikWon

See also

References

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  35. ^ Kirk Honeycutt (2007-08-31). "Bottom Line: Pretension and vacuity sabotage a potentially terrific tale of celebrityhood". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 2007-10-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20071003223202/http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/film/reviews/article_display.jsp?&rid=9707. Retrieved 2007-09-27. 
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