From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Tesseract 8-cell 4-cube | |
---|---|

Type | Convex regular 4-polytope |

Schläfli symbol | {4,3,3} t _{0,3}{4,3,2} or {4,3}×{ }t _{0,2}{4,2,4} or {4}×{4}t _{0,2,3}{4,2,2} or {4}×{ }×{ }t _{0,1,2,3}{2,2,2} or { }×{ }×{ }×{ } |

Coxeter-Dynkin diagram | |

Cells | 8 (4.4.4) |

Faces | 24 {4} |

Edges | 32 |

Vertices | 16 |

Vertex figure | Tetrahedron |

Petrie polygon | octagon |

Coxeter group | C_{4}, [3,3,4] |

Dual | 16-cell |

Properties | convex, isogonal, isotoxal, isohedral |

Uniform index | 10 |

For other uses, see Tesseract (disambiguation).

Tesseract 8-cell 4-cube | |
---|---|

Type | Convex regular 4-polytope |

Schläfli symbol | {4,3,3} t _{0,3}{4,3,2} or {4,3}×{ }t _{0,2}{4,2,4} or {4}×{4}t _{0,2,3}{4,2,2} or {4}×{ }×{ }t _{0,1,2,3}{2,2,2} or { }×{ }×{ }×{ } |

Coxeter-Dynkin diagram | |

Cells | 8 (4.4.4) |

Faces | 24 {4} |

Edges | 32 |

Vertices | 16 |

Vertex figure | Tetrahedron |

Petrie polygon | octagon |

Coxeter group | C_{4}, [3,3,4] |

Dual | 16-cell |

Properties | convex, isogonal, isotoxal, isohedral |

Uniform index | 10 |

In geometry, the **tesseract**, also called an **8-cell** or **regular octachoron** or **cubic prism**, is the four-dimensional analog of the cube; the tesseract is to the cube as the cube is to the square. Just as the surface of the cube consists of 6 square faces, the hypersurface of the tesseract consists of 8 cubical cells. The tesseract is one of the six convex regular 4-polytopes.

A generalization of the cube to dimensions greater than three is called a "hypercube", "*n*-cube" or "measure polytope".^{[1]} The tesseract is the **four-dimensional hypercube**, or **4-cube**.

According to the *Oxford English Dictionary*, the word *tesseract* was coined and first used in 1888 by Charles Howard Hinton in his book *A New Era of Thought*, from the Greek τέσσερεις ακτίνες ("four rays"), referring to the four lines from each vertex to other vertices.^{[2]} In this publication, as well as some of Hinton's later work, the word was occasionally spelled "tessaract." Some people^{[citation needed]} have called the same figure a **tetracube**, and also simply a **hypercube** (although a *tetracube* can also mean a polycube made of four cubes, and the term *hypercube* is also used with dimensions greater than 4).

The tesseract can be constructed in a number of ways. As a regular polytope with three cubes folded together around every edge, it has Schläfli symbol {4,3,3} with hyperoctahedral symmetry of order 384. Constructed as a 4D hyperprism made of two parallel cubes, it can be named as a composite Schläfli symbol {4,3} × { }, with symmetry order 96. As a duoprism, a Cartesian product of two squares, it can be named by a composite Schläfli symbol {4}×{4}, with symmetry order 64. As an orthotope it can be represented by composite Schläfli symbol { } × { } × { } × { } or { }^{4}, with symmetry order 16.

Since each vertex of a tesseract is adjacent to four edges, the vertex figure of the tesseract is a regular tetrahedron. The dual polytope of the tesseract is called the hexadecachoron, or 16-cell, with Schläfli symbol {3,3,4}.

The standard tesseract in Euclidean 4-space is given as the convex hull of the points (±1, ±1, ±1, ±1). That is, it consists of the points:

A tesseract is bounded by eight hyperplanes (*x*_{i} = ±1). Each pair of non-parallel hyperplanes intersects to form 24 square faces in a tesseract. Three cubes and three squares intersect at each edge. There are four cubes, six squares, and four edges meeting at every vertex. All in all, it consists of 8 cubes, 24 squares, 32 edges, and 16 vertices.

The construction of a hypercube can be imagined the following way:

**1-dimensional:**Two points A and B can be connected to a line, giving a new line segment AB.**2-dimensional:**Two parallel line segments AB and CD can be connected to become a square, with the corners marked as ABCD.**3-dimensional:**Two parallel squares ABCD and EFGH can be connected to become a cube, with the corners marked as ABCDEFGH.**4-dimensional:**Two parallel cubes ABCDEFGH and IJKLMNOP can be connected to become a hypercube, with the corners marked as ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP.

