Telangana

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Telangana
Region of Andhra Pradesh
Proposed state
Map of India with Telangana region highlighted in red
Map of India with Telangana region highlighted in red
Coordinates: 18°N 79°E / 18°N 79°E / 18; 79Coordinates: 18°N 79°E / 18°N 79°E / 18; 79
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
Area[1]
 • Total114,840 km2 (44,340 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total35,286,757
 • Density310/km2 (800/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu, Urdu
Time zoneIST (UTC+05:30)
Largest CityHyderabad
 
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Telangana
Region of Andhra Pradesh
Proposed state
Map of India with Telangana region highlighted in red
Map of India with Telangana region highlighted in red
Coordinates: 18°N 79°E / 18°N 79°E / 18; 79Coordinates: 18°N 79°E / 18°N 79°E / 18; 79
Country India
StateAndhra Pradesh
Area[1]
 • Total114,840 km2 (44,340 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total35,286,757
 • Density310/km2 (800/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialTelugu, Urdu
Time zoneIST (UTC+05:30)
Largest CityHyderabad

Telangana is a region in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Before Indian Independence, it was part of Hyderabad State (Medak and Warangal divisions) which was ruled by the Nizams. On 2 June 2014, Telangana will come into existence as the 29th state of Republic of India, consisting of the parts carved out of the ten north-western districts of erstwhile state of Andhra Pradesh.[2] The city of Hyderabad would serve as the joint capital of Telangana and the remainder of Andhra Pradesh for ten years.[3] The region is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north and north-west, Karnataka to the west, Chhattisgarh to the north-east and Odisha to the east. The Telangana region has an area of 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi), and a population of 35,286,757 (2011 census) which was 41.6% of the population of Andhra Pradesh.[4][5]

Telangana comprises 10 districts: Hyderabad, Adilabad, Khammam, Karimnagar, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Rangareddy, and Warangal. The main rivers are the Musi, Manjira, Krishna and Godavari, which flow through the region from west to east. Telangana's four largest cities are Hyderabad, Warangal, Nizamabad and Karimnagar.

Hyderabad state in 1909

Etymology[edit]

The name Telangana is thought to have been derived from the word Telugu, which is the land of Telugu speaking people. Trilinga, as in Trilinga Desa, which translates to "the country of the three lingas." According to a Hindu legend, Shiva descended as linga on three mountains namely, Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharama, which marked the boundaries of the Trilinga desa. Which then is later called as 'Thelinga', 'Telunga', 'Telugu'.[6][7] This is roughly the region between Krishna and Godavari rivers or modern Telangana region.[8]

The name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad State from its predominantly Marathi-spaking one, Marathwada.[9]

Early reference during Kakatiya rule[edit]

One of the earliest references to the word Telangana can be seen from the name of Malik Maqbul, who was called Tilangani, which infers that he was from Tilangana. He was born a Hindu named Nagaya Ganna and was called Yugandhar. He was the son of Dadi Nagadeva. Yugandhar was the commander of Warangal Fort (Kaṭaka pāludu in Telugu).[10] After promotion to commander status, he was addressed as Gannama Nayaka.

After the fall of Warangal in 1323 AD, the Kakatiya king Prataparudra and his trusted minister and commander Gannama Nayaka were captured and taken to Delhi.[11] King Prataparudra committed suicide by drowning in the Narmada River. Yugandhar converted to Islam and was given a new name, Khan-i Jahan Maqbul Tilangani.[12]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Kotilingala in Karimnagar was the capital of Assakajanapada, considered one of the 16 great janapadas of early India. This area yielded coins issued by pre-Satavahana kings. Coins of Chimukha, the founder of Satavahana dynasty, and those cast in lead copper issued by later kings were found.[13]

The Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE) became the dominant power in the area. It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers.[citation needed]

After the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya, ruled the area.[citation needed].