This structure is not easily imagined, but it is possible to project tesseracts into three- or two-dimensional spaces. Furthermore, projections on the 2D-plane become more instructive by rearranging the positions of the projected vertices. In this fashion, one can obtain pictures that no longer reflect the spatial relationships within the tesseract, but which illustrate the connection structure of the vertices, such as in the following examples:

A tesseract is in principle obtained by combining two cubes. The scheme is similar to the construction of a cube from two squares: juxtapose two copies of the lower-dimensional cube and connect the corresponding vertices. Each edge of a tesseract is of the same length. This view is of interest when using tesseracts as the basis for a network topology to link multiple processors in parallel computing: the distance between two nodes is at most 4 and there are many different paths to allow weight balancing.

Tesseracts are also bipartite graphs, just as a path, square, cube and tree are.

The The The The |

The tesseract can be unfolded into eight cubes into 3D space, just as the cube can be unfolded into six squares into 2D space (view animation). An unfolding of a polytope is called a net. There are 261 distinct nets of the tesseract. | Stereoscopic 3D projection of a tesseract (parallel view ) |

A 3D projection of an 8-cell performing a double rotation about two orthogonal planes | Perspective with hidden volume elimination. The red corner is the nearest in 4D and has 4 cubical cells meeting around it. |

The tetrahedron forms the convex hull of the tesseract's vertex-centered central projection. Four of 8 cubic cells are shown. The 16th vertex is projected to infinity and the four edges to it are not shown. | Stereographic projection (Edges are projected onto the 3-sphere) |

Coxeter plane | B_{4} | B_{3} / D_{4} / A_{2} | B_{2} / D_{3} |
---|---|---|---|

Graph | |||

Dihedral symmetry | [8] | [6] | [4] |

Coxeter plane | Other | F_{4} | A_{3} |

Graph | |||

Dihedral symmetry | [2] | [12/3] | [4] |

Name | {3}×{}×{} | {4}×{}×{} | {5}×{}×{} | {6}×{}×{} | {7}×{}×{} | {8}×{}×{} | {p}×{}×{} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Coxeter diagrams | |||||||

Image | |||||||

Cells | 3 {4}×{} 4 {3}×{} | 4 {4}×{} 4 {4}×{} | 5 {4}×{} 4 {5}×{} | 6 {4}×{} 4 {6}×{} | 7 {4}×{} 4 {7}×{} | 8 {4}×{} 4 {8}×{} | p {4}×{} 4 {p}×{} |

Name | tesseract | rectified tesseract | truncated tesseract | cantellated tesseract | runcinated tesseract | bitruncated tesseract | cantitruncated tesseract | runcitruncated tesseract | omnitruncated tesseract |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Coxeter diagram | = | = | |||||||

Schläfli symbol | {4,3,3} | t_{1}{4,3,3}r{4,3,3} | t_{0,1}{4,3,3}t{4,3,3} | t_{0,2}{4,3,3}rr{4,3,3} | t_{0,3}{4,3,3} | t_{1,2}{4,3,3}2t{4,3,3} | t_{0,1,2}{4,3,3}tr{4,3,3} | t_{0,1,3}{4,3,3} | t_{0,1,2,3}{4,3,3} |

Schlegel diagram | |||||||||

B_{4} | |||||||||

Name | 16-cell | rectified 16-cell | truncated 16-cell | cantellated 16-cell | runcinated 16-cell | bitruncated 16-cell | cantitruncated 16-cell | runcitruncated 16-cell | omnitruncated 16-cell |

Coxeter diagram | = | = | = | = | = | = | |||

Schläfli symbol | {3,3,4} | t_{1}{3,3,4}r{3,3,4} | t_{0,1}{3,3,4}t{3,3,4} | t_{0,2}{3,3,4}rr{3,3,4} | t_{0,3}{3,3,4} | t_{1,2}{3,3,4}2t{3,3,4} | t_{0,1,2}{3,3,4}tr{3,3,4} | t_{0,1,3}{3,3,4} | t_{0,1,2,3}{3,3,4} |

Schlegel diagram | |||||||||

B_{4} |

It in a sequence of regular polychora and honeycombs with tetrahedral vertex figures.

Space | S^{3} | H^{3} | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Form | Finite | Paracompact | Noncompact | |||||

Name | {3,3,3} | {4,3,3} | {5,3,3} | {6,3,3} | {7,3,3} | {8,3,3} | ... {∞,3,3} | |

Image | ||||||||

Coxeter diagrams | 1 | |||||||

4 | ||||||||

6 | ||||||||

12 | ||||||||

24 | ||||||||

Cells {p,3} | {3,3} | {4,3} | {5,3} | {6,3} | {7,3} | {8,3} | {∞,3} |

It in a sequence of regular polychora and honeycombs with cubic cells.

Space | S^{3} | E^{3} | H^{3} | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Form | Finite | Affine | Compact | Paracompact | Noncompact | ||

Name | {4,3,3} | {4,3,4} | {4,3,5} | {4,3,6} | {4,3,7} | {4,3,8} | ... {4,3,∞} |

Image | |||||||

Vertex figure | {3,3} | {3,4} | {3,5} | {3,6} | {3,7} | {3,8} | {3,∞} |

- 3-sphere
- Four-dimensional space
- Grande Arche - a monument and building in the business district of La Défense
- Ludwig Schläfli - Polytopes
- List of four-dimensional games
- Uses in fiction:
- "And He Built a Crooked House" - a science fiction story featuring a building in the form of a tesseract
*A Wrinkle in Time*- a science fantasy novel using the word "tesseract" (without reference to its geometrical meaning)- In the Marvel Cinematic Universe, the Cosmic Cube is referred to as a tesseract
- In the film
*Cube 2:Hypercube*the hypercube is described as a tesseract

- Uses in art:
*Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus)*- oil painting by Salvador Dalí.- In the film (2007)
*The Transformers, it is referred to as The Allspark*

**^**E. L. Elte,*The Semiregular Polytopes of the Hyperspaces*, (1912)**^**http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/199669?redirectedFrom=tesseract#eid**^**"Unfolding an 8-cell".

- T. Gosset:
*On the Regular and Semi-Regular Figures in Space of n Dimensions*, Messenger of Mathematics, Macmillan, 1900 - H.S.M. Coxeter:
- Coxeter,
*Regular Polytopes*, (3rd edition, 1973), Dover edition, ISBN 0-486-61480-8, p. 296, Table I (iii): Regular Polytopes, three regular polytopes in n-dimensions (n≥5) - H.S.M. Coxeter,
*Regular Polytopes*, 3rd Edition, Dover New York, 1973, p. 296, Table I (iii): Regular Polytopes, three regular polytopes in n-dimensions (n≥5) **Kaleidoscopes: Selected Writings of H.S.M. Coxeter**, edited by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, Anthony C. Thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1995, ISBN 978-0-471-01003-6 [1]- (Paper 22) H.S.M. Coxeter,
*Regular and Semi Regular Polytopes I*, [Math. Zeit. 46 (1940) 380-407, MR 2,10] - (Paper 23) H.S.M. Coxeter,
*Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes II*, [Math. Zeit. 188 (1985) 559-591] - (Paper 24) H.S.M. Coxeter,
*Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes III*, [Math. Zeit. 200 (1988) 3-45]

- (Paper 22) H.S.M. Coxeter,

- Coxeter,
- John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strass,
*The Symmetries of Things*2008, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 (Chapter 26. pp. 409: Hemicubes: 1_{n1}) - Norman Johnson
*Uniform Polytopes*, Manuscript (1991)- N.W. Johnson:
*The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs*, Ph.D. (1966)

- N.W. Johnson:

- Weisstein, Eric W., "Tesseract",
*MathWorld*. - Olshevsky, George,
*Tesseract*at*Glossary for Hyperspace*. - Richard Klitzing, 4D uniform polytopes (polychora), x4o3o3o - tes
- The Tesseract Ray traced images with hidden surface elimination. This site provides a good description of methods of visualizing 4D solids.
- Der 8-Zeller (8-cell) Marco Möller's Regular polytopes in R
^{4}(German) - WikiChoron: Tesseract
- HyperSolids is an open source program for the Apple Macintosh (Mac OS X and higher) which generates the five regular solids of three-dimensional space and the six regular hypersolids of four-dimensional space.
- Hypercube 98 A Windows program that displays animated hypercubes, by Rudy Rucker
- ken perlin's home page A way to visualize hypercubes, by Ken Perlin
- Some Notes on the Fourth Dimension includes very good animated tutorials on several different aspects of the tesseract, by Davide P. Cervone
- Tesseract animation with hidden volume elimination