Torana built by the Kakatiyas in Warangal in 1163
The Satavahana dynasty had its roots in Koti Lingala on the banks of the Godavari River, in present day Karimnagar district

Kakatiya dynasty[edit]

The area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty that ruled most parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh from 1083 to 1323 CE. Ganapatideva, who came to power in 1199, was known as the greatest of the Kakatiyas, and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Telugu Cholas, who accepted his suzerainty in the year 1210. He established order in his vast dominion that stretched from the Godavari delta in the east to Raichur (in modern day Karnataka) in the west and from Karimnagar and Bastar (in modern day Chhattisgarh) in the north to Srisailam and Tripurantakam, near Ongole, in the south. It was during his reign that the Golkonda fort was constructed. Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved with the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.

Qutbshahis and Nizams[edit]

The area came under the Muslim rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518. On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort.[14]

Charminar in Hyderabad

In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed to be Viceroy of the Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning "Administrator of the Realm"). In 1724, he defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba and took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the area Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams or Nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions were ruled by the Nizams.

When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams. Nizam signed a subsidiary alliance in 1799 with British and lost its control over the state's defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India. Nizam in two instances ceded the Coastal and Rayalaseema districts of his dominion to British due to his inability to pay for the help that British rendered in his wars against Vijayanagar and Tipu Sultan armies. The ceded Coastal and Rayalaseema districts were called Sarkar and Ceded areas and were part of the British Madras Presidency until India's Independence and part of Madras state until 1953.

Telangana was the seat of numerous dynasties. Chowmahalla Palace was home to the Nizams of Hyderabad.

Post-independence[edit]

When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with Indian Union and wanted to remain independent under the special provisions given to princely states. The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 in Operation Polo. The Central Government appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as First Chief Minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950. He administered the state with the help of English educated bureaucrats from Madras State and Bombay State, who were part of British India and familiar with Indian system unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad state who used completely different administrative system from British India and used Urdu as the state language.

In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief minister of Hyderabad State in the first democratic election. During this time there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send back bureaucrats from Madras state, and to strictly implement rule by natives of Hyderabad.[15]

Meanwhile, Telugu-speaking areas in the Northern Circars and Rayalaseema regions were carved out of the erstwhile Madras state as a result of the 'fast unto death' incident by Potti Sreeramulu to create Andhra State in 1953.[16][17][18]

Telangana Rebellion[edit]

The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the Communists. It took place in the former princely state of Hyderabad between 1946 and 1951. It was led by the Communist Party of India.[19]

The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the King of Hyderabad State. The violent phase of the movement ended after the central government sent in the army.[20] Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy.[21]

Formation of Andhra Pradesh[edit]

Hyderabad State (in yellowish-green)

In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on linguistic bases.[22] An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests.[23] After reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.

Following the Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established a unified Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956.[16][24][25]

Telangana Movement[edit]

There have been several movements to invalidate the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972 and 2009. The movement gained momentum over decades for a new state of Telangana.[26]

On 9 December 2009 the Government of India announced process of formation of Telangana state. Violent protests raised in the coastal and rayalseema regions immediately after the announcement, the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009. The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana.[27]

There have been hundreds of suicides demanding separate statehood.Investigative Indian magazine Tehelka has lamented on the unfortunate glorification of suicides and propaganda by Telangana politicians that may have resulted in many ‘copycat suicides’.[28]

Grievances of Telangana proponents[edit]

Telangana is the largest of the three regions of Andhra Pradesh state, covering 41.47% of its total area. It is inhabited by 40.54% of the state's population and contributes about 76% of the state's revenues.[citation needed] Proponents of a separate Telangana state cite perceived injustices in the distribution of water, budget allocations, and jobs. According to Professor Jayashankar only 20% of the total Government employees are from Telangana.[29][30] As per Srikrishna committee on Telangana, since 1956, Telangana held the position of CM for 10.5 years (including about 4.5 years rule of coastal Andhra born Jalagam Vengal Rao representing Telangana constituency), with Rayalaseema (27 years) and coastal Andhra (20 years (24+ years including Jalagam)).[31] Proponents of a separate Telangana state feel that the agreements, plans, and assurances over the last fifty years have not been honored, and as a consequence Telangana has remained neglected, exploited, and backward. They allege that the experiment to remain as one state has proven to be a futile exercise and that separation is the best solution.[32][33][34]

Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh[edit]

On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state.[35] After various stages the bill was placed in the parliament in February 2014. In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh.[36] Hyderabad will remain as the joint capital of both the states for a period of 10 years.[37] The bill received the assent of the President and published in the gazette on 1 March 2014.[38] On 4 March 2014 the Government of India notified in the official gazettee that the new state of Telangana will come into existence on 2 June 2014.[2][39] It will then become the 29th state of India.[40]

Geography[edit]

Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 114,800 square kilometres (44,300 sq mi) and is the largest of the three regions of Andhra Pradesh.[41] The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River catchment area, but most of the land is arid.[42] Telangana is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Manjira and the Musi.

The annual rainfall is between 900 to 1500mm in northern Telangana and 700 to 900mm in southern Telangana, from the southwest monsoons. Various soil types abound, including chalkas, red sandy soils, dubbas, deep red loamy soils, and very deep b.c. soils that facilitate planting mangoes, oranges and flowers.[43] About 45% of the forest area of Andhra Pradesh is located in five districts of Telangana.

Climate[edit]

Telangana is a semi-arid area within Andhra Pradesh and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C (108 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 755 mm (29.7-inch) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February with little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range.

Warangal
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
15
 
30
16
 
 
5
 
33
18
 
 
5
 
37
22
 
 
7
 
40
26
 
 
15
 
42
28
 
 
50
 
37
28
 
 
85
 
32
25
 
 
170
 
31
25
 
 
160
 
33
23
 
 
70
 
33
22
 
 
10
 
31
18
 
 
0
 
30
15
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: mustseeindia.com
Climate data for Hyderabad
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)33.4
(92.1)
36.8
(98.2)
39.9
(103.8)
43.1
(109.6)
43.7
(110.7)
45.5
(113.9)
36.0
(96.8)
34.7
(94.5)
35.3
(95.5)
36.1
(97)
33.8
(92.8)
32.7
(90.9)
45.5
(113.9)
Average high °C (°F)28.6
(83.5)
31.8
(89.2)
35.2
(95.4)
37.6
(99.7)
38.8
(101.8)
34.4
(93.9)
30.5
(86.9)
29.6
(85.3)
30.1
(86.2)
30.4
(86.7)
28.8
(83.8)
27.8
(82)
32.0
(89.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)22.2
(72)
25.1
(77.2)
28.4
(83.1)
31.5
(88.7)
33.0
(91.4)
29.3
(84.7)
27.0
(80.6)
26.2
(79.2)
26.6
(79.9)
25.7
(78.3)
23.2
(73.8)
21.6
(70.9)
26.65
(79.98)
Average low °C (°F)14.7
(58.5)
17.0
(62.6)
20.3
(68.5)
24.1
(75.4)
26.0
(78.8)
23.9
(75)
22.5
(72.5)
22.0
(71.6)
21.7
(71.1)
20.0
(68)
16.4
(61.5)
14.1
(57.4)
20.2
(68.4)
Record low °C (°F)6.1
(43)
11.3
(52.3)
14.6
(58.3)
17.2
(63)
17.8
(64)
18.6
(65.5)
19.2
(66.6)
20.0
(68)
19.1
(66.4)
13.3
(55.9)
10.6
(51.1)
8.5
(47.3)
6.1
(43)
Rainfall mm (inches)3.2
(0.126)
5.2
(0.205)
12.0
(0.472)
21.0
(0.827)
37.3
(1.469)
96.1
(3.783)
163.9
(6.453)
171.1
(6.736)
181.5
(7.146)
90.9
(3.579)
16.2
(0.638)
6.1
(0.24)
804.5
(31.674)
Avg. rainy days.3.4.91.82.77.610.610.18.95.71.6.451.0
 % humidity56493937396171747263585756.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours279.0271.2263.5273.0282.1180.0142.6136.4168.0226.3246.0263.52,731.6
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1951–1980),[44] NOAA (extremes, mean, humidity, 1971–1990)[45]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1971–1990)[46] Hyderabad, IMD [47]

Demographics[edit]

Religion in Telangana
ReligionPercent
Hinduism
  
84%
Islam
  
12.40%
Others
  
3.20%

According to the Backward Regions Grant Fund 2009–10, 13 backward districts are located in Andhra Pradesh: nine (all except Hyderabad) are from Telangana and the rest are from other regions.[48]

The religious makeup of Telangana is 84% Hindu, 12.4% Muslim, and 3.2% Sikh, Christian, and others.[49][50]

About 76% of the population of Telangana speak Telugu, 12% speak Urdu, and 12% speak other languages.[51][52] Before 1948, Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad State, and due to a lack of Telugu-language educational institutions, Urdu was the language of the educated elite of Telangana. After 1948, once Hyderabad State joined the new Republic of India, Telugu became the language of government, and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the use of Urdu among non-Muslims decreased.[53]

Culture[edit]

Telangana has typical cosmopolitan cultural background with population from India/outside India. It has distinctive culture inheriting cultural customs from Persian traditions embedded during Moghuls and Nizams rule with prominent south Indian traditions and customs but even some of the north Indian festivals are popularly celebrated across the state.

Art and literature[edit]

Telangana's cultural heritage includes the poet Pothana who composed SriMadh Andhra Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatham. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah was the first Saheb-e-dewan Urdu poet. Other poets of Telangana from the early era include Kancherla Gopanna or Bhakta Ramadasu, Gona Budda Reddy, Palkuriki Somanatha, Mallinātha Sūri, and Hulukki Bhaskara. In the modern era poets include such figures as Padma Vibhushan, Kaloji Narayana Rao, Sahitya Akademi Award recipient Daasarathi Krishnamacharyulu, Vachaspathi Puraskar award recipient Sribhashyam Vijayasarathi, and Jnanpith Award recipient C. Narayana Reddy, as well as P. V. Narasimha Rao, ninth Prime Minister of India. Samala Sadasiva has been selected for the Kendra Sahitya Puraskaram distinction. His book Swaralayalu on the subject of Hindustani classical music won the award for the year 2011.

Cuisine[edit]

Hyderabadi biriyani

Telangana has two types of cuisines, the Telugu cuisine and Hyderabadi cuisine. Telugu cuisine is the part of South Indian cuisine characterized by their highly spicy food. Hyderabadi cuisine, an amalgamation of Arab, Mughlai, Telugu, Turkish cuisines, developed by the Qutb Shahi dynasty and the Nizams of Hyderabad. It comprises a broad repertoire of rice, wheat and meat dishes and various spices and herbs.[54][55]

Festivals[edit]

Bathukamma flower arrangement

A number of festivals are observed and celebrated in Telangana. Regional festivals include Bonalu (celebrating the Hindu goddess of power, Mahakali), Bathukamma (celebrating the Hindu goddess Mahagauri) and Sammakka Saralamma Jatara (celebrating tribal goddesses). Apart from these, all the major Indian festivals like Dusshera, Ganesh Chaturthi, Ugadi (New Year of the Deccan), Diwali etc., are also celebrated namely. Muslims in Telangana celebrate the Islamic festivals of Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Muharram and Mawlid. Christians celebrate Christmas, Good Friday etc.

Mineral Resources[edit]

There are also extensive coal deposits, which are excavated by the Singareni Collieries Company, for power generation and industrial purposes.[56] There are limestone deposits in the area, which are utilised by cement factories. Telangana also has deposits of bauxite and mica.

Transportation[edit]

The facade of the Secundrabad railway station, a major railway station in Telangana
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport

Roadways[edit]

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public transport corporation that connects all the cities and villages. Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station (M.G.B.S) in Hyderabad is one of the largest bus stand in Asia.[57][58] Jubilee Bus Station in Secunderabad serves inter city bus services. Asia's biggest Inter City Bus Terminal (ICBT) will come up in Miyapur (Hyderabad) soon, which would house nearly 200 bus bays and for parking nearly 1,000 buses. It would have both inter-state and inter-city buses plying from the city apart from city services.[59]

Railways[edit]

The history of railways in this region dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad. It falls under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966. Rail Nilayam in Secunderabad, the Land Mark Building is the Zonal Headquarter office of South Central Railway. Secunderabad, Hyderabad are the main divisions of SCR.

Airports[edit]

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, is an international airport in the city of Hyderabad. It has won world's No. 1 Airport award twice (2009, 2010) in the 5 - 15 million passenger category.[citation needed] It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports nationwide. The government also has plans to start airports in other cities: Warangal, Karimnagar, Ramagundam and Kothagudem.

Tourism[edit]

Kuntala-waterfalls

Other places are Tank Bund, Necklace Road, Ramoji Film City, Birla Temple, Birla Planetarium, Zoological Park etc.

Religious Tourism[edit]

There are many religious pilgrim centres.

Sports[edit]

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium

Cricket, Chess, Tennis, Badminton etc. are more popular sports.[61] The Hyderabad cricket team is represented in the Ranji Trophy and had won twice. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium is the home ground of Hyderabad cricket team. It hosts international as well as domestic matches. The Sunrisers Hyderabad, an Indian Premier League franchise, is based in Hyderabad.

Famous stadiums for other sports include Gachibowli Athletic Stadium (also has an indoor stadium), G. M. C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium which hosts many sporting events. Many academies are set up to nurture future sport stars. Gopichand Badminton Academy, Sania Mirza Tennis Academy, NVK Tennis academy etc.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Area of Andhra Pradesh districts
  2. ^ a b "Notification" (PDF). The Gazette of India. Government of India. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  3. ^ "Telangana will be 29th state, Hyderabad to be common capital for 10 years". TThe Times of India. 30 July 2013. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. 
  4. ^ Census details for districts in Andhra Pradesh
  5. ^ Official Govt of India Website, Office of the Registrar general&Census Commissioner India (One may need to Register&Login to get this district-wise data)
  6. ^ History of Kannada language: readership lectures, By R. Narasimhacharya
  7. ^ "A grammar of the Teloogoo language, commonly termed the Gentoo, peculiar to the Hindoos inhabiting the north eastern provinces of the Indian peninsula(page iii)". Alexander Duncan Campbell. Sashachellum, 1816. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  8. ^ Nag, Kingshuk. Battle gound Telangana. HarperCollins. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  9. ^ "India Today Encyclopedia, An encyclopedia of life in the republic, Vol 1". Arnold P Kaminsky. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data. 
  10. ^ Sri Marana Markandeya Puranamu, ed. G. V. Subrahmanyam, 1984, Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Academy, Hyderabad.
  11. ^ Kammavari Charitra (in Telugu language) by Kotha Bhavaiah Chowdary, 1939. Revised Edition (2006), Pavuluri Publishers, Guntur
  12. ^ A Forgotten Chapter of Andhra History by M. Somasekhara Sarma, 1945, Andhra University, Waltair
  13. ^ "Antiquities unearthed at Kotilingala". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 January 2013. 
  14. ^ Richards, J. F. (1975). "The Hyderabad Karnatik, 1687–1707". Modern Asian Studies (Cambridge University Press) 9 (2): 241–260. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00004996. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  15. ^ Mulki agitation in Hyderabad State
  16. ^ a b "History and Culture – History-Post-Independence Era". APonline. Retrieved 14 September 2010. 
  17. ^ After Sriramulu, Andhra State
  18. ^ Andhra State formed[dead link]
  19. ^ Elliot, Carolyn M. (November 1974). "Decline of a Patrimonial Regime: The Telangana Rebellion in India, 1946–51". Journal of Asian Studies 34 (1): 24–47. 
  20. ^ "Declassify report on the 1948 Hyderabad massacre". Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  21. ^ History of Communist party in India
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ SRC sub committee said no decision on Visalandhra taken.- Page 1 of Feb 1, 1956 Indian Express
  24. ^ Andhra Pradesh to be formed with safeguards to Telangana
  25. ^ Andhra Pradesh formed
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  28. ^ "Snuffed Out By T-Politics". 
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  30. ^ "Andhra Pradesh / Visakhapatnam News : Heated debate over GO 610". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 9 July 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2010. 
  31. ^ "Page 407 of SKC report" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  32. ^ Still seeking justice(30min video)
  33. ^ "TELANGANA MOVEMENT - The Demand for a Separate State". Telangana Development Forum. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  34. ^ http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/sereport/ser/std_pattrnAP.pdf
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  36. ^ "Telangana bill passed by upper house". Times of India. Retrieved 20 Feb 2014. 
  37. ^ http://www.bellevision.com/belle/index.php?action=topnews&type=8551
  38. ^ "THE ANDHRA PRADESH REORGANISATION ACT, 2014". Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
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  41. ^ Andhra Pradesh District Map
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